It's not a fax machine connect to a waffle iron

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It's not a fax machine connect to a waffle iron
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Lawmakers treat the Internet like it's Telephone 2.0, the Second Coming of Video on Demand, or the World's Number One Porn Distribution Service, but it's really the nervous system of the 21st Century. Unless we stop the trend toward depraved indifference in Internet law, making -- and freedom -- will die.
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without a a home Hume and
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mentioned that logic models because that that the latter this inside the mind him nor were interviews begin markets you fit in its
me mood of the blue bill because slums if the rights in the Gulu since bill from Signed by
typing highest avers that is is niece and a fax machine of a bond them lies in by them it scans the Nomad acts come alive as assigning a this ever extend his Cory Doctorow edition the it and
and that and and thank you all couldn't augmented them
inherent like so many dumb anglos before me I'm going to go to a foreign country and speak English high but
when I start speaking too fast please do this and all slow down the I have a story to tell you to start this off that that a friend of mine told me used to work for 1 of the big packaged goods companies these the companies like you ever proctor and gamble that really perfected package product marketing and life cycle marketing where they sell you a bunch of stuff every time your life changes when you get born when you go to school when you get married and so on and then those are very marketing driven companies as you might imagine and so the marketing departments they go off and they have little uh were treats where they come to figure out what they're going to the next products are going to be and they they test them in the market they do research in they come back to the engineering force SMEs OK here's which gonna next so 1 day the marketing department came into the chemical engineering department said we've got a we've done a lot of surveys people want to laundry detergent that makes the close newer yeah we've done all the testing everybody likes this idea so the engineers they tried unsuccessfully to explain the 2nd law of thermodynamics to the marketing department and after a while they realized that the entropy was something lost on these people and that moreover these people where their bosses and so they were going to have to figure out how to make detergent that major close newer but the more they thought about it the more they realized that the out marketing people were under a delusion about the definition of newness what does Nunes mean well if you're a technical person newness is this art localized state of reversed entropy where things are more orderly than they were
before of your marketing person newness is the property of looking or feeling newer and that's where the solution came from because they realize that they've been playing with this
enzyme they get activated and hot water and that enzyme attacked in a fiber ends the ends of fibers now broken fiber has twice
as many ends as an intact fiber and broken fibers are what make close look old so by putting this enzyme in low and the washing powder they could make your close looking were when they came under the watch now they weren't actually knew where they were much
much older when they're gone through the wash because they had been partially digested by the wash water right every time you wash your close In this enzyme they would be partially digested and after not very many washes you would have just a rag with holes in it but it satisfied that delusional non-technical definition of new workflows and since in the era of
globalization many of us replace are close before we wear them out even with the help of these hot
water enzymes nobody was hurt it was a harmless delusion but not every delusion is harmless and that's what I wanna talk to you about today but now it
cannot have escaped your notice that we increasingly live in a world that is made out of computers most of our houses are computers that we put our bodies into their buildings were if you remove
the computers from them they would cease to be habitable in short order they are
thought functionally just giant elaborate cases for computers that we happen to live in likewise your car is a computer that hurdles down the art on and 120 kilometers an hour with you trapped inside of it surrounded by other people in their own computers likewise hurtling down the road the 747 that the Americans and the audience flew from the United States to Berlin and to get here that is a
flying saucer Solaris box in a very fancy aluminum case attached to some tragically badly can secured scholar controllers we live in a world made of computers but we don't
just put our bodies into computers we increasingly put computers into our bodies those of you who are younger than me in your twenties your members of the iPod generation was if you're my age or older were
members of the Walkman generation but no matter what our age we have all logged-in of punishing here but ours that come the day if
we live long enough we will all have
hearing aids now it's vanishingly unlikely that those hearing aids will be hipster retro beige analog plastic devices with the transistor they will be computers that we put in
our bodies with the power to
hear what we here to stop us from hearing things selectively to make us here things that aren't there and even to tell other people what we're
hearing everything we do in our world involves computers today and that means that every problem we have in our world also involves computers today and that means that increasingly are policymakers are regulators are politicians and our police are going to look to regulating computers and controlling computers as a way of solving social problems now as it turns out that we're in the midst of a long-running 15 year experiment in achieving Policy Goals through the regulation of computers and if we examine that experiment in detail and we can get a glimpse of what the future that might look like now of course I'm talking about the copyright wars digital rights management has been around
for a long time it predates the use of the term digital rights management that is to say digital rights management is older than digital rights management out and back in the 19 eighties we have lots of DRM
schemes in the field that we tested in the name of preventing copying of floppy disks that reduce distributed through retail channels or in the name of protecting satellite signals and so on and so forth now if you can remember those
days you will remember that none of that DRM actually worked uh it was just rubbish because conceptually was trying to
do something impossible the idea was that you have a supplier record company
software company a satellite company and they would make a scrambled message available to you but a scrambled movie gain uh song and then they would give you a program to the scrambler and they would trust that the program would not tell you the secret key that it was using to the scramble and they would trust that when the program was done the scrambling that the file that they giving you that it would throw that follow way and they would trust that
neither the king or the file whatever be stored somewhere where you could get otherwise you might just the décrit the file and throw away the encrypted file for away the stupid player they gave you and just just
pass around the file and now this is kind of like a cargo cult version of security but it doesn't really stand up to inspection in real cryptography we have the idea that there is a sender and a receiver and somewhere in the middle of them is an adversary who can't be trusted is eavesdropping on that is you have Alice and Bob who have some kind of shared secret a key that they share i and in order communicate in secret other use that key and Carroll who is in the middle of Alice and Bob is assumed to be able to intercept the message they're sending and to know what system using send but not to have the key the key is something that only Alice and Bob no it's the shared
secret but in the voodoo cryptography world of digital rights management you have a decoding after that you give to the adversary that has the key in otherwise the app can decoder and
it has to do not make the message that the file it has to make it into an intelligible file a cleartext following unscrambled file on hardware that belongs to the person who on it you don't want to have access to the unscrambled file that is you're giving the bad guy the means to unscramble the file with the expectation that he will unscramble the file and then hoping that he won't do
anything you don't like with it so it's not Alice and Bob versus Carol adjust Alice verses ball and you got Bob
sending Alice the file that's scrambled the keys to unscramble and and the system to use those keys to unscramble at but he assumes that palaces too stupid to figure out how to save that file on your hard drive in the clear or get the keys and the app is given here this is bob engaging in what we might call wishful thinking because in reality there's not just 1 Alice everybody in the world who has some interest in getting at the stuff that's been locked up In Bob's done DRAM is Alice has and as soon as 1
of them extracts the keys because that person happened to have electron tunneling microscope or so deep and R D compiler or some kind of wizard
like facility with technology and then everybody in the world's but gets access to all the files that I've ever been protected with that system and you know if Alice that smart she can just share the keys she's extracted or the file she's extracted or the instructions for sharing key issues extracted it all comes out to the same thing from the beginning it was a fool's errand but this is a break once break everywhere exercise in futility that can prevent copying as sometimes when you
talk to people who still advocate this weird idea they'll tell you 0 no it doesn't stop
copying but it's at a speed bump what we call in Britain weirdly enough a sleeping policeman the call speed bump and I love them that and this is just a speed bump
but it presents no speed bump it's in fact is just the opposite the speed bump is between the people who want to do the right thing and their enjoyment of the media because if you've
got a player and you've got the encrypted media and you wanna play you gonna use that slightly broken slightly weird player to get out and you can't do anything it
prohibits whereas and if you are someone who doesn't care about doing the right thing you got access to these files that are infinitely reproducible there there effect continent so the company releasing the official files neuters them before it sends them out right so they can't reproduce the pirates they have ones that can breed like rabbits so it's not a speed bump it's just the opposite it's as as anyone who ever like me has has gone out and bought a DVD with the intention of ripping into the hard drive and then realize that the optical drivers of the officer might already paid for it all just downloaded from the Pirate Bay knows there is no speed bump at the speed bump is only there if you're doing the right thing so that for this talk is about the harm that arises from trying to selectively breaker technology to solve a social problem with reference to the copyright wars that when we have discussions about digital rights management we often get distracted with pointless arguments arguments like if you put the DRM on a file with that generate new sales or will cost you sales or is DRM fair does it prohibit things that would otherwise be permissible under fair dealing and fair use or 1 is DRM a good business strategy for the entertainment industry or even does DRM work does it prevent copying but these are the wrong sorts of questions to
ask I mean they're good questions to ask if you're
me if you're an artist trying to pay your rent with with copyrighted works it makes sense to know the answers to those questions but
from the perspective of a policy maker from the perspective of a computer scientists from the perspective of someone who is outside the tiny little rump that is the entertainment industry against a wider society these questions are totally beside the point now as it happens I I happen to think that DRM reduces sales can accommodate fair use fair dealing sabotages entertainment companies in their interests and doesn't prevent copying but like I said that shouldn't matter to anyone except for the tiny minority of people who happen to be in my industry the entertainment industry for the wider society theorems effects are independent of those questions that is even if DRM was good for sales even if it was totally fair even if it was great for the entertainment industry and wholly effective we should still be against it on grounds that are far more important than any of those and to
understand why we have to unpack some of
our nerd complacency and realize that it's impossible to talk about technology
questions without examining and weighing legal code at the same time that we consider software code earlier I alluded to the rules about DRM of the World Intellectual Property Organization makes those rules WIPO French in the about WIPO is the UN specialized agency in charge of global copyright treaties they all have the same relationship to bad copyright law that more door has to evil and in 1996 WIPO past a pear trees the WIPO Copyright Treaty and the WIPO Phonograms and performers treaty the WCT
none of you ppt the 2 most important treaties you've never heard of and these
created a whole bunch of special protections for digital rights management they made it illegal to break
digital rights management they made it illegal to take the keys from a digital rights management system they made legal to tell someone how to get the keys at a digital rights management system they made legal to host those keys or host the instructions for extracting them and they made it illegal to make tools that automated extracting keys and moreover they made rules that said that Web host and other intermediaries from you to to Twitter to are the ones that were around back in the nineties and into the nineties we had bulletin board systems and tin cans and string up must unquestionably and immediately remove the files that are claimed to be in violation of those roles or they face being
named as parties to the infringement in any eventual lawsuit that arises and they in those lawsuits have the statutory damages that can be
piled up to farcical heights 250 thousand dollars per active infringement in the United States now where did I get us well it made it illegal to reverse engineer or interoperate with any technology that had any DRM in and that's a pretty sweet set up if you're commercial company as the other place on the real world of DVDs as an example in DVDs at the market in 1996 they are not hard to interoperate with and you know they're made with the same presses that make our CDs their red with the same drives you can get software that allows you to read and write those files with them and do things with them but if you want to legally do anything with the DVD you have to license the keys for motion picture studios that control those keys because it's illegal to extract the keys to share the keys to host the keys to use the keys even though they been extracted long time ago by Norwegian teenager his friends and they be floating around the Internet for a better part of a decade you have to pretend that those keys are there otherwise you're breaking the law now is a condition of licensing those keys the companies that
control them make you sign a document in which you promised to do a lot of other things that have nothing to do with piracy instead they have everything to do with profit
maximization for example you have to implement unstoppable adds up if you've got kids in USA the buying Disney DVDs you'll know that there's sometimes 20 or 30 minutes for the balance of the server the DVD skipping those ads is not piracy but implementing the UN's capable that is mandatory for all DVD players yet implement region checking now I
know in europe it's very common to go out and buy a region free DVD player which you may not know is that all of those companies that make region free
DVD players are breaking the law violating their contracts and it's only because the people who control the keys I forgot to ask their stakeholders for enough money to litigate that they're not suing them Blu-ray on the other hand when that assertion was consolidated they did raise a fund explicitly to sue people who made region free players and you will not see region free DVD players in the high street anytime soon and finally if you're going to implement the DVD keys you have to promise to implement something called robustness their robustness means that your does your system has to be designed to be robust against user modification that has to be designed so that users can change the system I wasn't mean to make us a DVD player that is resistant to user modifications or after the keys of a while for a decade how can you make something users that modifiable resistance to well we can argue about what is or
isn't resistant but 1 thing we can be sure of is that if you wanna make a technology that is licensed and that license
comes from something like a Free Software Foundation the Free Software Foundation has as a licensing condition that must be released with code in the preferred form of the work for making modifications that is to say as a condition of the license you must make it modifiable by users that that is not resistant to use or modification those 2 things are compatible which means that
digital rights management effectively bans free and open source software you
cannot implement digital rights management in a platform that allows the user to go in and
set the allow this to be copied 0 times that and changes to allow this to be copied 20 million times otherwise it ceases to be an effective system of controlling use the now why does it matter if you can interoperate with the system well there's lots of good reasons to
interoperate but 1 a crucial 1 is innovation there are lot of companies that don't see value in adding features to their
products they may decide that a certain markets too small for them this is something that people with sensory and physical disabilities know all too well you don't presented a market to the company that's big enough for them to add the accessibility feature and the absence of robust regulation forcing them to do it you were left is a 2nd class citizens in Los you or your friends or the Royal National Institute for the Blind or some other institution can get together and add that feature for themselves but of course they can't when there's a ban on
interoperability or sometimes companies don't want to implement a feature
because omitting it makes them more money than they would make by selling out something that they could otherwise that for themselves is selling something to users that users could otherwise take for free and back when I was working on European digital rights management for televisions at the DVB you know that that that DVB logo on the side of your TB their standards body in a standardized they called CPC which is uh DRM for televisions and 1 of the flags that they're pro gr
and people wanted was a flag that said if you're watching TV in 1 room but the receiver had to be in the same
room as you otherwise it wouldn't work so you couldn't run a wireless re transmitter from your sitting room your bedroom or into another room and I when I asked about this I
asked what that was the use case for this initially there's no law that says you're not allowed to watch TV in 1 room of the receivers in another the representative for the Motion Picture Association of America said watching TV in 1 room when the receiver is in another room has value and
if it has value we want charge money
for it this is the urinary tract infection business model right now all of the features for your TV common kind of healthy robust gosh but under this proposal everything would come in a painful direct every button on your remote would have a price tag on it so again back to DVDs DVDs have been out since 1996 and not 1
feature has been added to them since 1996 the lot lot suite of lawful activities you're allowed to do with your DVDs in 2013 is
the same as it was nearly 20 years ago you are legally allowed to watch your DVDs period now I have a little bit Duncan
experiment said at a German word and have a little bit Duncan experiments go back to 1996
and walk into something suitably anachronistic
like a Tower Records and by a thousand euros worth of DVDs and a thousand euros worth of CDs and stick them in a vault wait 10 years open the
vault 2006 well with the CDs they have matured your investment is mature it's not usual for technology investment to mature you know I I spent the dot com years unwisely investing
all my our spare money in laptops and that they did not mature in
value and but the CDs
of maturity value because now you can just listen to them you can rip them you can put money MP3 player you can make ring tones and then you can make a lot of that you can stream then you can match them up you can put them on a remote server you can stick in the class there are so many things you can do with those CDs that was the dividend that
interoperability got for you the DVDs nothing the missing dividend for DVDs is something that
was taken from you and transferred to large entertainment
companies and that is what you get when you
add DRM to any technology all the stuff that you might seize for yourself or the other industry parties or interested public interest groups might add to that technology those are entirely in the in the scope of 1 company the company that originated the DRM but interoperability is only the 1st order casualty of DRM and I've saved the most dire consequences of durum for last and that's transparency Honey make DRM work effectively to make DRM work you
have to have an empty feature in your device here beautiful device with a glowing apple on the front of it has to watch what you do and wait for you to do something that you're not supposed to do like gum install software that didn't come from the
Apple store and then some process that has been working in the device unbeknownst to you has to flowed up to the surface and say instead of yes Master it has to say I can't let you do that they've well
the because of but there is no other
way to do it you can remove the running code that I can compile feature you have to have a program running that that has a I I
check to see whether all code has been signed by Apple before it's run that program we can call it like hell 9 thousand . EXE that has to be living somewhere on your computer and moreover if it's Livingston on your
computer where you can find it it has to be somehow are protected against you dragging it into the trash because there's no market for it nobody woke up this morning and said
I wish I had a device that didn't let me run suffer from stories that I want to buy from and only for 1 store that people have
people may bite in spite of that but no one's bought because of a and so on that that program that how my thousand IDX C has to be part of a larger system in your computer designed to lie to you
about your computer so when you go into a directory new list that directory out and say is there a program called HAL 9 thousand of EXE in this directory the computer
assessing no may you may remember there an old style info con game the Douglas Adams may The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy game there was 1 room in that game is the most frustrating thing there's 1 room in the game where you going you'd say look and it would say there's nothing here you type look again and would say there is nothing here you type look again it was a really there's nothing here you type look again at set of OK there's something here unless you do that
you couldn't possibly win the game that that was a very funny thing for Douglas Adams to do in his text adventure but it is not how a devices should
work by default and
not only do you devices need to lie to you about what files are in their
directories they also have to lie to you about what processes are running because even if you can't find the file you may
look at the process Monitor and say is not program running on my computer called HAL 9 thousand EXE and if so kill it with fire kill my you know pseudo kill minus 9 that some that's right nobody
wants HAL 9 thousand Audi EXE running on the program and so you also need a computer that when you say tell me about all the processes running on
you blind itself and so as I can't see this process and that's that's how DRM works fundamentally that's what Sony
did not in 2005 when the ship the Sony rootkit this was a audio CD you put
it in your computer they should that 6 million audio CDs 51 titles 1 1 from a Canadian artist Selene the on I apologize on behalf of Canada both from is the on and for that city and they ship them out we put the CD
in your driver had little on are on file that would spark of a program that would pass your computer's kernel so that it sums it wouldn't run but it wouldn't see any program that started with dollar sign SYS dollars sign so the program file listings wouldn't listed out our process listings would show and they wrote onto your computer a program that started at boot time that look for you ripping CDs and if it tried to if it's all you trying rip CD which shut off OK so you know we can argue about whether not ripping CDs is a legitimate thing or not but here's the thing they put a moat in your computers I think even a blind spot because it could no longer see programs asserted dollar sign SYS dollar sign they could no longer detect them if they were running so virus writers immediately started to prepend every virus they shipped with dollar sign as wires dollar sign I mean why wouldn't they
right they were the opportunistic infections rushing in to fill the hole that
Sony had punched through your computer's immune system Dan Kaminsky the security researcher did some back-of-the-envelope work using DNS calls from from
this piece of software and estimated that it had been installed on 300 thousand US government and military networks right so this stuff but that's what you get when you when
you build the stuff emo in your computer in your computer's I and that is the true cost of DRM when you add Dr into a system you create a legal requirement for opacity and an injunction against reporting weak security because anytime you tell someone about how a DRM works and what it's doing to your computer you run afoul of the rule that says you're not allowed to defeat DRM and that matters for reasons that are much more significant than the future of the entertainment industry now that this is not about whether information wants to be free or not but I I am sat down with information last week but we got a box of kleenex we we set denser require we had a glass of chardonnay we
cried we how do we talk to them and in the end information confessed something to me it only
once 1 thing from us and not for us to stop and the prom off izing it information wants nothing but people want to be free the computers in our pockets for computers we insert into our bodies and into which we insert our bodies have the power to liberate us or to enslave us when computers don't tell us what they're doing they expose us to horrible rests and when the law prohibits 3rd parties finding
out what our computers are doing and telling us about it those risks are magnified to get a sense of what those risks are in 2012 there I'm the Federal Trade Commission the US a regulatory body that deals with consumer rights in relation to companies entered into a settlement with 7 companies in the higher purchase or rent to own business that's for the you buy something on installments you pay for it 4 or 5 times
over but but if you can afford to pay for it in the 1st place it's worth doing
that if that thing is very important to you are these companies mostly what they what they did rent to own
on was laptops because it's very hard to be a citizen of the 21st century without a computer
without a laptop and so that was there that was their business and i be a company that they settled with was a our company called designer where in northeast Pennsylvania that made nt laptop theft software that ran a secret process the computer was blind to that allow them to remotely operate the camera and the microphone to read the hard drive but to read the keystrokes and to read the screen and the settlement that the 7 companies and the 8th software company entered into with the Federal Trade Commission they admitted that they had use this offer routinely and deliberately to record their customers having sex to video record their children in the new to eavesdrop on their conversations to gather their confidential our banking information and passwords their medical information and passwords their confidential conversations with their lawyers and you just can't read around on their hard drives looking for interesting stuff that the Federal Trade Commission up in the settlement just this
is neither here nor there for this talk but to give you an idea of
how badly wrong we get at the Federal Trade Commission told these 8 companies you have to stop this and can't do it anymore
unless Zuma to guess what the unless was unless you put it in the license agreement
yeah if somewhere in that long hair ball that says by being dumb enough to do business with us you agree a
relative a b hasn't punch grandmother and where your underwear make long-distance calls inkling that your fridge you stock also were allowed to video recorder children in the Newton make pornographic movies of you having sex with your partner and then it's OK I but it's not just private companies doing this it's governments companies like fin Fisher in the UK and the pen in France do business with some of the most our or horrifying dictatorships in the world taking versions of the software and selling around so that it can be used to infect computers of everyday people and helped dictators control their populations and governments not only create a market for and security vulnerabilities here because instead of having those vulnerabilities disclosed out to the vendors who then patch them the companies that discover them instead sell them to governments for a lot of money but they they eliminate competition for these companies by making it illegal to report on security vulnerabilities when they form part of a DRM system and so 1 of the things we've seen for example is this kind of malicious software disguised as iTunes updates which is doubly problematic because are any disclosure of the workings of iTunes is likewise likely to attract legal attention and lest you think that all this stuff particularly the hearing aids and computers are bodies sounds like science fiction let me remind you that last November a security researcher named Barnaby Jack gave a presentation in Australia on the work that he had done on and on implanted defibrillators not implanted defibrillators are amazing
technology if you have a problem with your heart if it loses the rhythm and puts you at risk your doctor she can
anesthetize you cut you open spread your ribs reach into your chest cavity and attach a computer with a battery directly to your heart and it listens to your heart beating if your heart loses the rhythm it gives you a little shock and with your heart back in rhythm and saves your life amazing technology that doctors wanna read the telemetry off of these things after they put them in your body and they want install new firmware for them and it's a bit messy to do that by cable because this thing is inside your chest cavity so they got a wireless interface everything has a wireless interface everything as rumors Wireless interface you're basically in a microwave oven now but for Burnaby Jack comes in from 10 meters away he could detect this implanted defibrillator over its Wireless interface and hijacker and reprogramming to locate other wireless defibrillators and reprogram them
and then give lethal shock to the people who have no these the wireless
defibrillators run on the embedded controllers that governments are looking for vulnerabilities to in order to engage in bizarre cyber war exercises like and like Stuxnet right they're
actively suppressing the disclosure of embedded controllers and instead building a market for secrecy in these vulnerabilities to make it harder for people to save their own lives at the start of this talk I said policymakers are gonna make prompt make this mistake forever because everything we do will have a computer in it and every problem will involve a computer in every problem will arrive at the same solution make me a computer that that does everything but doesn't run the program that causes this problem that we don't have a model for that there is no theoretical model in computer science for Turing-complete minus 1 a computer that can run all the code that we can compile except for the program that the voters don't like the closest we can come is a computer with spyware on it out of the box now some people say why does this matter after all the success of tablets has not says means that users don't want general purpose computers they only want
appliances but you can make an appliance that isn't built with spyware
out of the box a computer that's designed only to do 1 thing to be like your cable box but if that business model depends on that
device having a rootkit honor so that the users can decide to use it for something else or add a feature to it there's something wrong people do want appliances of course but they don't want their connect spying on them on behalf of the species extortionist on authoritarian states now as the masters of the technological universe we are contemptuous of DRM we know that we can defeat it with a wave of our debugger but that doesn't make it harmless our own complacency about this is the most dangerous thing the coming century hold a thousand fights over DRM over computers that say yes Master or say I can't let you do that day now I'm 1 of those cyber utopians and this is supposed
to be 1 of those cyber utopian gatherings and so you may be tempted to dismiss all this
as the folly of someone who thinks that computers solve problems for all the entertainment industry wanted copy proved that's they wanna computers that could somehow work without copying data from 1 place to the other and ideas so stupid that it would have made both Alan Turing and Claude Shannon laugh until they wet themselves and we gave them a close the dissolved in the washing it seemed to make them happy so what's the harm but here's the thing about cyber utopianism from the beginning people who believe that computers and networks could solve problems also saw that they had the potential for terrible oppression my own journey on this stuff the place for all the started for me where I stop being someone who's main activism was and things like nuclear disarmament and started to be someone who really started to worry about this stuff began with the
2nd issue of Wired Magazine 1993 out which had a cover story by Stephen Lee called crypto ripped rebels about EFF the legalization of crypto and the danger that the Internet would become a universal tool for surveillance these early people were mobilized by intense optimism about the power of crypto To enable cheap organization and secrecy from repressive regimes and buy stock Frank terror over what would happen if that crypto where the freedom layer was not included In our devices and networks there's a lot of loose talk these days about cyber realism and not being an alternative to cyber utopianism but cyber realism says the Internet isn't a thing and if it is a thing it's not a thing that's important to the struggle for justice except inasmuch as it is a
barrier to those struggles a siphon for feeding activist signals intelligence to dictators spokes a warm distracting back that takes real
activist energy and diffuses it through meaningless clicktivism at its core realism seems to be saying that the means of information are relevant to the reality of the world that is it turns its back on the whole of human
strategic history that said that coordination was the key to victory and that communications were the key to coordination a process as old as the Caesars tattooing secret messages on the same shaved scalp of their messages waiting for the hair to grow in and sending them across enemy lines right through Trotsky sending
troops out on the eve of the revolution to seize the post and telegraph sophists and up to this very moment where organizations with goals as diverse as Mexican drug cartels find themselves kidnapping Motorola engineers and forcing them to build private cellular networks before murdering them and the FBI revealing that is listening in on every single
voice call in America the Internet is not nothing nor is it a relevant except as a means of buying and selling things nor is it the world's greatest pornography distribution system nor is it the 2nd coming of cable television nor is it the world's best video-on-demand service nor is it the next kind of telephone nor is it a waffle iron connected to a fax machine if it does any of those things it is purely incidental to what the Internet is the nervous system of the 21st century where everything we do today involves the internet and everything we do tomorrow will require the thank you but
as a network that will either be a nexus
of control were liberation the now as an activist who spent the 19 eighties devoting 98 per cent of my time to stuffing envelopes and putting stance on them and 2 per cent of my time figuring out what to do what to put in the envelopes I am delighted that we get the envelopes and the stamps and the address books for free in the 21st century and as for clicktivism it is the greatest boon to activist organizing in history I gateway drug to deeper forms of engagement increasingly savvy activist organizers are offering a smooth gradient of engagement free clicking on a petition all the way up to turning it into your life's work now this is a marked contrast to the earlier activist worldly offline activists world where your engagement was either total or nonexistent which method you activism usually ended with employment or dire unemployment or having children which meant that in particular disenfranchised people parents and especially women who were mothers were denied participation screwed up were denied
participation in struggles for their own liberation what a privilege thing it is to sneer clicktivism at the idea that you can
only be an activist a little of the time it's the statement of someone who's not worried about his next meal someone who isn't stuck at home looking after the kids someone who doesn't have to worry about losing his job in order to attend a protest an inclusive movement
cannot be made of those with nothing to lose and those with the privilege of being able to afford to lose something it's up to us we are building the future we can
build spyware and were computers we can put a motor in their own eyes we can allow our governments to betray us into the hands of phone companies that want to any network neutrality and replace the Internet where when you click on a link you get the thing that was on the end of the link to the Internet where when you click on the link you either get out the web site that has paid a bribe to the carrier to be delivered or below but now the carriers say will were just
running a for-profit entity and if you don't like it you can run your own for-profit entity and
offer the Internet that you want but there is no carrier that is a creature of the marketplace not only do these carriers have their origins in the publicly funded publicly built state telcos that used to be here but every single 1 of them to
this day enjoys a public subsidy without parallel in any industry and that's the right away that the wires go on ImageNet if you were starting a new carrier from fresh Deutsche Telekom and units i and you had to go and dig up every road and put a wire into every basement and put a poll on every in order to get your network there you had to pay the free market cost for every meter of that right of way you would be spending trillions there is no carrier that could ever do that the only way to do that is to allow the government to pass rules giving you a subsidy that is so valuable we can hardly even calculated now the carriers who say well we don't wanna deliver neutral networks we wanna delivery networks that are more profitable to us that treat you like the product that's being bought and sold instead of as our wires as the product that's being bought and sold we can say to them fine if you want a free market network going build 1 go and pay the clearing cost of every meter of right of way across all of
Europe and in the meantime you have 60 days to get your copper of are
dirty what the Nafta 16 days will pay the
scrappage cost of it which is very generous commodity prices are peaking thanks to friends in China and we will find someone who is willing to take the multi trillion euros subsidy that we give to you and network with that subsidy that we give to you In or interests and not merely in the interest of your shareholders we can build a network that is part of our freedom were part of our oppression we can make a future that makes computers into a lever that turns petty tyrants into global monsters or or or we can resist we can refuse to weave our hands at those silly people in the marketing department that deluded politicians that coked uphauling weird fat cats to threaten that they will abandon the web and take their precious content back to air well if they don't get DRM in HTML 5 the not but
OK I'm an artist and my
livelihood depends on the sale of my entertainment product on my ability to extract meaningful sums of money from the world in exchange for my mine using made up very stories that help you pass those dismal hours between birth and death
and I think DRM is that is rubbish and of
no help to me for reasons of gone into at considerable length in this talk but
even if I wasn't convinced of this even if I didn't think even if I did think that during was the only way to earn a living telling my funny little stories I wouldn't be up for it I would go and get a real job because as much as I wanna take my family 4 nights weekends and Disneyland Paris search by my daughter nice closer to pay a mortgage I want a free and fair world for my daughter even more and I think you should too there is no way to fight oppression without free devices and free networks so it is up to us to build the Freedom layers onto our devices and networks that enable that struggle to be cyber optimists to secure the network into use it to coordinate our struggle for freedom to jailbreak every device to crack every sensor wall to out every aster to refer to seize the means of information and use it to liberate the
planet thank you
and thank you thank you thank you thank so so thank you get right
you thank you thank
you thank you very much so thanks so
we have about 15 minutes for Q and a I'll
I'll remind you that in a long rambling
statement followed by what you think of that is technically a question but not a good 1 the so I don't know if they're microphones mimic there's microphones and so the gender it the muscle that was so not controversial and self evident that no 1 disputes a word of it and what the the yeah of OK going yeah pretty complex
talks so it's so difficult for me to invoke a Mortazavi and
critique of what you just gave but I I wrote
and reading his book and I find it very compelling and so to use an analogy um I don't think I would be ready to become a Barnaby experiment I would wanna attached my heart to the internet I would migrate there until I knew that it wasn't hackable and so I think that there are some things that I would not want to go with in terms of the internet to solve my problem and so there are some things that are not quite ready obviously because we're predatory corporations determining the fate of so many things I think I would decide not to attach certain things to the Internet trade and so what I agree that it's a bit weird that there's a IP based on device in people's chests but it's kind of easy to see why when you think about it because the if if the argument as well we I mean I assume that you you don't mean we shouldn't have implanted defibrillators that all the people who have bad heart should just die until we fix that it would implanted for later 0 k right so if implanted defibrillators OK the gotta have something running on and it seems pretty obvious why know we end up with commodity hardware running them because on the 1 hand it's cheap but on the other hand ironically it because it's secure right like it although you know manifestly was a secure enough the best systems we have a the ones that are widely tested and so the reason the manufacture put it in there is not a crazy 1 it's not like that it wasn't it was that they
wanted to put on the on the box for the defibrillator comes with Internet connectivity mean that may be true of refrigerators and stuff that that there's a lot of silly season stuff but you know nobody nobody actually is a consumer for implanted defibrillator your doctor recommends that and your doctor recommends it on the basis of things that are like up of presumably mostly medical unless she's getting bribes from from a company but mostly medical right and and there is a really good medical reason to get telemetry off of a device so can have a
wireless interface because I you know as people who have found you know insulin pumps will tell you that having something that that like a machine that is partly on the inside of your body and partly on the outside your body is is very problematic in its
own right and so that the reason this thing has a has a commodity controller and running commodity operating system is because the alternative would be like and I made up my own controller with my own operating system and I swear to you that it's secure and I can tell
because I can't think of any way of breaking and that's like that's actually even riskier but you know I I I I don't yeah go ahead i it like to hear the other side of the
but you taking a really that that a very
specific case a reason for it to be online but there are many other situations you could look at that don't need to be online and and so this this very enthusiastic cyber utopian kind of published is saying that all things are you should go in that direction that they had this the solutions are with unit so is a little hard to have this this dialog across is right now but there is many different things that we could bring up that don't seem to make sense to try to solve is an Internet problem I implanted later with your example which is why I was using it but but but but the question of whether things should or shouldn't be connected is far out of it is I think slightly misguided inasmuch as people form a high latency low reliability Internet link between devices inasmuch as for example on people who were using the
Internet can be socially engineered using the internet and using badly secured machines that look like a presenting authenticated communications into typing things in the consuls of
devices that are connected to the internet and they essentially become our vectors not the common vector from our stay if there was ever a doubt that there is no such thing as an air gap in a world in which human beings spend 99 per cent of the time facing this direction connected to the Internet and 1 per cent of the time facing this direction connected to a device that is a connected to the Internet stocks now it's answered that question right that that we will vector information either in the form of thumb drives or whatever into those devices by I use the CIO and I spent a lot of time trying to talk to users about connecting outside of our hardware outside storage in outside networks and on found that number that the optimal strategy for getting my network secure was not to rely on abstinence that no matter what I told my users when they had a problem to solve they would solve it by whatever means they could and it
was too but it was to try and make sure that when they had a problem to solve that I was the 1st line of defense are I talk to John B. of Appleton of John Bell last year out from Intel's entails some anthropologists and she cited some research she done on air gap 2 networks so networks that are connected to the Internet in defense contractors hospitals are in governments in spy agencies all these places Intel has its networks and and what they found was that every single 1 of these air gap networks was cross connected because at some point somebody on the clean side of the network really needed something from the public side of the network and they literally did things like like them plug the modem and were secretly ordered a DSL line from the phone company or VP and from 1 to the other laughter VPN tunnel open or an Ethernet cable from 1 device to the other I mean I I agree that it's it's a bit weird that the public Internet that like everybody in the world is on it is is connected to people's cars up but I don't know how you stop them from being connected to people's cars and what I think we need to do is
start understanding that our information ecology is as interconnected as our water ecology I mean it's true that as a Londoner most of the water I drink has intermediate origin in the kidneys of people live in London but ultimately the destiny of all the fresh water in the world is intermingled with my destiny because I'm a pick up microbes from somewhere else and add them to the water in London and as a result of you know I for example a rule that said it was against the law to tell people if a company was polluting the
water would be a very very bad law even if we want the systems were people polluted and the systems where people drank totally adapt
and separated it should always be legal to blow the whistle should always be legal to know things about your water it should always be legal to add things to your Fossett to find out which a water is doing we we should we should regulate water with the graviton ASR is something that is literally a matter of life and death not just for us but for everybody in the world whose destinies were intermingled with and this is true of networks and computers when stocks Stuxnet moves on and mutates and starts attacking nuclear reactors that are a random we see that not only is the air gap a fallacy but so is the idea of directed I programs programs that only attack 1 air gap device that that information may not may or may not
want anything but it has a tendency to continue to migrate around the internet especially if it's attached to some the people wine and so you know I I I think there's a realpolitik here that if you wanna secure people's cars or computers are refrigerators you can't stop by saying they should be connected to the internet you should stop by saying having people connected now the people of connected the computers and phones and everything else the internet what we do to make them secure not because cyber-utopias told you to connect them to the internet but because there's lots of
economies of scale and good reasons that people want the devices connected to the Internet and that's why they do them
I mean I have devices that are connected to the internet like old cameras they're all but unusable now because I can update the firmware and the body and reconnect and connecting them to the internet involves like loading SD card and flashing them which is really hard and people like me and everyone else who has a problem with the device when the opportunity arises to connect the device directly to the Internet will take advantage of it regardless of whether it's a good idea about idea you know abstinence doesn't work as as the father of a soon-to-be teenage girls girl I'm I'm keenly aware that abstinence is not the full solution to getting people
to do the right thing thank you to the the Greek high carry Estefanía thank you very much for the talk you just mentioned your daughters so I wanted to ask you how do you think children where actually contribute to our definition of freedom Complex Networks contribution of intelligence collective intelligence freedom framework and so forth I forgot working kids due to contribute to the somehow community make kids aware but well I mean I think that that that generational advantage that I enjoyed was growing up I in an era in which computers came with the requirement that you do something with them before they could do something useful so you know when I got an apple 2 plus in the late seventies my dad was a computer science teacher it came with like 2 or 3 very minimally functional programs and then a subscription to a magazine that had basic programs you
could type in our in order to get it to do other stuff because it did almost nothing in the box and while it took a very special kind of person
to be willing to spend summer holiday entering basic instructions from byte magazine and
at the same time it meant that I always perceive the computer is something that was there to say yes Minister and not to say I can't let you do that Dave and you know the good news
is that we are developing at the same time as our devices are becoming in some sense more locked down and eyes were also developing increasingly powerful tools for our computer literacy the Mozilla Foundation is done so much amazing work in this popcorn and
some of the other work I and the MIT Media Lab Lifelong Kindergarten scratch project I just saw a demo of the next version of scratch that is some intended for pre-literate kids so it's a fully drag and drop
are programmable interface for writing games
and simulations i and you know it's the difference between at that at your kid running home grabbing the tablet and watching my little tiny on youtube all
afternoon and running on grabbing the tablet and making all some pony simulations that lead to her having an innate understanding that the device is there to
dance to her well and not the other way around they're all afternoon so I mean every parent makes it up as they go along and never done this before and no 1 has ever parent of a kid in 2013 before so they were all
making it up as we go along but but I have not you know I really firmly believe that a sense of agency control and time the right to tinker is at the core of raising a generation that will not allow their computers to become tools of oppression you thinking
might seeded Donald density it's not Ivan Selago and muscles that I would try to make this sort of you took lot about regulating in technology a lot of people that I think are smarter than myself spend a lot of the time I was thinking about regulating the technology when it comes to military drones of and um personally by a cannot rip my head around this issue because at the core I think a regulating technology is a dead end and it's a bad thing in the long run on however if you are a pacifist which on which will that and this being made it's and I'm being thankful for things that happened on the state in Europe and but if you are pacifist of course you should be against and then be Icos and in this guy's something don't people so what what does it take on controlled is that the technology we should regulate gosh I well I think it's there's a difference between saying technologies may or may not be built or and our computers or must not contain these instruction sets are the software are out of the box are operating systems must include the so that insane governments and their militaries may not kill people in certain ways and and so I thought I'd buy I mean I'm not a military expert and like you on something of a pacifist
I I grew up in the anti-nuclear proliferation movement was you know I got I got thrown out of
school when I was 12 years old by the 4 founding in an anti cruise missile testing group in Canada so like this is not my DNA is not
1 of the legitimate uses of of you know military hardware it's not it's not something I have a lot of direct experience with mostly a direct experience was saying stop giving so much money the goddamn military and but I I think that that they are totally separate questions the question of like should should there be rules demanding that drones operating systems come with our rootkits that prohibit them running anything that hasn't signed by certain agency that I think the answer is is now we shouldn't have those rules I think a separate question is
should you be allowed to kill people with drones and under what circumstances and the answer to that is I'm
not entirely sure a II you know I I I I think probably not but this is not an area of my expertise all right
and then dunked thank you because I've uh I've
got a feeling that the the