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Digital Labor: New Opportunities, Old Inequalities

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a a a mind and a
and the our next speaker
is jealous salts from New York City
he is associated professor at the New School for a Culture and Media end and he is also author of several books and essays about the Internet as factory and playgrounds and in the next hour he's going to talk about what's and the opportunities and inequalities and digital labor and also bought and exportation happening already on the crowdsourcing platforms like 99 digital but editors in that in a natural or an Amazon Mechanical Turk so travel shorts it's just these didn't me
thank so thank you for the invitation them really happy
to be here on master follies Indian and assignments American conducted can indulge artist and as pushed into 2 stronger concerned his and him content even English before the tsunami hit you know how others see receives leaving a dead desert only cynicism interjection remain all you need to do is to make sure you have the right words to say like close to where before it finally wipes your
way at 1st glance a situation in southern France and the United States seems to prove Frankel before variety right the suicide rate and its parts of Europe and in the US especially
among the middle-aged has sharply increased during the time of the Great Depression
that unfolded over the last 6 years some people here in the audience may so you remember the suicides of many East
Germans from the Socialist Republic incredible the precarious yeah economic pressures the 2 personal despair but precarity is in individual problem in such a grand exit leaves no opportunity for alternative path what is put to question by Berardi and also Peter Fleming others the possibility of I ternative path of a commons within capitalism of digital labor that is worst offending and we just heard about this from nets polity the of the commons within capitalism of digital labor and at start ups that we should be building up and that of projects that we should invest in and so what I want to do in the next 45 minutes or so as to make it abundantly clear where I found exploitative emerging forms of labor but also talk about peer-to-peer labor that is worth celebrating investing in and supporting so to show you both sides of this landscape the and I will tell you I just can't help it that become outraged about the way in which the blossoming industries of the crowdsourcing industry I wiping away 100 years of labor struggle for the 8 hour workday for paid vacation health insurance
against child labor from the Haymarket riots to the strike at the Ford River Rouge plant in 1945 all of this wiped away a seemingly overnight by platforms like
Mechanical Turk and others my intentions range from a call of much-needed new concept and theories 2 practical proposals I'm offering some position of an offline artists and educator was equally interested in theory and in making stuff making projects starting projects it was just 2 weeks ago when we learned about so
evolve Bangladesh where 5 garment factories filled with workers who were paid 20 cents an hour and produce close for brands like Calvin Klein collapsed when the building on run floors that housed these factories collapses this tall sought to 517 immediately
making this the biggest disaster in the history of the garment industry the factory owner who was warned about the lack of structural integrity of the
building was how hiding cowardly in the suburb and nobody really knows where Calvin Klein was that day or what he had to say about it the and he in Germany it even
if it's not quite as bleak you get a taste of this brave new world of labor that is literally killing people as well just think of the recent scandal at Amazon DE and which employed a security company named after out of Hitler's deputy would have to look after the 5 thousand part-time workers mostly
with migration backgrounds in its biggest warehouse in Germany this is something unsettling about German gods with military haircuts leather booze and into a Steiner designer and uniforms telling workers from the Gary L. Paul and that they had the police around here why blinding them with the headlights
of the truck is of course could part of good business for Amazon to fire has security but that's you know that's not forget that took German public television to make that happen interestingly also documented
now recalled strange experiences with has security the member native company
99 design doesn't really employ right radicals but 1 of its 3 headquarters is in Berlin and the company is very active in the German design markets 99 design offers competitive crowdsourcing for designers currently the company as a pool of 200 thousand registered designers so for example if you a client I was looking for a logo you might spend the very reasonable sum of 300 dollars ever that you receive 116 completely executed design as a designer and researcher inch explained but of these 116 designs or 1 will receive payment and it's a payment of 100 and 80 dollars and I'm not sure if I have to spell this out but so that means that 115 designers worked for free and then not paid at all and you don't have to be a math genius understand that this means that 120 dollars went to the intermediary the company that connects workers with those were looking for work 99 designs it 99 design states at hadron 180 thousand of those crowdsourced competitions that of course global in nature not only do wages hit rock bottom but degrees in designing decades of experience a reputation of and of course the cross itself a cut out of the equation and any talented students in the dorm room uh in out college in Shanghai is now competing for the chain same job the uh what it means to be a designer then has completely changed but those who think that working conditions don't better in the social democracy that is Germany should also meditate on the 400 thousand academics student assistants where you the underpaid or not paid at all a little the hope that things will turn out for the better 1 there and if they don't well than they already good used to the precariousness of their
work life in corporate America and academia the equivalence the unpaid student in terms Ross pollen a professor at
NYU estimated that unpaid student internships generated financial benefit for corporate America of about 2 billion dollars a year but it is true if compared to other countries like China India Russia and the United States Germany is that these thus far less affected by the dark side of digital labor but nobody's should say that precarious labor doesn't exist in Germany and it's a mechanistic about its worldwide for millions of people digital environments have become the daily grind and yet are invisible to us so there are we don't see these workers they don't see each other they don't see their employer and that we need to give a face to these work practices so I think it is incredibly important to make those work practices visible in Florence have become linguistic spin Meisters that make up all kinds of interesting new words including requesters task rabbits cloud workers 1 of my
favorites Prof uh providers and crowd workers just to make sure that they're not thought of as employers and you're make you forget that this is actually work and not
just a game that you play instead of watching television they might have even taking a cue from the German term out Gabor which is really equally turning rock reality on its head if I call you a cloud worker you're still work and your stomach would go will still get hungry come lunchtime in the eyes will still feel strange and your back but might hurt after long screen hours and you also citizens citizen was some rights that come with that you know just a cloud worker the deceptive language used by many of these companies is aiming to make you forget all that and suggest that something completely new is happening here in many cases sort of additional labor continues traditional sweatshop economies and I don't say that easily as I have mean by the words can talk about that later this deceptive language game is
also important for the legal advisers of these companies who would know how important it is to call their workers employees can not to call their work as employees because employees have rights such as minimum wage standards paid vacation health insurance they
are independent contractors they say and while this is an assertion that has never been tested in any called it is also a convenient position to allow them not to take care of their workers was still getting as filmmaker Alex Rivera put it in his brilliant film sleep dealer all the work without the worker the In 2009 at the new school in city I can
be in 1 of the 1st large conferences on digital labor the new school I don't know if you know it's there has a fairly widely known history of critical theory was professors like Hannah Arendt's but is also known for its student activism In 2007 when I started to think about these issues and put together the conference and it was 1 year into the mounting financial crisis and it struck me that the people spending time on social networking services like myspace if you remember that there are contributing to
the spiraling wealth of the Hector million years of Silicon Valley and that we might want to consider such value generating activity as labor the event included said to Janet turnover and rise duty Dean jet Jonathan Zittrain is like a moron Mackenzie what and many others all of whom played an important role in shaping the foundation of this discourse there was talk of the new hacker class the there was talk about
racial slurs against gold farmers and World of Warcraft and the economy of mom prepares and crowdsourcing research and development on platforms
like of incentives and August the it In the meantime I should say a confidence reading focus and it should labor and also now there's a very noticeable exploration of events about the topic and also scholars who starts and many many scholars start writing about this album god of post I'm fathers in this platforms like Amazon Mechanical Turk it the Danah Boyd blocked yesterday about the topic the much of this discussion is really coming to terms with what labor actually means in this context of the Internet and is somehow account for 1 very important factor which is a blurring of work and life this came up it several talks this morning already and the blurring of work and life leisure and labor play and work at the centre questions of this discussion include also the capture of value the continued validity of Marx's theory of so that surplus value and the question of exploitation and the politics of time but before we jump into that I want to define the 2 labor for Europe and then show you a map of additional labor landscape that I created which should make it clear that totalizing accounts of these emerging uh work environments can only lead to miss was a representations I think they have to be a quite specific about it so this is the 1st attempts at somehow narrowing this down but also accounting to
uh what is different in this stage of labor around than in traditional no so human activity that is undertaken solely for pleasure that has not as sometimes undertaken solely proposal that has economic and symbolic value and can be performed at any time of course not bound to the factory the office all the households and it can be performed constantly as many of you do as we're speaking now and you cell phones leisure work leisure and work mesh beyond recognition that out of these
landscape uh all this should labor and I give it a shot here by trying to think of the different kinds of page uh the waged digital labor that I can think of and I'm just gonna talk about this tiny little bit because I wanna give you 2 examples really so time I will leave out obviously uh most of this discussion but just pointed to 1 example really 1st in this area in the Amazon Mechanical Turk how many of you are
familiar with mechanical turk if you approximating knots OK good so I'm putting a screen shot up here the Amazon Mechanical Turk is an online crowdsourcing system founded in 2005 design for copied labor-management of mechanical Turk is based on the idea that certain tasks are easy to perform for people but difficult or impossible to execute for computers currently there are 500 thousand people registered so With mechanical chart sure that everybody will be active all the time and so and but still if you it's a significant number uh of workers especially if you compare this to the compensated workforce of Google which 54 thousand people all that of cracks list which is 23 and the mechanical turk rich Amazon cults and artificial artificial intelligence service allows for projects to be broken down into thousands of bits which are then assigned as individual tasks to so-called crowd workers becomes a beautiful language to assign captions 403 thousand images you could tower higher 3 thousand workers so it's probably fairly obvious so if you if a higher 1 of you and ask you to our but up at captions on 3 thousand images I will have to pay you more than if I pay 3 thousand people to do just 1 of those images that PM 1 cent each for that task that's the logic behind that this way of operating individual workers to know what they do not know what they're working on all whom they are not working full so employers don't know who is actually sitting there and neither do you it's anonymous and also you have no idea what you're working on 3 are given a task to be executed it is never explained to you what you're during this study by Lilly Irani showed that over 50 % of the workers live in the United States and some 32 per cent reside in India and the rest is spread all over the world in the United States the average age of the workers is 31 years old and most of them are female a very large number of them is unemployed in India workers are predominantly male and Alan average younger some 25 years old the Indian workers have higher level of education than their American counterparts with 74 % of them having a college degree many of you will will know
that the inspiration for the name Mechanical Turk came from this chess-playing automaton designed in 1769 that allowed the small-bodied chessplayer hidden in a wooden box to control the mechanical charts of the hand it was a major hidden in Europe admired by the likes of Charles Babbage and Edgar Allan Poe Mechanical Turk workers and not really telling for money and that's important so not everybody was working on this and 1 is actually doing it for the money some people say they are doing it to kill time or learn English and then there's a 18 % group of 80 % of workers on this platform that are actually there to make a living and they think of it as a full-time job it is practically impossible even experienced Mechanical Turk workers make an average of true dollars an hour 2 dollars an hour so this without much hesitation that I'm referring to this work on mechanical type S. exploitation underground underpayments and totally annotations so elimination based on the fact that the identity of the employer is unknown and that the nature of the project that they're working on is unknown to the workers as well you can add to that the workers are isolated from each other and to fully appreciate the aspirations of the small number of the desperation of a small number of workers retreat Mechanical Turk as a full-time job this into 1 quote from a worker he says I realize that I have a choice to work on not to work on Mechanical Turk uh but that means I would also not need to make a choice to each on not to each all the builds on not pay bills so you hear through these more than and many of those the desperation the workers who can find employment desperation dies people into knowingly knowingly into these exploitative and situations them some scholars that have said you know well these people would never do this if they see it's exploited the by that's completely wrong in the of course you have also the mom with 3 kids working for jobs not because she is too stupid to see that is exploited but people she's desperate for the money right sir desperation dies people into knowingly exploited at more knowingly into exploitative situations so but not all workers will agree that they are exploited they may even say that they're doing it by choice so who would then it's really responsible for their plight whether or not we want to accuse them of a false consciousness as and you just don't know that you're exploited as academics left to do uh we shouldn't forget to ask who created the conditions and also ask who created these conditions that put people in such a desperate situation in the 1st place and that make it difficult for them to turn around and turned away from such self expectation for compliance however and it's quite a sweet deal they have access to a 24 7 workforce on-demand they remain anonymous and only pay if they are satisfied with the results but they don't even have to do that so Amazon explicitly permits them to not pay workers and still use the word that's in the term of service preparations feel emboldened that they can skirt minimum wage legislation 2 dollars an hour um In their completely deregulated arena of the internet so what you can see a set the rules of this environment are heavily tilted towards the employers Amazon claims impartiality when it comes to any kind of labor dispute this a while we just offering you the platform was happening on has nothing to do with us they prefer to be neutral bystanders when in fact they choreographed those roads repetitive and potentially exploitative situations to put it crudely they just want to 2nd the profits I don't want to hear about the very real problems of human beings were working facilitated through their service in his book The mass on
demand Krakauer discuss the tiller girls which are where artificially produced in the United States and then exported to Europe to demonstrate the greatness of American production and of you ever seen like a youtube video of them um and they were ever repeating imperfectly sink motions of their routines suggested hyper efficiency of the assembly line false assembly line but in comparison to the workers on Amazon Mechanical Turk the teller girl seem really like long-haired anarchic hippies is Amazon Mechanical Turk more like a 9 inch nails of our time Turing's made up of tiny bits sampled from existing albums the Mechanical Turk workers are locking onto the rabbit website and pick from a large number of tasks like tagging and labeling images the transcription of audio or video recordings of the categorization of products all of which are usually paid only a few cents per task so sitting in cyber cafes on their homes pursuing the toilet as if it were a past time work becomes card game like in this context which has led German media theorist Julian could Lake to call this play but in a different context words uh we can see in the current in this context is this process that is high so much and I'm sure people will talk about that this event as well of the unification as part of its principles of gaming uh let's say the mechanics that help to release the addictive energy than playing Angry Birds is no applied to work tasks of
cross Mechanical Turk has little to do with the smiling tilladelse in Crocker was miles ornament is far more like to the Laplace endlessly polished and ultimately hollow professionalism of the stage acts by Justin Bieber I don't know of any review into the or 2 concerts if you have 12 year old children every um a case of Peter Fleming and policy astrarium like in the click workers to the walking dead in the popular TV serious of the same name the call
this zombie labor others think of the Dawn of the Dead Sea and let all of their Marxian Association of vampiric labor flow freely people were using labor services offered by Mechanical Turk are frequently unaware of the unacknowledged invisible workers who we are providing the services they might be familiar with the company that delivers the services but they don't actually know who's doing the work you may know this 1935 poem by about the bracts where the evening the Wall of China was finished did the masons go in the books you will find the name of kings so what we have here is really a continuation the workers on Mechanical Turk I even less traceable then these Chinese masons and that Brecht mentioned by it is the likes of the Mechanical Turk workers were splitting the bill for the global recession so in conclusion about mechanical turk I want to say that it offers workers and noncompetitive flexible environments that they can easy easily enter into an exit out of an environment where they can work no matter where they live with some customers this is also the work environments that takes that makes discrimination quite difficult that's a based on gender race identity because it's employers don't really know on the other side right they don't really know who was working for them on the downside work is predominantly below minimum wage is basically impossible to make a full-time living as a target and mechanical Turkers deceptive and ethically questionable for companies that is advantageous because they don't need manager saw human rights and human rights and the should have your rights resources human resource departments the participation agreement that workers have to sign indubitably favors them over the workers and the pay is low and the volume of the work is very high so there's no commitment to the worker at all on the other hand there there are concerned about the abuse of intellectual property rights by companies when workers handle even small pieces of particular projects and the quality of the work on Mechanical Turk is sometimes unpredictable so now arriving at the turning point Albert this far that at least for this example uh you will agree with me that there are some instances of exploitation label at least I hope agree that this is an instance of expectations and so the simply on the fact of underpayment and elimination so now let me turn to something much more complicated which is unwaged digital labor so if here I am I met this a little bit so you can see that the wonderful work that is done finance politics all this volunteering and so the uh volunteer efforts that go into creating this amazing sides right using resources that unpaid it's a public-spirited but they're there for you to here and actually no more but that's politics right so there is clearly a good side of digital labor because you know we would want to see more of that we want to see people editing wikipedia we want to see people but his support pitting enfolded all in which i he the all other examples so that we could bring in this gigantic landscape of um unwaged into labor but she again I will also pick 1 example I puts an unmistakable error there at end so and only talk about that my initial map should have clarified that my taxonomy of the 2 labor takes account of the peculiarities of a broad range of practices so he again just 1 a specific case and I will talk about Arianna Huffington stuffing imposed if i familiar with having post who is yes almost all of
Confucius together this can is their own Andrew bright buttons on a pretty and i and having been found at the site as an umbrella for left-leaning commentary in 2005 the simple idea was to draw attention to existing content by aggregating it from various blocks and at some original text to that makes the side side started featuring but bloggers who having appreciated and also managed to attract posts by then Senator Barack Obama and celebrities like opera this combinations this combination the game plan Keeley was would increase the social capital of the bloggers who would remain happy campers despite never being remunerated for their work this recipe succeeded until 2011 when dark clouds started to move into the land of having post that year I having done that and her initial investors turned around on their riders and sold the company to AOL for 350 million dollars so thousands of bloggers who contributed to this project because they liked ion of India and the like the politics on this side let's see we're left in the cold so physically suddenly there were contributed to the personal wealth of freely 50 million dollars off I having to they didn't find this very amusing uh not only was this 1 not only was is an obvious affront to the riders but having was also extremely blase about her response to the operator of the bloggers used with is said 0 go ahead go on strike and she did they that uh in February 2011 visual arts also which is frequently cross cross-posted material having post started to boycott the size 1 month later the strike and call to boycott was joined and endorsed by the National Writers Union and the Newspaper Guild of America and enable 2011 the labor rights advocate Jonassen to see me fight a class action lawsuit 405 million dollars in back wages for the thousands of uncompensated riders so the call for a boycott was especially successful in the class action lawsuit was lost you know it's there bloggers had never signed anything of a promise and payment the so it turned out that making money off the backs of these riders of these bloggers was not illegal but in my opinion however it was highly unethical and the debt deserves our condemnation and perhaps even our boycott of society as in reading it having them is an interesting example because his writing for is often cited by publishers and you're journals and they are trying to explain why they are not paying for their riders off for the academic speakers all you had your own example here the broad landscape of digital the work also includes student internships that are increasingly conducted through the internet so now they don't even sit animal in the office of Book magazine or you name it that now this error can also be conducted online customer service workers perform force on sites like Apple under and Verizon and yes also our cognitive labor on Facebook red it's linked in in Google and shot the argument is that what we are becoming according through Dallas Smythe the is really an audience commodity the we are captured our data are collected analyzed and sold which allows advertising companies to profile as make predictions about future likes enter myocarditis in uh more personalized and customized way we indeed generating value through our presence and activities for our daily routines and through our search reality and if you are not paying for service chances are that you are the product yeah we're putting in emotional labor to fit into the institutional context and communal values of Facebook for example we every creating identity online and on copper platforms and be a more than generous was our time time that we're taking away from other activities from our loved ones from working on alternative projects if you compare this cognitive labor of cost to the work of the 1 . 2 million Foxconn employs in Shenzhen all of the miners of rare earth in Congo became node 1st of all and that's they are the basis for our digital lifestyle for all these wonderful Mac products that you have in front of you and I would hesitate to call as filling in the recapture of spending time in Facebook of farm will exploitation just in the same way as he's Foxconn workers are exploited but I do think that there's a violence of participation taking place and that people are used and expropriated so I think that there's a distinction to be made to In this section was like section short section either combine examples of public-spirited work and then already move on to the sample Paul that's not so much for polls in the sense of here this is what you should do about multiple that's again as sort of publications and things that we can start thinking about together and maybe it translates into projects so I will talk about the digital labor that I'm happy to give away for free with some proposals for action it doesn't need much explanation and I say that working for Wikipedia OpenStreetMap Science Commons folded now this click workers challenged or broad distributed proofreader sort the birds of nets politic and is not the same like working for Facebook now I want to turn and see how we can support this kind of work that is public-spirited and we would like to see more of ends on the other hand I I would like to see how we can restrict the kind of work that we would like to see less of and our contributions will of course be only partial and it also takes time so 1st of all we need better theories and concepts to critically understand emerging forms of labor so I'm thinking of Jodi Dean's communicate of capitalism my you're trying to use social factory describing how small acts of labor are not just taking place in the factory anymore but believe all throughout society hello better match alone is rent extraction and so on is a crucial starting points but much further work has to be done to make sense of the complete capture of life uh where all parts of life really becoming is standing reserve for if 2nd I think that the building of alternative infrastructures is incredibly important you know those projects that freedom box new social friend our crabgrass to account for their function for their technical functioning is critical and many people are tied up with creating more and more of these alternative social networking sites alternative structures and their importance but at the same time so I think we don't always need yet another alternative social network I think that the problems are technical but they're not only technical and there are dozens of alternative projects already out there but they underutilized because we didn't manage to attract sufficient number of users think of the destiny of our the history really of diaspora for example the suppose that Facebook alternative all their the place where we all hoped would be the alternative to fears were but now and Tuesday I have maybe 5 friends on that size right and I'm probably of all of these platforms I'm that account and all of them and my context stretched to 5 or 6 or 7 contact each and that's not my fault of trying to so jolly reason the proposed to dedicate the same amount of money that we give to corporate services like Internet service providers and so on to public and alternative project so maybe uh the team at that's politics should really say well hey you know this appeal to people and say is spending so much for Internet Service Provider set spend the same amount on us 1 project that I would like to support with this talk as the German for Napoli study which will launch may soon offering an Internet marketplace that is based on cooperative principles emphasizing transparency and ethical treatment of the workers and the clients they're already attracted some 900 members and fall 50 euros you can become a
member true so it doesn't seem to be entirely clear what it would take to you our friends away from existing fat-cat powers of the social web what would it take to feed the desires and to distill and reawaken values that it would move them away from being agents of machines for self-promotion consumption sites like for Napoli alongside 1 of the pioneers of the Internet cracks list I inspiring examples I'm going calling the in agreed free business because I don't know if you know they could make a 500 million dollars a year if they would introduce advertising and so on so if you look at the editors of The Wall Street Journal betas bang their head against the wall and you can understand what if you have a chance to make this money why don't you do worse and Craig Newmark sensor is quite simple he says he knows when enough is enough and he also said that users did not ask for advertising so we made a poll on the side any are 71 advertising and is it no we do not want advertising last 500 million dollars remain made so practices well it's profitable but it doesn't maximize profits by it and so I think this could be a real inspiration for all start ups uh especially at this event I think if there would be great if their businesses that j data-driven I think the cracks in this model is quite a model that's 1 could run with and I think you would get a lot of good will from people as you can see this from Napoli already 3rd I want to propose an extra expropriation literacy that addresses the questions of broad refusal and this identification I would like to say take a stand against In all our to withdraw all in nihilistic radical no to everything related to computers and the Internet I think that is deeply leaders as a proposal who can afford to do this like we have a proposes that I wonder if they have a job or if they have to worry about their job I think but I am in favor very much sort of selective engagement in the social web to really think what we refuse so as the elective refusal elective restore all I think makes all the sense in the world rather than opting out altogether we should find new forms of solidarity to change things this 1 encouraging example of where m is that is actually already won and more than 1 and encouraging example where Amazon Mechanical Turk workers now can jointly evaluate employers making it easier to avoid especially abusive of companies on Mechanical Turk it's culture Coptic on to Firefox plugin all and chrome and basically allows workers to share uh the bear that in evaluation of particular employers and you can track the history of these otherwise Hanuman anonymous employers and it creates also a commonality among the workers which are completely anonymous otherwise so also here and I also should say that as a project by Lilly Irani and her team alter here's republic there's Joel that door I was working as a German freelancer movement in trying to unionize them I understand that he is speaking on stage 3 right after the stock so go check them out is a great guy great project if all of those organizing seems exceedingly difficult to do if unionization of a transnational temporary work for sounds impossible then we might want to check in with the history and learn that see that's solvers managed to unionize the migrant workers in the fields of California by introducing consumer boycotts the In shadows was able to unionize why should not succeed in the emerging environment of digital labor to last and this concludes my talk I propose to expand the jurisdiction of federal they belong to Healey include new work environments online so you may say about entirely American issued do we have to do with this I do not think so this is not the US centric argument most of the large intermediaries in fact are located in the US why instead what is on the US Amazon go universe who out of this book and which means that they falling under American uh label on an explicit application of the Fair Labor Standards Act to the internet and enforcement of that application much more important and enforcement of that application would have significant ramifications far beyond the borders of the US currently there is at the heart is a lawsuit here and there uh 1 lawsuit currently is brought against the crowd spring 1 of the crowdsourcing companies and at their 1 worker there asserts that the company should have paid minimum wages and acknowledge him as an employee rather than independent contractor such as change of the major flow for crowdsourcing companies should this be successful could although the entire international landscape of the outsourcing industry equally true related to the suppression of a valid legal response is the establishment of an association that can represent this internationally distributed digital work us handle disputes informal up from them of their rights and so on to serve as a central coordination place for campaigns thank you very much uh so of course we can have this discussion on Twitter and see my handle them there but we can also have assuming it would often dodge the 1 day you what is other than if I had to go to the nearest microphone in other centers others of size rodents that was in my office locked into the and senior uh Apple cores and rotor the image and that's orderly gives you women a finer so this doesn't go off on the income and this is misusing select sort them uh some kind of grace a question about solidarity in unionizing and I was wondering using which make to recorder many examples were like coldest movements failed for example spec watch so they try to track all the 9 and assigns incident but they failed so what would you think how long it's going to take to the movies come of form and how strong they're going to be and this is me more coordination with like really unions in the real world so what's what's really going on the could to get 1 to do all that 1 can tell you about this 1 example that we already have a Coptic on right so it's a relatively successful there our I think 7 people created a consonants and a few understood such a cup Kandace's our this is in turn the clock for this tool and so what you do is basically you download this and you are inserted into a Firefox and then when you're going to Amazon Mechanical Turk hits and you look at particular tasks then you can see which company what the track record with the track record in terms of how much to the answer to their workers if they have complaints for example in the case of her rejections of work which happens frequently right so workers rejected but the company's never tell people why they reject the word ends they can see if the company offers welfare payments if the workers think that this is fair and so on and this is just a real life example that is joined by many people that are actually working on this side and I'm sure making there are work life a whole lot easier right so there's a concrete example of this er how how this could actually required and the way they went about it is that the 1st interviewed lots and lots of the workers and ask them what do you actually want to not to come from this position off I and the organizer and I will now tell you what's important to you but actually to research Ray carefully what was important to them it's 1 of the things was delayed payments if you have any freelance years you will know the problem and so on and so on right so and endemicity rate companies by that so much it's incredibly
difficult I mean it's an atomized anonymous
workforce that is only barking temporarily and all over the world but like I said you know we should really sort of mobilize some energy around this and enthusiasm in a healthy degree but to really try and to make our this work in lots of different incarnations 1 legal scholar suggested for example to whenever you therefore whoever the fields that they can afford this would do this to so these companies fall minimum wage and fall being recognized as an employee and are if they are they will probably most of these losses will probably fail but maybe there's Bonjoch level just rule a little bit different and this may change the whole landscape tremendously here and I was just wondering you said that and if you're not paying for service this chances the product product
and we the kids talk a little bit about Creative Commons and the idea of you people creating content free sitting at free hand is that right said that services that is anything but I think that the IP debates to Internet intellectually probably do is it is not at the center of the of what I'm talking about it's not because the that save companies like Google so and that's a Facebook mean Facebook doesn't really care what you post right they don't care if you post your poem and if it is a fantastic form is something we wanna take a poem and Enceladus but what they do want as people pay attention to you and be grouped around you and have social connections is about activity about attention and about the data trails that all of this activity leaves behind and think that can be analyzed right so in this sense uh that it's the same what you think of 2nd Life right 2nd life and notice the members of the
MySpace of virtual worlds are if you go in there that's how the anybody there anymore but all little everything in the belief that
you see in there a little wave of water or maybe the crime that you see is resident generated by this work that the people who came in I was 1 of the 1st at class when they're in 2nd Life for our was 2 classes on various campuses in use to 3 D building tools but when it came out and it was a completely empty fields where there was nothing so everything that is in there as generated by users which makes it an hour and attractive experience the wealth of the material that is they are makes it attractive right so in our Earth's labs decided to turn over the intellectual property to the residences
say you on your material which of course means very little because for them it doesn't really matter who answers right if you wanna they own it it's not like you take your castle from 2nd Life and you bring it home or something so I think these IP issues arms I of course always part of this discussion but they don't think that they are at the heart of what for years seems to be very clear what work should be faithful and what not to do what is in your opinion whether that creates value and should be paid for and which isn't the repressive while they're either when experiments in Germany out of universe with Wikipedia to pay the et editors out of state government funds right and uh the fountain in Germany and there are many example and this is famous essay about kindergartens in a cube with Israel where they found basically that money isn't always the solutions of paying people can actually do you motivate them surprise surprise uh in particular context so if you say
that well you know Wikipedia contribution is worth 5 dollars when you think of yourself giving a 500 dollar contribution but doing it for free and d motivates the right so the role of money there's is interesting uh well I mean I think I'm really concerned with
like I told you this particularly answers that I told you that I showed you and I don't think that they should introduce the labor standards that are our existing in the real world should be reflected in the world but also in the even at world right mean what is different in terms of bringing food to the table of you working in an office are working at the start of programmer you work 2 is somebody working online for Amazon of fall another company might mean they're working they're doing work so but somehow online it is OK is a completely had just come as OK to
completely underpaid people to not even so the most basic the most
basic rights by that the worker has not that same that states this is not fixed especially voluptuous in terms of BER kind of right serves the workers itself but they have basic rights the right to me which and our universities are paid sick days and and so on and none of those exists and this just makes me furious ability of me and I wonder if this error you can relate to this I mean it really makes me very angry that people work for 100
years you know there people I could die for the stuff you know and who died for the
8 hour workday who died from majors would died to fight against child labor in on Amazon Mechanical Turk you have time labor because you don't know was working there right is completely anonymous so I think this is sort of like my strongest uh Township maybe that I wanna yeah this and all them from
interval Marty them then the sine of and N is the most similar was um a cause about mingled March to Ian or and you know or strong all 1 as a starter that's it warms rudiments indicating that so much
of it was you which have the common man only visited answer uncertain limits their own knowledge that the society is too small identity is sum of whom you visit in so it should have a decent unforeseen the other yeah not to
mention just in the format of of using use of was this this 1 wants answer the committees comes filler rapidly that online it's was on from America opposition uh to comment on the side and this is the the smaller of the 2 deed the suggested Hemant arms uh Nikopol combined under time with own and optimizing the studio tumor-stroma on day then Minister share these like 11 students and become when you missing this with me on the striatum this Mr. that inflation arbiters of the child were arrive the idea of it's clear that it was a lot of time on that occurrences additional vinegar and anxiety Siemens on does this content of and most of its highest of mechanical turk this new man stop dissenters there game minimal which to the time the useful on vision move the comedy . norms in this this initial in there In
this sense of the Fourier route orders that is in i in eastern habitats and you have to have under some of my questions not sure if it's a question that there is 1 case of a couple of Japanese see all of the huge IT companies in ICT and in
context of creating the local designed for the company they did they say like a real pain designers we can perhaps as and the problem is that it's a label is that you don't
see the slaves you don't see the masters that you're exploit is something between men and however that India's and he'll or set of companies they have fewer resources and we have to depend on those labels somewhere we don't see that fool likes to do it but not being paid for in Ireland
Lake how the balancing the scene and kind of I think and I knew hanging unlikely we will cover those extra
creation literacy right the questions like maybe uh and this discussion to be had much more like this is the discussion really about values right in
this constantly changing landscape
uh and this dramatic crisis that we are in an economic crisis you know what actually values that your hold on to and that you're aware that you're willing to defend when I you know amidst these rabbits and so on this is maybe a question that an NGO where should ask themselves as well I what
question is needed at least the problem of ownership because there are a lot of the big companies who give you of as we use it to be attractive
tools on their own channel of they provide an and they also and the found the body of the country and and you as a user and you haven't got the possibility to go to work against some of those companies on an effective A. uh yes and an effective like Facebook or Google you haven't really tries to avoid those of you guys yeah I
guess is this discussion of refusal so I think I mean I don't have any of you know 1 2 3 steps are kind of recipe the other thing to think about this sort of selective engagement and to diversify decentralized and
your presence and you really tried to include our because alternative some of which are names that are in your arm online reality I think is is 1 part and also to really uh you know once you sort of have an understanding of these issues really link this to campaigns to the directional so the political issues to link this to the occupier or other movements in and so I tried to sort of think about where on politics of technology really lies I think yeah touches on these issues
it's a lot of discussions can have afterward the about the sprawl this identification etc. nominal modifier terms it's so it's a shame sort the DDA on girls school label only grows out of in constant plant heights entirely 2 tertile don't entirely statistical something is a the event in
the around shift abound in men you also very often from that of a conventional system given measured iterates a concept that the money the state line alfclul mean and will debate vector on the uh it's all of those you in the variation come up with a thing is determined TO
University of Toronto Nelson consists cancer their outer the high the
hypertext from the hyper media at the text are calling so they are hard to hard to those those where I once in the morning Zesch tissue uh the data that does
basic this is in again is also not out this would have Boston is worldwide web although Internet will Internet and what we're ahead adders project then you do as therefore not born at ICC origami that was even intense and RDI 2 unknown this new data fear the Lord of its sidebands all-too-familiar outlet inside this is focused at us uh side only used as done this to the new wording S Power graph off or tubes on us at the start up there
you just updated this on his water as they are adding damage of enough lines there
this also new of dispersed over the these decisive stochastic this internet Ulster blocked as so like to do is understood as I'm clicks minimum and was unfeasible new inclines Augmentin down the soon water from center through it anybody's using word order Aldermarten's and rediscounting than it's sort of this cancer and that's where we have it is forced into so developers opposites on 1 to to town cottage as are annotated so that's about as despised I model this and the war you medicine getting out of enough after the the man is a is a sort of announced loser her own story encounter which in his notion of the fire burns would list moons slows Richard buggers few
war and so and the other thing that you
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Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Digital Labor: New Opportunities, Old Inequalities
Serientitel re:publica 2013
Anzahl der Teile 132
Autor Scholz, R. Trebor
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 3.0 Deutschland:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen und das Werk bzw. diesen Inhalt auch in veränderter Form nur unter den Bedingungen dieser Lizenz weitergeben.
DOI 10.5446/33537
Herausgeber re:publica
Erscheinungsjahr 2013
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Informatik
Abstract While it doesn't smell or look like labor at all; digital labor is part of the working lives of millions in the U.S., China, Russia, and India. Amazon Mechanical Turk is a thriving marketplace where "folks who have work meet up with folks who seek work," as CEO Jeff Bezos innocently framed it. Work, as it turns out, is in fact radically atomized and inane zombie labor. Mechanical Turk does not reveal the identity of the employer to the worker and even if workers click away for 60 hours a week, they may have no idea what they're working on.

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