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Myths of the Open Internet: Bust Them and Get Busy

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so welcome to lecture the part of our program on stage Friedman and we will have some photos here from the Global Voices the at that locus so what is what was because it will tell you I'm sure many as the product of mobile was online and they seek to build a global anti-censorship network of bloggers and online activists throat so developing world that is dedicated to protecting freedom of expression and free access to information online so we have 2 speakers 1 was really Roberts below um choose a pack of society and to users living in San Francisco and expert on the politics and policies of Internet users Cuba she works as an editor of Global Voices of what to the
digital rights supporting on what is a project of global what citizens media that so what kind of thing this is and there we have also shown on here at the end of it right is also globalvoices because a director and a longtime member of the Global was community um there's a passionate about citizen media and freedom of speech and also a medical doctor and mother so someone you would get sector and the commitment of brighter walking was what was the cofounder talk Morocco and Mumford pinch to award winning citizenry the platforms I'm happy that you're here and we opened for we're interested in the social and you would have where medical procedures to do this so you will talk about 40 minutes and then a so you know can we actually 5 so I'm Hillary and the physician's time is the charm i re 1 and I think if
we just get a much more thorough introduction and we expected but were here from Global Voices Citizen Media Network press writers her around the world and said today the out today we we decided we wanted to start the conversation by talking about a couple of you know most common minutes floating around about the so-called open and free internet so some want you say it is more or less true that the Internet is a free open and public space well I'm afraid that this is not completely true because almost 90 % of the Internet is actually owned by private companies most of those companies are based in the US and Western Europe and that's a beautiful picture uh that's a joke theory and you're probably going to share it on Facebook and wants to share it on Facebook technically your data your picture is now subject of the subjected to uh rules and regulations of a privately owned
company and and the those rules that privately owned company that decides how you share data who it is able to access that data and ultimately it controls the way expresses aligned to right now isn't true that most Internet users are in the United States and Western Europe I'm afraid that assumption is not true either because as we know today the next billion Internet users will come from the global south and recent data shows that our of all regions of you know the places in the world where the which is the which are the most growing in terms of new IP addresses are located in Africa Latin America and uh mostly Asia as well southeast Asian particularly good so it's a false assumption to consider that is only the West or North America and so this makes me think of another
idea that I have that which say there only really Internet enemies in internet friends name here in the news about China over here on Saudi Arabia those kinds of countries are really extreme policies were so there's a lot of censorship a lot of surveillance but I other countries everything's P which might think well sure only the mainstream media usually like things that we see the image of black and white of enemies and friends and to some extent it can be true in certain extreme cases like Iran or China but most of the time that separation between black and white is not accurate is not even helpful uh to grasp of for US Internet users to browse the reality and the complexity of the of of the Internet today let's be clear about something all governments everywhere in the world are worried about how the Internet is shape in society today and how it is uh impacts in on all structures of power whether it's political or
economic power so make a mean be assured that they will do all they can to you know mitigate that impacts on those structures of power even here in the EU legislators seem to be very keen in issuing a number of copyright laws and to try to control the way you express itself freely on the Internet or the way you innovate or shared it's all think about what actor people also but would have had as as an impact on your way of expressing yourself on the internet all and now it's my turn I mean as as a rights activists I have a number of preconceptions and ideas of all the internet I wanna show with every wouldn't you
think that today would you technology and circumvention tools and everything maybe governments are afraid of the technology well that I know that that's a server popular idea on but I would actually say that the Internet makes it easier than ever for governments to sensor and surveil citizens I know any government if it wants to you can have a lot of control over the networks in its country it so that it can block content where wants to work were monitored people went lights and private
platforms offer governments a great opportunity as well there they can monitor citizen anything about activists journalists against people we work with I and they can also use those platforms to promote their own policy agendas OK fair enough but but would would would you say that the the biggest threats for freedom expression aligned today come
primarily from governments and corporations well I would say that those are really really big threat but they're not the only sources of our problems for this community and other we sort of we have to think more about other actors and 1 example that I did it is found Bangladesh right now there are a massive protests happening on a concerning God some of the a trial of its and you might stress from the the excuse me I you might violations of a committed 1971 on and
what has happened is there a lot of bloggers to survive a prominent role in these demonstrations and they have been persecuted actually by the government but also by religious fundamentalist groups that are found actually threatening the their physical safety so it's important a keep in mind that that it is only the sort of official actors but also on informal you know just other other people in society can presented threats to sure so we talked about you know those minutes and we had this conversation just to highlight uh the contrast between what is a preconceived about the internet today and what is reality as we proceed with our perception of the reality of the Internet today uh on on the internet so today we wanna talk about real people and we wanna talk about uh the problems they face on the complex Internet of today and why I wanna talk about this because it's because freedom of expression is the core of an of our Organization which is go Voices Advocacy and we know as well uh that freedom of expression should be at the core of any open Internet if there is anything of that kind of data and most people that would never feel free or C for comfortable enough to to express themselves freely if they feel that there is an eye hanging over their heads and that they are so constantly so we're going to going to talk about concrete examples that we have experienced through our work on the voices think so yeah so globalvoices I sense a lot of you familiar with the network but for those lines and we are a large network of writers from 120 countries around the world and we all contribute to 1 site and as Hisham said our project is really devoted to focusing on issues of free expression and privacy online and thinking about how these problems affect real people sort of at a at a personal level or at a community level so i'm this start out by talking on about a particular example that I know well which is higher that of surveillance in Cuba and give as a country that does not get a ton of attention in the digital rights face making part of the reason for that is that there's a whole lot known about it I choose this example because it's been a focus for me but also because the the surveillance paradigm there is provides a really good counter-example to on a lot of conversations about surveillance in the digital rights community and I think that's true because this is a place where physical surveillance and sort of real life surveillance is so common in pervasive that the issue of digital surveillance is almost a secondary concern for a lot of people using the Internet there on someone is to start with this picture and I wanted to talk a little bit about the way that surveillance works in Cuba at a grassroots level i on any given city block in Havana and in every small town around the country there is usually 1 house let's imagine it's like this pink house right here is really 1 house on the block and where family lives that family represents the Committee for the Defense of the Revolution and the Committee is charged with are helping people understand social policies maybe sort of raising political solidarity when necessary necessary but I whoever is sort of a household leader there also is in charge of paying attention to block watching people listening to us what's going on listening to rumors gasses and this person keeps a log of what she learns and then occasionally US state security person will come by and collect that log so this is happening imagine this another somebody on every block is doing so you would you end up with is this kind of it's not a feeling of this being a status of big government looking down on everybody in watching but it's sort of like everybody is watching each other and oftentimes this isn't necessarily just a matter of I'm to report on you because I want is support for the government but rather are under report on you because I'm doing this other black market thing and I don't want you know I want this security officer to look the other way so I mean it's on you set so this is a strange economy of favors that is developed from within the system and it happens at this community block it also happens on with employers at 80 per cent of the working population in Cuba is employed by the government so that leads to a situation where everybody is sort of watching each their and your boss kind it takes notes on you when if there's something happens that she feels like she needs to report you know that could result in trouble for you later on it might not have have had the feeling that something could happen is very pervasive very strong so 1 of the tasks that sort of basically the land I wanted to talk about on what this means for bloggers and and you know what we call medicines in the country that given a small community in a very obvious 1st bloggers and some of them have made a very powerful statement about anonymity and they and an empty anonymity Stephen where they say we don't think it's worth because we know you know you know you're being watched on the street you know being watched by a neighbor and furthermore if I if I use a pseudonym online that makes it seem like I think there's something wrong with what I'm saying so some bloggers like this is Claudia Canelones really really fantastic but she is gone so far as to actually put her national ID card a scan of the ID on the home page for blogs you see right here it's gotta is that a ID number name the date of birth a thumb print the whole thing the number of them done and I think you know serve incredibly bold statement about the reality there which has actually Johnny Sanchez who is another very very famous Varga from Cuba who was here on Monday on you know she said the best way to conceal information it's to not have any information you can see on and yawning actually edges just before this is her her blog which is actually blocked in Germany until yesterday velocity days and matches on its back down and then to say but I you wanting actually to get a step even further and she she took these pictures of the guys to follow her these 2 dudes stand outside of her apartment all day and she's sort of play with the turk on them essentially 2 pictures that and most of them on her blog the she surveilling her surveillance I
don't think the the the only certain powerful statements the different bloggers in the country have made about you know just how certain extreme the situation is but the other thing that I would urge everybody to keep in mind on this topic is that there are a lot of people who are willing to take these kinds of ESCs because they have families to protect their families to support on it's very easy to lose your job in Cuba if you are really critical of the government and I think something that we face a lot of ways is is an issue of how old at did Diaconis have to go all the way do you have to cross this threshold or can you I'm still sort of be a really strong advocate for rights while still protecting like your own you know your own family in your own sort of personal interest things that are also really important to in your life sure he's so let me now if I may give you another example from my own personal experience and to show you how the offline world than the old technique of surveillance and fear have are you know gradually creeping into the online world and making freedom of expression more of a dangerous uh activity to have uh so but let me tell you about my my own personal story uh in back to fit this picture was taken back in February 2011 and these are the 1st if you are 1 nucleus of Moroccan uh protesters who took to the streets to the kind of emulate what was happening in neighboring Tunisia where the the Arab revolutions sources and and Morocco as you know is North West Africa as the moles of western tip of Africa and that there was so much I mean into the ASM and hope for the future and people felt liberated by that wave of pro-democracy process that was sweeping across the region and actually started on the internet on Facebook because at the time the feeling was that I could start a movement on the Internet without fear of retribution I can be completely anonymous I can protect my identity and I can start something on the real world and that's what happened that enthusiasm somehow uh led to something real and as you know to topple many of those terrible regimes in the region so the the proof that 1 of the slogans in Morocco was uh 0 and non together a that a word that was used by many protesters was Memphis Kintsch modification is Moroccan Arabic we want to give up we would not never give up and that's slogan I was used across the street across uh the country in different cities different villages and wild that that this was happening in the mainstream media in Morocco the national medium oracle which is mainly owned by the state in Morocco was not reporting about was was happening on on the ground it was like not nothing was happening in the country and the mainstream media Reuters and big news agencies were not reporting about what was going and going on in America maybe because it wasn't dramatic enough so I guess it wasn't sexy enough to be reported uh on on on the mainstream media so with a couple of friends we decided to use the slogan and create a website which we called them fucking ch we would not give up and in a matter of months 6 months and we had a tremendous traffic uh almost a million Internet the unique Internet users in the 1st 4 of 6 months and we were reported on process with what you see on the bottom is a map of protease we were doing that weekly documents in pro-democracy protease in Morocco but as the the the the website grew in popularity and so was started to receive a tax uh from different the different kinds of attacks is sort of by the did US attack when suddenly but overnight the website was taken off we could couldn't the axonal 1 could access the website and then along the summer of 2 chosen and 12 last year but we received a series of e-mails which we discovered later were infected by a very sophisticated piece of spyware and we asked for help from our friends from around the world and also the from the effect of differences lab and others who volunteered to help us identify that kind of threat and help us also keen on machine a protect our identities because mind you we were almost 30 to 40 volunteers behind the words out of the time most of us highly educated some of us but uh lawyers international lawyers journalists medical doctors in some cases and so they were repetitions and and people I mean protected the anonymity that was the guarantee that's why they were forthcoming and then volunteer to work for the website and our friends from overseas could identify the kind of virus that we were infected by it's called the sheet it's manufactured by an Italian company based in Milan and it was sold to a series of powerful and rich clients we can speculate that these guys can be governments uh and it will send all over the place too many online activists in Morocco why am I tell you the story I'm not saying that Kintsch was unique in its case actually we were lucky because no 1 was got arrested no 1 was killed no 1 was threatened and we know that our friends in other parts of the world were not as lucky as we were because some people in in by frame for example received a similar attack by another kind of of of spyware manufactured in the UK by a company called uh gamma and the virus itself was called in Fisher uh and some of them got arrested some of them were tortured but what I'm so what I'm tell you this story to give you the personal account of someone who was behind the volunteer projects with a lot of people who were very forthcoming but southerly they just left because there was so much at stake and we started in 2011 with 30 volunteers behind the Web site now it's only 3 4 active volunteers and mostly comes from the and intended to sequences of these cyber attacks and it is a psychological and a very powerful emotional component that is rarely talked about in rare reports the mainstream media how activists need a or the infrastructure of the Internet is changing so much that with governments get into the business by those very
powerful and very expensive piece of software and basically destroying and disrupting what was once the very dynamic and very free of aligned space where people could very safely participate to create content without putting their repetition of their lives online it in the lines on the thing system so here just those are the 3 things that we feel like kind of learns from these in a lot of other experiences of people on our network and on different bloggers that we've written about are learned about in our work and and and this is that you know in different places they're profoundly different ideas about security anonymity and privacy and this is this is based on real unique experiences in any kinds of governments on different countries need different technologies that respond to all these different factors known using were different a lot of and then just that there is a man psychological component to this work on and it's and it is different from person to person and we sort of we would like very much to move away from the idea of activists as as being serve all the seem and from the idea that that you're only existing online on that this is happening you know as part of a person's real life and often affects them from a real even sometimes physical way who so now we would like to move on to another example actually is the last example but it's very of somehow emblematic of what's going on in the new Internet and and a lot of countries on the example as I mentioned earlier is Bangladesh this year AT and major figure in that Islamist party there I Abdul father will love was have put before her a war crimes tribunal and he was found guilty of hundreds of counts of human rights violations in Bangladesh's our liberation war from Pakistan in 1971 so he was he was found guilty of all of these different counts of murder rape torture etc. and he was sentenced to life in prison but this is a country where impunity is so endemic I'm and people people essentially expected that much of the public said we assure that this person is going to be released from jail within a few years so this massive public movement has developed there since February in which people are demanding the death penalty for this man a Adams bloggers have played a major role in mobilizing these protests that have not seen now I think hundreds of thousands of people I am so regions gonna talk just a little bit about what the what we've seen specifically what what happened these bloggers so that you think there is happening is is no longer governments or corporations who are threatening the freedom of expression of them politically motivated bloggers they're still threatening and are still is not only them but now you have very powerful and and usually violence actors who entry into the scene in the case of Bangladesh you have a very violent uh Islamist group who has indeed but it you know form entered the murder of a blogger in central Dhaka in public he was killed by a mob because of his writings or lines that they threaten the number of mothers and their families and also they went so far as to issue of blacklist of bloggers who were accused of what you know that the blasphemous writings and indeed 3 of them were arrested already a 4th was was right was arrested uh recently and we see this person you know across many countries across many regions of the world not only in the mean of the Middle East or South Asia but also in other parts of the world like Mexico where bloggers have to face you know drug cartels and very vibrant individuals and who threaten the lights uh because of what they write online and so I guess actually wanted to add 1 important sort of other thing that has happened in Bangladesh just recently the country actually doesn't have a blasphemy law but on some Islamist groups and our leaders within the government are pushing for the government to pass a blasphemy on and this it given that as a country that actually does honor people's right to free expression is we find this troubling and disappointing I'm so like we said earlier we certainly brought these cases today to illustrate some things that we've observed about the kind of personal level experiences that bloggers in medicines have are having today with all of these sort of that's diverse range of threats that they face and on we also bring them because they serve illustrate a lot of things about the Internet that upset us from and we want what we would like is an Internet that is actually different from the way that the real world works and you know the early Internet actually did kind of have some characteristics like that but as we move forward it starts to look more and more like the world the physical world around us that we already know on there are political economic cultural power structures that have been reproduced in of existed for a long time to be reproduced online and we're on the you know this happened because of choices that governments and companies have made on so this rate actually I mean the goal behind this of this presentation is basically uh to tell you about the challenges we face as medicine reporters as people who are connected to real people and they're reporting that we face in Victoria Chen challenges but we also face challenges in terms of how to advocate for those cases those new cases that are emerging and that are rarely all seldom uh reported on the mainstream media and so we had to talk about the web as we wanted uh and uh we want a uh a world in which everyone is online and we also want an internet in which the infrastructure itself is designed in a way to protect you and everyone to be able to create content without fear of retribution to be able to share freely communicate collaborate without a 3rd party a government corporation or any other group come into the picture and preventing you from using that medium that was initially designed to be yours basically so this is what our community Global Voices Advocacy the guys is so you saw earlier this is what we are
doing this is what we are are uh you know struggling each day to do this is just part of the community because it's all a thousand people and then we just wanted to see the reminder of this goofy method busting exercise we did at the beginning the talking to say that is thing is important to bus these nets and to kind of continued to be critical of ourselves and our own community and in how we think about this stuff because this is all moving really fast it's hard to understand but it's really critical for us to understand what we actually have the challenges that were actually facing because only then can we start to figure out how to solve these problems absolutely well 65 years ago uh the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights you know that says the following everyone has a right to freedom of opinion and expression this right this right includes freedom of to hold opinions without interference and to seek receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers we would find this definition is very close to the kind of ideal Internet that we want and it's amazing that has been issued 65 years ago so the question is how we today any closer to this ideal than we were 65 years ago probably yes but there are still many things to do and Our feeling through our ports in is that we may be losing the better right now because of those new axes that are come into the picture and with their powerful money and structures we may be losing that battle so this presentation is actually an invitation for you guys to support our work as a community as a network as a global network and also an invitation to join the voices advocacy which is a network of volunteers so you're very welcome to contact us right after the presentation or to send us e-mails or software and we find a way to make their voices heard be the name of it and so I think we have this content western saying yeah if you have questions about the questions but you might the figure reminders of the of the of the URL for that website least is that is 1 this was more our a friend of a friend part of the community Georgia wine and I'm just pull it up here right now but if you have any questions feel very welcome to ask them the it's start lecture there's a question the the we have time for questions so I would like to know and according to you worries Morocco with an automated so the youngest of the Internet do they monitor the web or do they not the monitor the web but do they know well in the case of Morocco uh the let's say the friend would look at a couple of French companies are very uh active in selling a powerful you know spine technology to the to the Moroccan government we know that through independent reporters who are based in France basically uh and the that was the that do there was an article earlier last year about this system called the popcorn it's a very powerful software that is similar in many points to and other software by the same company called Eagle and that was sold to Gaddafi in during the unity of the Revolution there and it was discovered in in Bonn bunkers and in offices of the secret police after the revolution and we're told that the same kind of software is being also used now by the Moroccan government the capacity and ability of such but you know the technology that goes beyond any that in terms of you know uh and covering crimes or anti-terrorist efforts is is capable of literally so in the whole of uh population by intercepting e-mails and services and what have you so there is a trend that the there is a pattern across a region where governments move from a situation where they were somehow agnostic to the fact that the Internet could play a role in impacting uh on those old structure of police states basically into a situation where now the really believe that the Internet is a threat and there are investing in the right money to get the right technology to be
able to to to watch their their all population so that's the situation local and I'm a pretty short it's happening across the board thank yeah hi I'm Daniel reporter writing on the activists around the world mostly focusing on climate change and my question would be can you give some sort of sketch some which way you kind of see and the fight to kind of take back to the free Internet and how to do that which kind of of alliances to build which kind of measures to take and use you spoke about you know on embedding freedom and kind of into the infrastructure and I think I see that as a big battle to come in the next that that's already going on and probably the biggest battle in the next i don't know 5 to 10 years and so my question is basically how do you do that how do what you think what what's next of stuff question and I don't I don't you know I think that down there are different pieces to the challenge by I guess and say from our perspective that the you know the network actually is built to be pretty open so technically speaking infrastructure is there some governments of actually started to really change it but for the most part it's not a question structure it's a question of on what kinds of uh tools and software and whatever kinds of technologies is sort of food put on top of it to monitor people to block sites etc. and so what who were the actors there it's the companies that make the products and then the governments that use them so that's why get general that has a big focus the work on 1 hand to say governments listen like you've made some commitments internationally to protecting upholding free expression and privacy those need to be carried out not just in you know society in a real space but also online that's a really tough thing to do but at least I believe that the national policy level is it is really really important to sort continue to push for this stuff in most places in some countries it that there's very little to be gained their I i everywhere pushing on companies and really trying to expose the things they're doing and really trained engage the public in caring about what happens to the information and what happens to the words I I think that that is hugely can be hugely powerful and that you know there've been some companies have made some small changes that actually reflect you know some interest in keeping their customers happy and of keeping their customers happy requires them to be a little more careful with data and when they decided handed over to the government that's that's good news this is the question that we raised of other actors I think it's just a huge challenge and very context-specific an iron it's sort of like it's very hard to know what from what what you do there by that the you know there's a lot of work to do so will now check in 10 years and see where we are are they can just add very quickly to this I think that Internet uses somehow we are too individualistic for our include the fact that we have been so much you know the the the the fact that each 1 of us is in in his own a private space working on his own and not caring about what's going on in that you know in other places of the world is somehow harm into our ability as Internet users to face huge new challenges in huge anniversaries uh on the internet so there is there is a trend right now that's what that's my feeling that towards aggregating those efforts and that's what and a goal was that looks is all about it's a network of networks basically you have little islands of Internet users each fighting the fights in their own corner of the world but we fill the gap between them we translate a from language to language we tell the stories from region to region so that you in Germany can be aware of what's going on in Morocco for example because it's been written originally in Arabic we picked up the story we translated it and put it on the web site is really personal stories tell the personal story and connecting the dots between those Internet users that are so vulnerable you know individually but so powerful if they come together any more questions the but b and thank you for your attention Thank you the drop the
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Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Myths of the Open Internet: Bust Them and Get Busy
Serientitel re:publica 2013
Anzahl der Teile 132
Autor Roberts Biddle, Ellery
Almiraat, Hisham
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 3.0 Deutschland:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen und das Werk bzw. diesen Inhalt auch in veränderter Form nur unter den Bedingungen dieser Lizenz weitergeben.
DOI 10.5446/33484
Herausgeber re:publica
Erscheinungsjahr 2013
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Informatik
Abstract The Internet is an open, public space. The Internet is the same in most countries, except for places like China and Iran. These are two common "myths" about the Internet that many users, particularly those in the industrialized north, seem to believe. And in many cases, these ideas have been used by activists in campaigns aimed at protecting the open web. And yet we know they are not true: roughly 90% of online space is owned by private companies, most of which are based in the US or Western Europe. Mainstream media tend to focus on extreme examples of Internet policy and practice in authoritarian countries, but it’s clear that every government in the world is concerned about how the Internet changes society and what this means for their ability to lead or control a nation. And users in every country face different challenges -- political, economic, and technological -- when it comes to using the Internet.

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