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Global Internet Infrastructure - Shaping the world through neutral exchanges

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Global Internet Infrastructure - Shaping the world through neutral exchanges
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Neutral exchanges have become a success factor both economically as well as in securing the free, open exchange of information worldwide. In the session we will address how the establishment of an IXPs might impact the national Networks and which opportunities will present itself. What possibilities are there to create a neutral, non monopolistic and non-government controlled IXP in a given political environment? How will it protect Internet freedoms? The session will explain which models have been successful and how IXPs can help secure the future of the Internet.
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day serializer be appended as gas have moderated by Ben map where we will have a specific focus on high speed their impact on national networks potentially 4 Internet freedoms and grow in for the future of the net generation so please Wall might come to our planet and how moderator and
it and it is thinking of yeah this so 1st rejecting it was on the other end of the list that's not in the interest of the musical chairs so thank you all for coming this is a discussion
about Internet exchange points and their importance for the global Internet infrastructure we have 4 wonderful panelists in my name is the market from European University Institute and in some way or another I think we have some of the best people in the room to discuss these issues at this point in time on the right what structure from the ATI Klaus Kleinfeld from DEC i which is the German Internet Exchange Point then we have Y. 0 from Google belief and also very involved in into the which issues and then the Myra direct-write we have Julie your limit 20 20 Foundation was also what a great deal the global motion and promise Internet the so without further ado i'd like to start with compliance with the words I would think
hello so my name is Wes sexual can see system using Internet Agency and the Tunisian Internet Agency somehow can be catered to destroying that it'd be great and that I 6
as an Internet exchange point but has never been declared president and the chief achieve point so and it was used by the regime the former regime the 92 % of Internet disobey and 2 door lot of 0 4 things that we say today and uh all those happened to follow from 4 different user follow from the news and that's what we tried after the revolution is just to clarify the role of the ITI because I t i detonated it needs an internet agency was supposed to be abortion after the dilution and we wear under pressure from different actors and could exist in society the government the politicians the private sector want abolish ITI but when we abolish idea that means that we have lost the unique and at the change point of the country and what you wanted to do is to defend the ITI and to clarify the role so we started dealing in and then with this issue and we discussed a lot of issues about it about that that the change point and actually now we have not just 1 Internet Exchange point because we we we mentioned recently and and taken at its peak the to be and it is a member of the it's actually and uh last week we had a workshop with the different experiment with erotic experts coming from Europe and from the region and we mention a 2nd and then at the change point in the country so it was for us a rewarding process but uh we can what we had what what they need to mention about this
process is just we cannot really achieve all those uh all on on that without ensuring freedom
online you know images of regression with could you explain briefly for the orders what exactly is Ollier now show uh of the get uh it's it's only the abuse but you know when you have a lot of operators and that ii speed these there is the need to connect each other so the the most efficient way to connect to each other is to put an end to a point where everyone can connect to that point and then we can guarantee that local content contents can cause it to the other countries so we keep the value in the country and again potent and this is very important but it is also confusing for us because as we played this role for this point was also used for security reasons because when you have all the traffic who be 1 point that mean that you can't censor with this point and control of a sentence somehow uh that the traffic rooted by the commitments so it is it will somehow complicated for us after the revolution say OK we not sensing tonight we want something new model and that to be open when that would be free but at the same time were raised the issue we need to keep our primary role which is an Internet exchange point so having an infinite change point in the country that means very it's for us the important as a as as we are actually the 1st at the change point in the migrant and now uh also we are trying to promote freedom online through that model and what is important also to mention about uh in this uh early stage at the state we as we as we advocate open Internet and the freedom of people online that means that also you need to be open to the society that was somehow very very important nothing to do with with ITI because i j was considered as a development and it for use a lot of people hate that take it and now I think we try to open the door also that in society to talk and to open spaces and uh of course when we open spaces that that means OK you can come to work with us we are open and that this is I think and the wrote 1 of the rule of the Internet Exchange Point in country so this is very important to have a quick question itself like in
nature and was a very important for the Internet to work but you didn't have 1 intimacy of a force of habit things like at to Tunisia technically we have 1 attack that he never played a role in clearly of wanted exchange point because uh for the the 1st when we have and the change point with you you you need to be neutral I t I wasn't that a 40 years a lot of content had been block a lot of uh things had been did with a regime politically so actually 1 of the most important thing with that with our new Internet exchange points that have is we have to know so as to deal with the tragedy I think that we can have a lot of work to do on this field but this is our principles actually and as I mentioned before we can retrieve the reach of goes without the engagement of the civil society and this is a commitment for us to to work with and then uh actually you know that we we as as your promoting freedom line we at we had we will also the organizer of a big conferences to be held in Tunis in June uh the 16th 17th and 18th of June so we could be in Tunisia freedom online conference and this is somehow uh have a big challenge for us because we moving from an Internet
tool is completely censored and and that's and that's a raise and now we are promoting as a country at the howard country promoting the Freedom online so it is uh for us uh very important and we looking forward to mean to to 20 Newton is because it's very important uh my last comment is it it would be about an still do do during this conference will lunch an open space and open for open innovation it would be in the basement of IT I you know when when the censorship about it is that the from the basement by TI was out the public was in the basement and 0 if you the torque yeah so the statement is very important can body for the for the society what you want to drink become president we open the doors of these basement so uh activities the activities we can we can we come to to talk to t to play with our sensor inside the ship equipment and also we will do a lot of uh funny things in in the in the basement so to before us a symbol so we lunch uh the name of the of the all of of these open would be a 404 lab for full means censorship you know the code the famous bright giants with labor for ease and Apollo fault now what they use the same label to say OK it's an open innovation lay lap but at thank you thank you very much uhm I
think there's a several wonderful examples of what's going on to 0 now on books of the importance of an interexchange which can be especially in a country like Tunisia yeah I think there's a lot of fun and commitment to to to make this Internet Exchange Point as of really worth example because it's very important to know that you know in the Maghreb so we should the medical in Morocco Algeria Tunisia Libya and so this is the the greek migrants and they're with you these no 1 can at the change point we have in Egypt but not in Tunisia knocking like airport that in the region so it's very important to also position Tunisia as a hub for the region and also Tunisia could be could play an
important role as an example as I mentioned before because again we had long experience we have uh in thermostatistics use of Internet is very high in the country and that and this is somehow we are working with the and unions and he bends actually to interconnect to our network and we read a try to promote the connectivity between and and and then at the change point and this is good enough to really achieve without the commitment of the all of the government 1st because we need to be also be careful with this because and then the change point are not to be regulated we know we still facing some problem with this and I think I will also so we talk about it because it's very important to keep and that the exceed but not integrated think and for us you know we have an amendment recently and they introduce a definition so we're really working on this tool to make things happen very very clearly and recently we don't need to be relation that excites point and this is an hour of simple that amendment of the code is say OK OK we had 1 that we have to win the chain was so if you need to authorize of the first one we need all the both right the 2nd 1 and maybe it would be another 1 released on that when when I of thank you and it's a beautiful example because only a few days ago we had a workshop where colleagues of Klaus work together with as in Tunis and helping the Tunisian indexing for the Internet governance that build and develop so I wonder if tells the said he was about how information was working a more general sense have a specific well of course I come from the other end of the spectrum the 60 in 1 of the largest is the Hutchison into the world of them uh and certain that this is also an echo of who is the owner of the success of kernel expensive the session and my general ideas and I wanted to give a short introduction on on on what really drives the Internet exchange points and white why man important and and and in principle there was an old way of doing business that was there still a handful of networks and consider themselves so called tier tier 1 works on which is which is basically very large global networks and everybody who wants to connect to the global Internet needed to buy upstream connectivity from these guys and that is not very efficient small eyes he's needs to go through them that can be easily controlled them but there's still a lot of networks operate this way they simply by upstream from 1 party and they're happy with it and view as the model and however um they did the new way you way being 10 to 15 years that can so it's not really new intimate terms but term obviously there's another way to do it which is connecting to an Internet exchange points of basically find that 1 way to exchange died data directly with as many of the networks as possible 1 location and what's the advantage here that there are several advantages 1 is costs and others latency and bandwidth and obviously network resilience from and I wanted to have a look into this that 1 of the most important parts and that's for all participants and that is even going down obviously to the users than is cost and traffic being passed through an exchange is typically um but not filled by any party and so it is very cost-efficient exchange traffic through an exchange on but what happens after you actually do that is that also upstream cost surrounding that exchange significantly dropped so if you're in a country on the location of this just monopolistic upstream providers sometimes that it typically pays a least several tens of maybe even 100 dollars per megabit commands in upstream connectivity if you're in in the region of a larger exchange that typically drops to a handful of dollars make and on the really large so the installations like the 6 times sick and on you you actually well below a dollar per megabit amounted throughout the western that means pervasively talking about difference in a factor of a hundred years thousand years earlier difference cannot exceed the value 100 Figure of hundreds of the cost and in other regions and that obviously is is a very important factor and that is not what you can exchange local so that it's only the fraction you still need to push through your upstream so it's actually a the tremendous gain and for every provider connected to the exchange um and so obviously other factors like latency for for all 4 of those streaming terms services or of the total band was the the the speed with which you reach local sites which elect let's speak clear most people use national local sites they the international traffic is only a fraction of the total traffic obviously most people want to live in their own language and and using services from their home country and that is something which is enabled by nite sky as well and it is a tremendously successful model so worldwide there roughly 400 exchanges by now and uh Africa as having just pulled up this morning is around 25 something like that in Latin America at around 50 and Asia-Pacific it serves some site 80 exchanges North America around 90 which is strangely enough growing now have just noticed that the merit of the North Americans have decided to to build more exchanges lately home and in Europe and around 150 exchanges so so there's a there's a huge amount of exchanges and worldwide the largest exchanges so let's use the 6 is an example of the seasonal that best were well over 2 terabits right now in traffic but that is only what you see in the statistics and even more important is what happens surrounding the exchange on the 6 currently has around 500 carrier networks connected but there is roughly 5 thousand private lines not going through the exchange but but just in the buildings surrounding the exchange inter connecting these carriers we had a study done lately um which found that there's roughly 50 thousand individual network connections between the networks being run on a purine bases surrounding the exchange that is not taking into account the the the the more or less synonymous which is done through the old service so the actual number is even higher so if you have have a large exchange that is was what is happening and that is enabled but also by the small exchanges the the amount of connectivity been reached by having an exchange having an an IP brevity point in your country is is way larger than just the exchange exchange itself and that is really the beauty of of building a larger national exchange um the rest will come over time and that is those something which is happening in the more brought developed countries today but you also have more localized metropolitan and non-metropolitan exchanges for video services and things like that but that does not have the same cost benefit and the same advantages but but that in short is what is happening if you have a larger or successful exchange and um I believe that this will be happening in most of the countries so it's interesting to see that some and that even in Europe where the countries where where there was no national exchange which ever became successful strangely enough in these countries upstream bandpass event was in general is still more it's more expensive than in other European countries 1 example being France for example the roughly 10 times what you pay in in Frankfurt on Amsterdam for bandwidth because they never managed to agree on 1 national exchange to run it so this is 1 thing I mean if you if you think from this is that again we just had a conversation a workshop in Tunisia where French network engineers were thank thank you Tunisians for not having exchanged paying flower engineers this is wonderful so you go to the whole of north Africa is basically paying for French fans without very expensive as a lot of so I think process may be difficult compared to Germany but there are a lot worse examples yes so that they're out there but there's also something which is D 6 we've with lately um looked into other regions as well for example we started in and exchange in Dubai from which has the same drivers in the in the Gulf region there was nothing the comparative to to neutral exchange and they're actually the government has decided that they needed and legacies have haven for forum for phone Internet exchange so that it does not fall under the national regulatory authorities and they actually build it and so that I think there's there's a a significant change in the mind-set of all of these governments lately and they want to participate in the digital economy which they can't be done on the intersect thank you very much just before we move on to well at any questions in the audience anything that
is unclear that you'd like to clarify if not we have from from traffic additional example region I think of binary great thank you thank you very much and it's definitely the most interesting times known each the started 5 years ago and will when there were 4 million Internet users now we have
35 million Internet users um we used to actually work very closely with some of the localised these to put caching servers uh in their data centers basically not to pay for French engineers have because we wanted to we wanted actually content to be locally available in the country 1 of the things that is very interesting is that Egypt is known for its content uh production production of books production of cinemas movies production of many things while in the Internet space a very famous newspaper like must review was the largest 1 online newspaper that is being uh red is actually hosted outside the country because there isn't enough for you know caching servers uh to the hosted locally so that it's definitely air uh after the emotion as words were saying it's definitely becoming better however still exchanges are being owned by the National Telecommunications Regulatory Authority is we we have it is a very important cornerstone of Internet but is not as free as open as we want them to be it is still sort of a safe haven in a place for people to get together and understand what's going on in the internet the landscape so from our point of view as a technology provided we actually do a couple of things we've created an emerging markets access scheme where we actually provide two-way exchanges like Tunisia caching servers flies caching servers will also create what we call and led measurement lab so very important measurement of what will it actually tells the user what kind of quality and price of the Internet that he's getting it's very important to tell the user the quality of the internet that he's getting and we crowdsourced data we crowdsource data it is not as small uh isn't easy I think um Egypt is blessed and cursed with 90 million people so when you have 90 million people consensus is very hard but we're
almost trying to get er but the concept of you know pro crowdsourced data just every everything data about the Internet quality about the price of the Internet so so the bottom line is the internet use to touch 4 million
people now that just 35 million people it is becoming an economic driver of a you know a lot of Egyptian households actually right now live on the Internet we have some amazing a u-tube stars coming out of Egypt they're making you know hundreds of thousands of dollars per month simply through to advertising so the ecosystem is working we we we basically like to work with oxygen of who work with with the uh the regulatory authorities to get them basically to adopt the open and free so that that's basically my my 2 cents on this thank you very much I'm just
after briefly what is it mean to get the regulatory authorities to accept that's what what events affecting turning short so so we will
so 1st we don't want them to warn exchanges I don't think that's not the but that's not the business the businesses to issue licenses and just step out of the way uh literally uh I'm not sure attended any and people here but in general we moved we moved from a regime where everything was controlled the so for example you chose was not locally launched a major before the 9th of march the 9th of march is neither my 2011 is an important that they because it is the day where the state security fell down so we were able to launch an open domain without basically getting approvals from the regulatory authorities but the difficult thing is to get all eyes this working together as well as the report are all i please working together and create this federation of ice these tool to compete yet at the same time cooperate and that's that's the sound like a tricky question with no easy
answer but definitely worth working towards and there are any questions in the way we found bashing France a lot of wondering if anybody from France wanted to respond that with this system so this is the way it was I explain rise
of Internet use images from 5 to 35 million disliked seems to getting better or water that more people with an money to buy the so I think there are 2 important factors biospheres have acquired
Saudi telecom operators are required by species so they basically pushed the huge marking message to everybody saying that the Internet is the way forward obviously the worst traffic their voice revenues were going down because it's 112 per cent saturated marked the 2nd thing is that there's a lot of local content that Egyptian wanted to access but couldn't find 1 like you know state TB sucked still do still does uh uh the information that the Egyptians were getting through the normal channels which were the where the uh you know state-run immortalized a TV stations was very bad so basically people use the Internet to get information about what was happening in their own country so so you actually used to go to Al-Jazeera used to build tool you choose understand what's happening in Paris where compared to work compared to the your local news channel for news agency the
further questions of common if not will proceed employment presentation budget and you knew it went from 2 think you can still add I I
will admit openly that and i and j in terms of the technicalities of Ike's peas I'm I'm actually learning probably as much as you are are from the audience and so I am you when I when I said is really interesting is that a lot of the focus has been on quality and price and why do you agree that those things are important and and it's going to share my and my own I asked the story from where I live I wanted to point out why there are other things that I think are equally important and so when I lived in the on the east coast of the USA had 2 choices for Internet in in in Boston at the time and and those were both and moved in with cable television packages and they're expensive they're out of my reach actually I'm at 1 point I didn't have internet because it could afford a home because it would have required me to on the television etc. etc. so then I moved to San Francisco's very surprised at the wealth of these is available there I'm not sure why that is there would be great if you could tell me if it is yeah everything is there it's true on but there was 1 is the that I had the choice and where I think only 1 actually work is very easy to get it without cable television sets and omega about 1 and as it began to look into it more course just started at my job at the factory and your condition at the time and I learned that my as P is also the best on data retention practices and law enforcement noting that this is really important is well because when you have these different choices when you have the choice to go beyond and these giants whether they're monopolies are not the these giant companies that are often pretty poor in their data practices let alone and sometimes the neutrality practices and I think we've all heard about some of the T-Mobile things in the US and you also have the choice of choosing a company that is willing to stand up for you in court I'm a company that does not hold on to your data beyond a certain point on and this is something that would be a and in fact is quite a bit of research and we have a thing called who has your back and which was the number of these companies as well as other in a social networks and what not and but in terms of their practices like that I think that that's another reason and in addition to the issues around quality and price that we should be thinking about and and I do also you know I think it's also really and such a page notable analyze what you said about and Tunisia engaging with civil society in a mention the conference of the coming in June and looking forward to it and but beyond that I think that I am what I'd be curious and I I feel bad I'm going to throw this back at you and that's what we see right now and I think you're an excellent position you just created to XP is Tunisia's been putting itself on the front lines in terms of freedom of expression online in the region I'm and in a lot of places frankly but how can Tunisia Institute this long term I'm is that through expertise does involve other other
and elements and to ensure the same level of neutrality in the future up yet is
working so I already said that so if you need if you need to to to this model to develop further and to keep the those achievements full of hope for the future generation I think that the the right answer would be that it is the society to be engaged notice that need to be engaged the summer off the government anymore before when we deal with the Internet it was something that a subject that it at the taboo subject for for government officials with deal with this so can that we cannot discuss with a society we cannot freely express cell-surface in different areas of Qinghai here we never been united before we don't and we with with the with them believe that guy here is very good space to for for debate before now actually there is a lot of change and under some societies need is required to be engaged on or debates including privacy that the retention mention very very important remark about it I think this is 1 of the important thing because actually government has a huge reform on the on on on on me to the internet so we would expect some how long that the attention for example but it is a sad that all that attention if uh activists just focus on censorship as an achievement for the Revolution is not enough we keep working we need to keep this in those debates on and this is what what I chase for today we need to push the debate we need to to try to communicate with the with their we we we with all Tunisians about those aspects and this is very important I think we don't forget you with this conference everything is achieved no we say it is a very good step for us to get society involving the conference I actual young generation have to be involved in this kind of conference to learn from different experts to learn from different experiences and I think this is very important for the future then I have a question to both lawyers and while in
so we're talking entries change points in some way or another but basically what we're talking about is Internet infrastructure and how is that important to to build the open Internet also also safeguard what what are your experiences from Tunisia and Egypt so I think it's like an airport so so are there
there's a lot of there's a lot of similarities between airports Internet exchanges so basically although airlines compete we also have to cooperate together because and and the airport is the place where they actually organizes this you want told there are a lot of maturity models of Internet exchanges some people prefer Internet exchanges to be and yours some people prefer Internet exchanges to be semi-public organizations uh but at the same time that has to be a revenue model has to be a of this construction and I don't want to be too technical but it does not have to be a level 3 layer the sort of this is the switch at the end of the day it is a switch your eyes the 1 minus 5 people coincidently you on a news portals you should actually tell your news portal so that my my subscribers can access the to cooperate with the competition is something that is we're learning in in our part of the world it is very difficult to cooperate with competition because I want to eat my competition heart of type I want to get out of business that's what we learn but the reality of the Internet is that you actually have to for for lack of a better word you have to love your competitors and that you work with them because they create and bigger ecosystem or a bigger place you know and when it touches the economics of people when it touches the money the income the coming to people and then at the end of the day and I speak choices is just a nice beaches you know it's a consumer choice and comment about what
you mentioned is very important what you said because we had been dimension 40 years and then change but but not free 1 as a mention of clever because of
censorship for sure but also for because we're running an idea that they free infrastructure so I think now what's really doing is just to to transform the model because we cannot really be an IP transit service provider understand running an Internet exchange point what you had doing now is to say OK that that the chest but would be the government by label and independent board we all competitors all members in it in the book sold the decision would be made by all members by all competitions and those and uh and so we can which ensure that the that the infrastructure for the exchange point is open for any boring and for any actor and at the same time if the cost to based on my infrastructure so I just wanna quickly say something that you know my experience is that is 5 % technical and 94 95 % political you know when you when you when you try to create an exchange there has to be a lot of work with the government on a lot of actually urge changing legislation when it comes to a bigger retention freedom of expression that the law itself has to change technicalities or whether it's there to all the trees which is easy I'd like to read for me this is this is ground work in building the digital economy in the country and this
released several stages of market development and and 1 is basically using the rest of the rest of the world's Internet of content and an and the 2nd stage is through through local exchange to enabling your local carriers to work together to release also building local content being able to to have some service providers there in in this and I would do in this context he is kind like stage 3 in the market what what we still have not reached in in the developed countries and that that is just so that the proper and developed countries sorry for that the nuclear there and that that that's actually moving beyond Internet exchanges which is moving into the region of all the local city exchanges and and having a service exchange that uh I do the same for for carriers and and I is the survey X which can choose from different service providers and and actually enabling the individual users to switch over their services from
from today to tomorrow that it's just happening now and there's some uh in Canada they did something in the in the Netherlands this quantity will at this they build a local of fiber-optic network that that uh all the service providers of just and using the same fiber-optic network you can you can actually switch the services and entered Europe and the TV service Surya intermezzos a telephone service you have a home and you of of providers will give you that that is only now happening and then I think we'll take a couple of years before before will reach that another country that's interesting here because I'm hearing of 2 different things on the 1 hand this is a very important economic issues developments and economic ecosystem of the infrastructure of the Internet but is 95 % political so what's essentially being said is we need the right conditions to allow things to grow politics gets in the way this was a censorship system this was a system where you choose you couldn't even exist in some ways it was extremely limited its ability to act and how how is that when linking to the to the wider it's you we always seem to have these comes into the economics about politics is if it somehow devoid from from the so of the actual human lives and yet at the same time we currently have a discussion in Germany for weeks now about 1 provider deciding that it's the signal any kind of neutrality and just have bandwidth caps on any kind of connection from a set period on this seems to be a similar topic which seems initially technical but when you actually get to it so it's real people's lives it's regulations that how have you see them in this guess the effect of the really important questions just just 1 consonant actually I think the government so willing to move in that respect have been clearly identified in Dubai about telecommunications conference there were some who willing to move and someone to reregulate he the internet just like this and that was became very clear that I the present is that it's about having it's about having consumer options and then set about having the option to add to basically talk with your money and to move from an ISP that is not treating you right whatever way that might be the in cost or bandwidth caps or censorship and etc. to choosing a company that works for you and so and by enabling that's and by enabling all those options and in here we're essentially allowing allowing consumers to do that alignment them to talk with their money and then vote with their feet to speak guess in many parts of the world there are no
choices on this right it's 1 thing if consumers have choices between entities but I guess in some parts of the world must be hearing Tunisia there's a central point and then that told that was so there was no consumer choice in the matter whether you're using BAT infrastructure the
the 5 III species from all of its just with that with eyes the sense that because we we opened the that market since the age so at the and so uh the problem is with when you have a unique IP transit service provider that means that all the eyes these have to uh uh route they traffic via 1 point which is also used to be the ITI exactly so actually what we want when we build and that the change was a noted that except for that 1 that dies these can connect each other without uh uh ITI infrastructure only free infrastructure and then we open the market in the international never to say OK also the rules have to be open to competition that that that is a commentary about uh because when we have mentioned the then the chief point the argument that put on the table by all government officials say OK this is also the why you need to be unique and then at the change point in the country we need to have more than at the change point but the reason for that because they consider that chief without in competition at still the case we need to mention that genetic the change point when the economic model is available when there are a lot of members that decide to connecting 1 point this is 1 of the argument because these using competition on a new we die species and competition and the competition of this is a cooperation between Internet Exchange Point yeah a fascinating because I guess if it's also
suggesting that on 1 and you computing but on the other hand we will you use this beautiful face each show a patterns hot out like this especially as a large company like Google and you obviously competing
US truncation market why would you have an incentive to here would thought to work closely with small regional or even like Canada like speed when we look into minutes behind it has been very kind to us uh and uh and we also see that uh uh there are incredible economic social and cultural opportunities for a country like Egypt to export products and services to actually be a regional hub for constantly for local Arabic content creation and give example of the Czech Republic has 10 million people and has more check content online than the 250 million Arabic-speaking people in the Middle East and North Africa so if you type a word in on a GUI muffles on mobile laureate Egyptian Nobel laureate you'd have more articles in English than than and it's it's it's incredible so we we we have a vested interest role local content creation because the content drive the user and the user drive the advertiser uh and the advertiser has also been good us advertising money has been good to us as well so it's the whole ecosystem that's the OIC a system that it starts with you know if you grow the Internet Bayes and you grow them open content creation more and more users will come on come into the into the playground and more more advertisers were run for office the range
of trees microphone How do Thomas Ottoman CTO or it's a plan of woman and I'm wondering the Internet changes of the Holy Grail of appearing in private and public hearing the internet as the fundamental cornerstone that it it changes or traffic so now you said that you are Lagrange safe haven in each country to exchange the data what would you care to comment on the rest of that and how much protection of you can tell that very few people are aware of public awardees exchanged on is display during the audience a couple people compared to the 1 before and if you see if let's say that the synset talk about censorship in a tetralogy that inference directly on those peering points by it's in the United States by the NSA or so and how much pressure we actually see you see your risk in there and you think you have the ability to voice to concerns or defend against that actually happens thank you could I'm not actually have the same
concerns when the 6 some of the 6 management suggested to move into the foreign-exchange those who might well is this really a place Montego to go because I was very concerned about and and and access by government agencies to the exchange for example on uh as it stands today so I can say that we were able to put in the contract that the only the person will lectures to switches also our management is artistic management so far now I can say that these will be exchange itself and uh that there is no censorship some however having said that and obviously if some of the physical presence is excited to have this is obviously something which we can influence if tomorrow's some of like that guys would be there and they're very uh whatever I want to disconnect the fiber there's not much to do about it so and the the the law there the regulation is there but what the um and I know the secrets of the Secret Service would do and what we can currently not influence so that is that might become a problem from as it is today and we see that there's really dry form of and in exchange that the land legislation has been put into place and we're very confident that it will stay that way we also have to respond I think it
was the and any further questions the hi my name's patrick member policy researcher the other technologies to watching the DC interfaces is sort of maybe a clarification more the a question but I'm in North America Europe most of the data in annex points were initially like privately Ron right and so in the in the countries that he was to where exchanges and having developed the those run by governments for those other are they still like privately based models and so if you use comic quickly on what the implications for 1 or the other would be in countries that are developing a Iot means so I think there's a
maturity model of over Internet exchanges I'd I think it starts with basically basically a government loan of sort of entity but eventually as the internet but as you know millions of lives the the government is not very well known to be extremely you know our fast and you know doing things think technology is changing so fast so I think as we as we move on words it should be I think a federation of uh bias so we all have a vested interest for this place to work under the right route laws are on the right track regulations and it should also have a government representative because as as the Lord has therefore the privacy data retention of security lost changes we should we should work very closely with the government official to to change the rules but we're like you in stage 1 in our parts of the world where still run by the regulatory authorities the good news is that we have heard this as and that they're moving away from taking control of the exchanges to actually allowing all players at least Q 1 and Q 2 players to to play in this case you yeah uh opportunities was all the
same when when I j was created 1986 it completed but government and company so that an addiction for start from a government accompanying that is uh element but the by the government through different uh shareholders but but idiolectal by the government but whom we move with the privatization of the market was the opening of market removed from that that that occur a company that is owned by the by the government but but I just think uh now we're dealing with with an opening of opening the chairs and the structure of the capital of ITA but what I mentioned that the society and that is the internet service provider and the next thing IP transit service provider and for the speed
of the Internet exchange point to teach the could be in and the the number of focal sources and I don't agree with well when you say the bold have to be this number from the government because that I I think that we need to keep it as little as possible but just numbers if the government wanted the member with their uh government and that would go abroad wherever I can mention so they can join the ball otherwise I don't need to appoint a member of the government in the ball by the surface so it's very important to deal with just the ball for members of the Internet exchange point but I know I know that the government will join us if they if they landed the government to network IPA and don't yeah exactly thing that you did manage a point of this is a bit different from uh if if you look at the really successful lights peace in the world and there's hardly any of all as a all of them are actually of the neutral exchanges as in it so that you can carry on neutral the company operates transparently and it's typically a not-for-profit company and so so even the the the ones corporations have established as the business model have mostly not been so successful and so the um have to say you model and it is in a way to to have these as as the individual entities with which are owned by by a a group of carriers more or less an hour but there's a neutral and has been the most successful and even North America right now they're trying to build these types of changes in the number of calls for the for for establishment of these so I'm I believe that more and more countries will come to that model from and so on and and then there's the biggest incentive obviously to join and I have to say even the not-for-profit part is very important there some good because then otherwise it's this government which have certain interests or if the company wants to make a profit which certain interest but if you really want to exchange data neutrally and and free and and some of bizarre highest enable band was at at the lowest possible cost and so on the is reduction in
hominid on to excuse my ignorance on the technical aspects of from destroying address the whole constant you quite you to me what comes to mind is an article registering your time talking about this French BN there and how with the eyes he's over there is really gone in in in real the provided the services
really low rate when used to be a major companies called the cartel in the article kind of you know saw this guy's a threat native order do this as individuals a billion areas at this point is
uh what new economy evangelists actions of the call my question or comment is that I see that as much as you want to get away from the public the regulatory public aspect of government places like Egypt where uh and this corruption there I fear is you know the the privatization of this and the levels of corruption we have still existing in North America would actually I don't know what if they would hinder or not and and with this gentleman just said about being non-profit thing is really important because otherwise if be the detriment of the millions of users
actually if you look at the success of of exchange ones like like like M. 66 all links them at the the competition authorities would have had a very hard look at these points if some if they were not completely carrier neutral and everybody could join was exactly the same prices and everything and it is and it's not not run by 1 entity basically which is not also show of the jointly owned by these various so I think that's very important if 1 is 1 company would have built the forward in exchange 1 which which holds that much market power and uh and we see Europe will be gone by now so there any other questions or comments because
if not have no of and have a specific question which regards we have the example before of bind to the misuse of exchange points so what you do you expect to situations if you felt that the exchange would argue operato your directly linked to in this case the mixing for the effect was aware of was was being misused in some way or way that you felt like overboard not just live with regulation with specific steps taken by that said by government lactose how would you how would you respond to that yes I I think I think 1
of the most important thing is that we didn't change from the source that is yeah and including proceedings of the what's in your note you know we have to know everything in it in the that it's the speech the equipment of an Internet exchange points so this is To avoid of misuse it could be useful to mention that transparency is a principle this and the change point and also as I mentioned before when they repeated again involvement of civil society with infinite exchangeable this is something very important we we open our open innovation that we and that we have and that that thinking is you know we're we're we're in the cell and not between so it's very important for us to keep the measurement lab for example as an enabler for the society to get involved with Internet Exchange Point and to know what would what is really his which is with our equipment or not for me I would just like to
quickly and that the you all the wisdom of the crowd is just unbeatable no 1
millions and millions of people who sort of want something it's an incredible pressure on governments or corporations on a of a small example when when there was a there was a potential blockage of you choose for a couple of months ago in each um and the data show that you tube is actually making millions of dollars to both private individuals for corporations and lies speeds so all of us and us include of course we we had a vested interest but all of us want to the government and said you know what you have to actually stop this portal you have to intervene because millions of dollars will be lost to the country and a lot of people in my view would be stopped and i think nothing beats millions and millions of people complaining about in either uh misuse either so it's a very very democratic way of doing things just this question is this was an example specifically with the Google product what would this be
the same if a specific part favored Internet infrastructure like exchange point input its ability to function that way uh I I
agree about the idea that should not be should not be so I'm not sure about the choice of life but uh I wouldn't comment but that there the country itself has to be has to be you know um locally and from a legal point of view that protects a lot of things that our for granted are different from other than that in the western world so uh there's a huge difference between the East and the West Coast of the US I perceive as the 1st uh which even moved to Europe and you move toward some of the other parts of the world it it becomes a very difficult to know propositions it it is still expensive and that is that expensive it doesn't touch the lives of millions of people as we want them to be at the same time the quality of the Internet is not 100 % according to the people in the south of the bay area kind of work bench for yeah and is going to say just what we do and I'm in continues is a great example here because what did we do when the when the ATI formalize the thing was involved in censorship we continuously and repeatedly and supported changes in speaking out against it and then when the AT I became independent we supported the ATIS and fight against the government trying to and implement censorship and so I mean I think about their response that were the case and of course we're talking I'm speaking narrowly about censorship again because I think that this is a tough as you've heard this is a tough topic for me as well and I think that when it comes to things like that uh that that would absolutely there's ourselves I can only retrieve
common that we've put it now operations contract that we can walk away if we don't feel confortable and we will so it's
a it's a symbol of that as long as we operate this exchange some of the European rules will apply curious quite a strong
statement that any further questions or comments people like to add not then thanked the participants for 1 professional thank you for coming and so there
bad when the