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Interfacing Infrastructure as code with non-expert users

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there would hear me at the back yeah yeah only the everyone and welcome if you just joined us my name's jonathan um I barely talking about something that's a little bit different than infrastructures code um even that's in the title of my presentation which is how we can get people who'd don't like infrastructures code to still get some of those benefits and then we start could event
using myself Mrs. mean 1 if there was a sysadmin originally now I've kind of moved over more to the that's make some software to help what's assignments do what we used to do um work become legal nomination that I could founded in Paris and we work on 2 projects there those projects just where it was then called voter and and the you I've being computer contributing and computing in and using in confusing the open source projects for all for a while now I used to be in of another contributor was a computed some to see if engine in the past and chairman time when I'm not going to screw you know so called measurements found really shines but that's stays powers happening in in past people come along we also and enough about me that's that was something basic um I think we can all agree if you're here the ultimate configuration locks right um it saves time and improves reliability and avoids making the stupid mistake that you make when you're doing the same thing on 1 2 3 4 in my case to some other people's cases 10 20 0 I forgot something so it's better but it will it will all pay a thousand million or whatever machines phasing so everyone can basically agree that is that need to if we hear a great when like those from considering what problems that this just to know from the optimistic note for 2nd let's look over
to a typical white eating and typical is going to be exactly not what any of your i-teams teams look like um either because you don't unfortunate have a mixture of men and women in because you have no more or less than 64 roughly IT team In some companies someone you develop applications and the prior operations ranch security in do stuff I will know and of this team comes along and says that we should adopt some kind of automation tool because of all things we just said before what we usually happen then is that a minority of people that somewhere and 2 maybe 3 will become really good at expert at using whatever tool using and I'm going to take sides of the tool his loads of them out there the work there were will manage to get the job done anyway um Commissioner finding can be but they can be shared could be answerable to whatever and and so ever since this doesn't apply if you're unity of 1 which went in with to you both experts but it's only ever into % of cases these people them become experts good looking people experts and people to dig into the tool to know what they're actually doing but also granted to the others on the team demands that are there and they don't um we begin to the config management tool through now have to do everything on their IT infrastructure all pretty much everything and total to make using the tool so interchange comfort from Ireland and then you can just as as chances of anymore and it men and they have to go through several language that you guys don't know about uh um he correction to play in with new stuff where new features except solution that is a kind of ugly diagram the interested enough they have 1 choice which is the the lender and try and become experts to it so they can write ideas that are public code and encode whatever while unfortunately and I've seen this happen code few times these people get left behind that means the Compaq taken every IT operations and basically it's a bad thing about thing trademark with capital the capital T. I want to say that we're doing everything wrong policy wouldn't of things right I'm guessing there's a lot of people in this room who are among the experts who have a team where 100 % of the people were able to do this and that's great I am unfortunate do believe that there's quite a few companies and quite a few teams where this is happening um has anyone ever seen that happen and companies you've been here the winning and so you recognize this problem and I think it's important that we as a community around uh automation to think about this as well because of the fact that we can do it is good it's good for us it's good for employers it's good for our colleagues and it doesn't mean that we're necessarily going going should that's focus would actually asking people to learn this is just a random example um that's a some necessary JSON popular and the Shiite great weight and source of pressure and and having some comfort following starting service it's pretty basic stuff you learn that in any kind of IT school should be working in 94 the 20 years you know how to use all of these commands of services may be on the recent side for some of those guys but still um and instead of that's that's a good example is this happens to be public code and it could be any could uh but some people above its area and of how to install the Apache package on different operating systems depending on the name of the package you want install the and this is pretty nice we're an expert in in let's call that is of taking that you have to take that is you have to take not just that because that's 1 of the lines above here equivalent he's good or excellent onto committed and to share and touchy check maybe using the testing that goes from public labs interesting enough we're talking about earlier and and so on and so on so that are asking people to do is hard and it's easy for us maybe if if we're the ones that are able to do it but I think it's not something that looks simple in so this is the category that and getting everyone in the team that's not again a small team of like 1 or 2 people want to experts is hard um this steep learning curve and and these new syntax learning in these new tools that you have to use changing the really you make changes is hard um after see people with the complete lack of motivation you know I've been doing this job someone says I've been doing this job at 10 years and now I have to change the way they do it but we will offer this is really hard Guillermo stuff and eigen we see the benefit and and the that same things like I could do was cook command with the shell scripts uh yeah socially precoder 1 or 2 machines maybe 10 machines are essential managing 10 thousand coming on the same situation so the um over the considered puts it this is to graphs of isomer autonomous task I should write a program to me that this is not supposed to happen you spend more time and then you spend less time it's great what often happens is do you spend more time the time doesn't actually the code does much well debate that we we think it you we factor you rewrite it actually when that just working on the motivation and exclusion is a funny said so this is a joke was it's not the reality uh contain except sometimes and yet at the let's look at the bigger
picture for 2nd you and I together from the really fast the slides situations where we have complex technology and getting people who are not expert in that technology to use the opposite of the place this picture here is a control panel to run a submarine while some scary technology right actually turns that this is submarine in an amusement park in the finding nemo amusement park there will be less mission-critical Mr. has real life human beings going under in a closed container so that still is kind mission-critical these 2 there's people that and the people we have a way to get there this kind of control panel involves knowing how to use the control panel it does not involve knowing how to build a submarine had to figure out if there's enough answered in the submarine had to figure out if the on systems running but some people you can learn a submarine using a very simple control panel brought the quite simple control we doing the same invites the viewer um when I say the 1987 planning to use assembly and could we could achieve instructions to a process that we could tell it to put numbers in in memory banks um so that's nice that's very interesting and but if every day so will managing infrastructure that's a that's been up a new virtual machine in some kind of cloud infrastructure if we had to do that writing assembly code what it's crazy and I will bring every day we're building interfaces on top of other interfaces um the little write assembler code much anymore at least in in mainstream IT we tend to use much higher level languages thing really high level like see for example with a higher level like you're not by the years because you know you can you can allocate those around maybe sometimes around this mean existence virtual and this is a really hard and and since most recent years people have been adding and adding in adding interfaces and we have these even higher level languages as she distract handling memory you should choose how use the hardware anymore it's because the um languages like Java out had lots of good things said about earlier uh how reliable is uh just quoting the previous speaker of course and and higher and higher still and now we don't even run necessarily uh any program spun exact hardware anymore he said on this kind push this code to somewhere it's called platform at a service and happens and there's a machine but maybe there's a machine in the set island melanin and some of the tools to help us with this to good API is you got these and the well enough in our space we don't talk about memory much shorter list of an interface levels you can write modules island this morning in public you can even have a model they inherit from each other it's pretty cool and that yeah we can definitely do
that so if look back to to say across the then points we we can improve the um getting everyone to learn configuration I don't know when to use configuration management to did learning curve OK let's get simpler interfaces that have the push-button cycle a submarine motivation would show people what's happening for I would love to press the buttons on that civilian interface and see the submarine you yes that's so people happening enable quick wins and all registered something was a green light we like green lights screen encouraging the positive sadly go about doing that and we don't want a steep learning curve the 1st thing that separate the content and the controls the how on the what if I want to install that said the Apache package on it's web server on a machine I don't need to know what the public policy of engine Schaff code to clear onto the package manager and choose the right package name is I just need to have the say in package X that's all separating content and trolls again not a new idea in our space it's coming from I want frameworks been doing this for years what about the lack of motivation um that's show benefits to users um I find it depressing using traditional infrastructures code when you write a new code and test it on your machine in then this is what I want this nice and committed to the repository and it goes out to 2000 machines you never know that you never see that you don't get the feedback and hopefully mean sometimes you do get the feedback when the monitoring goes red everywhere but that's not very much more encouraging in fact it's quite the opposite and so that show people how it's going to sure worth sure what works where frustration and that's needed easier and quicker to achieve success the simple things provide ready-to-use takes provide simple examples this doesn't mean we can't happen just in very them into not reinventing the wheel in every single company organization that sets up Continental say it isn't so um for anyone who develops these again half October can only presented the same idea it's moved on to my brain since then but instead of having a on the team which was speed up earlier with the grade as when we had do work now on the orange guys so yeah we the experts which might this code will be separated the out into layers like the whole of the rest of the IT wall has an Mr. major experts that's most of the guys in the room so that's good proceed was permuted and to fine-tune modules to blue ones so you actually um and to choose you options I passed stop get altium to better install packages I need to um but that's the way that I did play code across a mode of service incidence right where we need this expertise needs to be listened to manage the tool itself been and applying certificate authorities the tool and the communications at the expense so here we can have an abstraction layer above that which makes it possible for people who are not willing to write engine puppet such a code and focus on the task they have to do of the CNT to install a package a need to put this in the config file that's it I can see it in about 10 words you need to write a hundred lines of code to do use would they have and in this problem of 3rd level higher up where people aren't even doing the just sitting direction they're just seeing if everything is OK from lots of us in the room that time I was but we are best their best his best but still they're the ones that at some point gonna give us the green light to go and spend those of us time on some automation tool on some configuration management tools so we probably should give them some kind of benefit and so this stuff at the bottom we get out and was listening to talks earlier we not simply in that stuff times with them map of the tools that integrate as well which is going up to stack where I'm suggesting and we talked about this a lot there's no tools that's great and where experts we share expert ideas good we don't really talk about this stuff very much um we don't really consider how a team members are about hopefully we do that it's not a general a blog post topic how do I get my team members to study using public shift of engine was not something we we write about lot which is why talking about it the so I want
to just explore an example and it's based on 2 projects that I co-created in both cases and Stefan matter of how we can actually achieve this um in this stuff just for the context I've been doing this for about 5 years now and but it's something we started out with be helping companies and not your average start a company the more the kind of medium to large corporation where your sysadmin team probably isn't 305 people it could be you know 10 people or in 1 case coming we worked in the season in team was 120 people and that yeah we think 0 and we should just these lesson yeah OK we can train and and people but that's a lot of work and those who not only can be experts so here and a quick introduction to these tools windows and was when and is a framework that she runs into CF engine language we had to make a choice at some point this can be anything to quite honest and the reasons why we chose the of engine was needed for the purpose of this discussion um it's just a way to structure infrastructures code naked share will make it reusable um with single-purpose components basically if we look back at the diagram and before it's this abstraction layer in between the infrastructures code will be divide right and we know how to teach and people who can use of it to work with the layered method M led approach genetic methods which would simple unit tasks and our attempts are goal east is to have these unit tests as debatable not subjective and objective and installing a package does not not multiple different ways to install a package um that I was had a joke about the number of Apache modules there on the x for which a puppet for which of what what does matter is something like more than 10 different ways of configuring Apache yet again for me I am that's a problem because it means that loads of people can have to choose between the different existing ones in means loads of people aren't you end up writing you hourly run hockey adapting it so we're not doing a very good sharing their but if we have low level unit tasks that are mostly those can be shared much more efficiently solving a package installing package threshold experts may need to tweak how that happens but that's OK so interface will not showing the current that's fine content of that we have are on that so the standard level users who were not infrastructures code experts but can use the interface that we just created for them this is again the separation of the content and the control so these there's a binder data they want to install the Apache package and underneath we have some people said this how we install a package X this is a method and about that the kind services level it gives you an overview statistics about so
example is worth a thousand words often told and this is some and see if code if we can call it code and it follows a sea of an instructor obviously since it's based on engine I would basically just calling out to functions packaging still thing file and from thin plate there's a template file somewhere it gets copied to a destination we start service if some condition could be better I agree and and we ensure the services running so this is basically what I said in the earlier example that's who I want to do and we can enable with the exact same power and the exact same control over details of instructions cos will know it's in this room today to do was to give this ability to people who are not expert users the rules here last year she gave this exact same example talk on this exact same stage so it's not really new um
anything further since then since we can have this very simple structure of code we've allowed to build more you would call in development IDE Integrated Development Environment which is basically a web interface that you can say hey I want to get these different um blocks in here going box modeling what so a package wanted in initiative often template and so on and widened the just type out the parameters in the web interface and then and where that most the people in this room would probably not gonna want to use this because we can write the code but giving rise to your colleagues or your future colleagues who don't want can't learn the way uh to write the instructions good that we use every day this can be a little and it will benefit the the be so as a question or is he which is no semantic the and related topic that said that tools is another tool also open-source those who we work on the users and CF is the abstraction layer underneath it sets up an environment with faults and enables you to Italy context and again without any code we can create uh automatic configuration um look something like this you have again web forms the these web forms instead of being based on the actual actions wouldn't on each machine can be higher level questions about what you want to achieve this is actually quite low level of example it's necessary things we each the config file nothing revolution in but what is actually happening behind the scenes is that these parameters being injected into some the NCF methods at all of which have been written by experts may be expressed like myself on while I go myself and I expect that have been shared on the internet and are available as open source so we're not reinventing will prove using building blocks and to compare that to like that I had this great picture of kids with like a but my Stewart computer lost my side that is moments I lost my picture I'm not very good at she doing 93 you is just talk about ideas um well that enables us to do is since we using all of these building blocks that are quite low level at the end of the day every time we tend to follow them going from 1 single piece of code which is in a lower level and searches could method and we have been known to be then the putting so feedback from each of these actions we make this means that every time you touch a father we time uh we install package of upgrade package we sent some feedback back from the dead the red and green lights at the end of the line the show people you're saying it's working so I think that the submarine panel headed you touch a button unlike goes yellow and something's happening at the end of the submarine moving down into the water the like was going like where the idea that I did my job it's also way and we can do the same thing here with infrastructures code without writing code into adulthood so this package sent it out to these machines and a few minutes later you have a green light this is helping and i've seen people so happy just to see the green light it's pretty clear that only the Gulag yes that's not really the main feature of the software we vote but where the group this is another example of that and final
example um of a dashboard we integrated that is more for that 3rd level I think you know your Brassier busses bus features every item that we can think each Apache package on each server we can build things that we can consolidate and we can show a global overview of how is my IT system house yeah what else will find this compliance instance um what's the percentage of configurations and machines are in the state the should begin so for example um that's their right of a simple policy that says that may SSH server should never accept connections um and that this is SSH so should be running if apply this to it said that 10 thousand machines and 400 machines the inverse problems for 4 thousand issues are going to be like 60 % if someone machines I can't edit the file for some reason assuming and then that's can be low-income parts of a simple example but if you set up the whole security policy as a rule in where there and you can get compliance for example you could set up and be shared USS every strict rules about credit card handling could set up some of those rules in water and it would report the compliance the percentage of compliance to these datasets that I used to enable users will what the letter said that is based on NCF framework and all the methods in left are written in C offended language so the end of the day the code that's running on each machine we used is the offending code plus or minus a few patches but basically the offending code so all the reporting that says yes I've done this we have check this all US might be shared you assess compliance is good or bad is is engine the people of the qualities that we are actually um of sharing states between 2 machines uh saying similar question is your database set up you know is your database so no you there are listed as a OK right and then continue configuring something else so had the same it's not the same mechanism that we could share the same idea of state from 1 machine to another um and of skin nothing you I think with a folk about console Our Lady and fight in the same room which is on the same topic very interesting stuff um so there's nothing new from technology point you agree with this I think letting you is the way we can make this more accessible to non-expert users by saying again in a web interface you don't get this info from that machine over there we can delete them all just abandon if it's not there for I'm the the only thing that would would so the polarities of learning you know there's a of the it uses the novel you have a lot of motion in the lower part of of so we got enable the non-experts of the the the model into the so the way we go over the years and overview of the wall while you know is what the user we come to the kernel largely exposed to these resources of the housing was the multiple sources of my and followed by for your your reasoning something repeat the question of the recording what some of it anyway and it did was I think and please correct me if I'm wrong given our access to different hosts and controlled from interfaces maybe uh enabling people who don't know exactly what they're going to take take things this is an fair summary yeah I'm worried about that that's a very good question it's very interesting because OSI using you make it just a click click click was you can break something if I could go to the submarine panel just press also antioxidant out on the button I might do something really stupid uh very easily um I have to do to the use of that and the use of people in the training and they should know what they're doing and the professionals and in a job when on having fun at home cooking 1 interfaces that shouldn't happen OK uh maybe have a solution that um can act them sorry access control management um we can't very well we don't have this currently in that but I'm sure that other software that does the same idea could have it will have it 1 day and we could say are allowed to modify these parameters but not these other parameters when are allowed to use these values being allowed to use these are the ones this example that I like particularly and I didn't find some in French we have 2 conflicting laws moment 1 is that to prevent terrorist activity in a in understanding it was obliged to keep any logs from access to web service for minimum 1 year so the police can request and and
analyzed and what they wanted on the other hand for their respective precede an individual's privacy and and leaving traces around the world it is illegal to keep any web access logs from home when you the so in this close imagine the web interface where you can choose a number of days to keep the logs from we shouldn't be able to change that is not a promise we should have control will obliged to put in exactly 65 days that is that is the law but then we can change other things like how we compress them where we stood modeling scheme is where the centralized and some of the sisters something so I think that there is room for quote um specific access control on the values that will bring it and then this is 2 different jobs it's 1 of the jobs is full of that's the experts to say how we set that up and the other job is someone who knows the knows someone who knows what they're what they're doing and to choose what is allowable as well and she was then part of my 2 about response is that you can also include and we had to have that in rather a validation distance is that light blue question get Hubble and get up whenever you can say I would like to change the contig like this and it goes over to the scene you and me in a car legal whatever just 2nd paralyze basically to look through it and say well OK we're doing is not gonna break things school actually doing a major upgrade of the whole infrastructure this evening maybe we should do that tomorrow instead of the authors of use to the specifications or test for like for you and you know you have to look born here and 1st test to the set of solutions for a lot of it was possible for you to be at the end of this you know absolutely not gonna repeat that again for the recording and the same as 1st possibility uh which is to add some automated tests to express that requirement so yes the logs must be kept at the 6 5 days and then if ever anyone changed it and the test goes went before deploying to production and obviously then you would know about that and you have kind of barrier to protect itself at the yeah and if you do not know the relations right training procedure applied arts and you here's the other thing that think Rangers is quite poor showing with on the Hill who issues here is basically by integrating um with your config management tool and it's part of having feedback I think it's the same requirements as you discussing the human in front of the machine that just made the change wants to know what happens and basically the process and the actual process them and habits and being set into place also wanted the so in this specific example using where um you can get the status of a change at any point you can be notified via an API and you can look that and integrate with binary to script that need the data from weather and puts it into your title change management database good response to a question and yet another question was what was in the knowledge of the all of the wave the all the time absolutely absolutely fact it's it's recommended and that for example if you had a building block to edit the NCP config file the the require and depend on the building block to edit a generic file so exactly like the that's the way you would call like all of the this the operations in a Linux system at some point and again according and basic kernel uh operations and the same at some point is going to be a few days items that should not that many things we can modify on on a Linux system of on when the system I guess you using them up packages files maybe some tunable sissy Thiel's a missing 1 processes that's pretty much it so basically of those for all this a few more minute items at the bottom level we can have items of a higher level according to them and so on and so on so you could you could where you would in fact have the dependencies that such a part of the whole power is that you can then choose just in 1 place or it would you want to happen the way you want it to be changed and the nice example of that was a customer sits me once I really want every time is a file edited that you copy the file and the new file into an SVM repository any committed OK sure why not um this using this and framework we can modify just that these methods and its files and do that which implements family in this 1 place and without any special features of the the yeah OK and so if we
just look back at the diagram that I had earlier of how I feel that things should work this is the the different layers that I had imagined the we had imagined experts the bottom fine-tuning modules hacking around with things like committing files and 20 and every time we change 1 why not exposed to an abstraction layer to the users who are not I'm happy or comfortable just cannot up to that today by the infrastructures code and showing that in this case the weather uh on the left hand side here to their bosses vier even higher level reporting so basically instead of having this flat hierarchy we had at the beginning with people who are experts in other people who are not mixing things up so that everyone has something to gain from so basically my
hope is that the next few teams that do you follow this kind of thought process instead of ending up with a group of experts in a group of people left behind will look something like this uh mixed up people experts non-experts working together using the same tools and as I said i've been speaking very quickly so much she reached the end of well wanted to discuss do we have any more questions the and 1 world the are you all this and you call called programming so you have the size of your life and life called blocks which you will not affect the whole world can just copied and they don't do any harm to yourself whereby we call it is over but users you already gave them direction like like I was started and pages and then you like final function or whatever it's called the reason is of tools and they can talk what would you like to call you face this the half of it just kind of got now just a single usually tend to be all of the life of that going to stay all local you know so called log and all programs of understanding and the law
of the land and so this is what I experienced from although this is what I some not on the so basically um suggesting that we use to provide simply that's why users so they can copy and paste and we use them without making the snakes making much easier for them to write with the the idea that so 1 of the more questions and this is being they may be unconventional tool for fast and I just want to put out some ideas here suggests that there are other ways of thinking about what we do do every day um I that I showed you how we achieved status using in CF and that I'm not saying he should go news Justin Stefan rather um to check them out that would be cool and but I think this still to be had um about how we include everyone enough team uh around config management and that we do that and the new questions and you know that the pendulum at Thank
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Quellcode
p-Block
Kontextbezogenes System
Polarisation
Rechter Winkel
Server
Bildschirmsymbol
Information
Programmierumgebung
Aggregatzustand
Instantiierung
Schnittstelle
Rückkopplung
Subtraktion
Wellenpaket
Quader
Wasserdampftafel
Gruppenoperation
Framework <Informatik>
Code
Demoszene <Programmierung>
Virtuelle Maschine
Bildschirmmaske
Benutzerbeteiligung
Informationsmodellierung
Software
Verkehrsinformation
Rotationsfläche
Datentyp
Inverses Problem
Softwareentwickler
Datenstruktur
Konfigurationsraum
Expertensystem
Benutzeroberfläche
Open Source
Konfigurationsraum
Default
Einfache Genauigkeit
Schlussregel
Physikalisches System
Elektronische Publikation
Menge
Chipkarte
Patch <Software>
Modallogik
Rückkopplung
Mereologie
Gamecontroller
Bus <Informatik>
Verkehrsinformation
Punkt
Prozess <Physik>
Familie <Mathematik>
Login
Gesetz <Physik>
Kernel <Informatik>
Übergang
Datenmanagement
Prozess <Informatik>
Code
Kontrollstruktur
Skript <Programm>
Expertensystem
Feuchteleitung
Umwandlungsenthalpie
Softwaretest
Nichtlinearer Operator
Dokumentenserver
Datenhaltung
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Güte der Anpassung
Nummerung
p-Block
Biprodukt
Algorithmische Programmiersprache
Menge
Rechter Winkel
Ablaufverfolgung
Rückkopplung
Wellenpaket
Wellenlehre
Mathematisierung
Zahlenbereich
Framework <Informatik>
Demoszene <Programmierung>
Virtuelle Maschine
Datensatz
Benutzerbeteiligung
Informationsmodellierung
Endogene Variable
Abstand
Konfigurationsraum
Leistung <Physik>
Autorisierung
Expertensystem
Benutzeroberfläche
Relativitätstheorie
Validität
Physikalisches System
Elektronische Publikation
Mereologie
Gamecontroller
Lineares Funktional
Videospiel
Expertensystem
Prozess <Physik>
Abstraktionsebene
Gruppenkeim
Hierarchische Struktur
p-Block
Elektronische Publikation
Gesetz <Physik>
Modul
Code
Homepage
Übergang
Diagramm
Benutzerschnittstellenverwaltungssystem
Code
Minimum
Optimierung
Verkehrsinformation
Expertensystem
Datenmanagement
Code
Snake <Bildverarbeitung>
Konfigurationsraum
Expertensystem

Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Interfacing Infrastructure as code with non-expert users
Alternativer Titel Configuration Management - Interfacing Infrastructure
Serientitel FOSDEM 2015
Autor Clarke, Jonathan
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung 2.0 Belgien:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
DOI 10.5446/34489
Herausgeber FOSDEM VZW
Erscheinungsjahr 2016
Sprache Englisch
Produktionsjahr 2015

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Informatik

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