Crowdsourced Astronomy

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Crowdsourced Astronomy
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I will share how amazing it is to take astronomy to the people and to share the skills we have learnt as astronomers, and to see first hand how it can change the world! Astronomy is entering an era of unprecedented scales. The telescopes are getting bigger and more powerful, which means that the amount of data and what we can do with it has increased exponentially. It also means that there are not enough astronomers for the data out there. Already endless PhD projects can be carried out on archived data only. Citizen science is another way of dealing with that much data and it has grown very much in recent years. Astronomy has always benefitted from the input and careful observations of amateurs -- think just of the number of comets discovered not by professionals -- but the internet has changed that and made it possible for people to contribute to the science...
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length so I had to enforce the heart the composite Africa here it now is Dr. currently no the demand valve go vendor because for and the group differences the 1st come up the whole had sort the us in the the uh t to all jumps on uh obligation thus money and that's the adults end and it is a state the Physeek um has become the
sound of the thank
you holes good morning everyone and the 1st I absolutely need to Frankie Republic of reminding me this this meeting is absolutely phenomenal and that's if you need also to thank my doctor Doctor Woody who made it possible for me to be here this week last week was the crazy so I really needed to shout out to the OK welcome home the this is this is our home this is planning area this is where we live and I'd like to share a few amazing facts about this little planet on which we live the the on this scale I am the atmosphere is about the thickness of a few sheets of paper the and that means we have a shell here that barely registers it's tiny tiny shell of air you take about 10 kilometers of death oceans 100 kilometers of atmosphere is a tiny shell here on the surface of this planet where all the light we know we have known
and likelihoods and future life that we can envisage today happens you need our neighbors and friends and families and the dinosaurs or the insects the political figures you know the are the Nelson Mandela everybody
and every life form shares this 1 very thin shell of atmosphere where like happens and and this is phenomenal this is this is our home and it and it's not very big let's
compare to the sun where we get all our energy because I've also means its energy to their this is about as big as the other is compared to the
sun get the distance isn't quite right on this image but the sizes this planet is he concluded a million times inside the
Sun this is a tiny rock on which all these things are happening all the technology that that we see all the all the ideas that people have every individual in their
mental universe everything that happens in the head happens on this little piece of rock that goes around the Sun now what about the sun the sun is 1 of a few
hundred billion stars that lives out that stand in in our Milky Way galaxy so if this is this is not the most away because it can't get out of it and take a picture of it but it's about as close as it gets right and the some say is about two-thirds out from the center and it's a tiny tiny they'll stop and studies stone is even smaller little
of a planet where we live it's a
minuscule it's completely insignificant but it's also completely extraordinary because on this piece of rock there a species the human race that has the capacity to understand how small and how big these things are we have a species here that's capable inventing the technology to leave the planet and come back with people on board to send people orbiting around the planet it's it's a species that is capable of you know creating an incredible solutions to problems they face in everyday life for about the same last hundred years or so this this little species has been extremely loud in terms of space for about 100 years we have been broadcasting radio signals television signals and so on
and that these are footprint in space because from the moment that we start
broadcasting I signals also go straight out into space and they travel obviously at the speed of light and so if we have been broadcasting for about a hundred years
that's about a hundred light years around
the earth that's the bubble in which if somebody has a mental medicines in consider how the species on the planet and they're saying things were talking with spreading ideas and and images and everything will allowed now how big
is this footprint that we have on the scale of the galaxy let me just go here OK the
it's smaller than my thumbnail because for those 100 the light years in both directions you know this big bubble signals is about a
thousand of the size of this galaxy the galaxy our milky way is about a
hundred thousand light years across it is the enormous and that's where we are and that's why we screening ideas to the rest of the universe what about let's take a little too we starting from and which traveling
towards the constellation of Orion you see you can recognize a 3 stars and but the
constellation Orion sort of decomposes here and there's a reason for that is that even though it makes a beautiful picture in the sky when we look at it the stars have actually nothing in common some more close some of very very far away the they go from a few hundred light years away to a few thousand light years away just within the constellation of Orion which means that the light from the
stars come to us and what we see today is the way the star was that so many thousands of years ago so today when you look at the sky at night not only this area and you see belonged to our own galaxy but you're not seen in that picture of the universe the way is known you see that saw the wait was in certain time ago and we see that saw the wait was 1 way way way way way back you know thousands of years
ago and that star may not exist anymore but we don't know yet because it takes light so long to travel and reach so as we travel
through the Milky Way and you see these nebula I you know that the remains of exploding stars that eject all gas into space and so much energy and this so much like that that it makes them lower that's why we can see them in the in our telescopes and measure them and it's beautiful and this is this is our galaxy is just 1 of billions of galaxies in the universe so already were pretty small you know that kid rock around the star in this galaxy but
let's say that we have our neighbouring galaxy the andromeda galaxy and and we have we have what thousands more I don't if you
can see the world that this these galaxies form a very intricate and beautiful three-dimensional structure in space in
fact nothing in space static and nothing in space is flat everything is
constantly in motion evalution the passing uh Andromeda and now everything you see here is just galaxies and when you see this
three-dimensional structure and this is all based on real measurements in this this phone that's why I like it so much because it really is based on on our measured the positions of these things now it's quite incredible that we managed to figure out where they are right because the only thing we have to do to figure these things out is just the light coming from objects in space is just as photons that just happened to be on a collision course with pen at birth and with our telescopes that's the only thing we have to work out this incredible large structure that we can
see here and the gravity being the force that works on those scales nothing is all picked 1 each other it's not just the Earth around the Sun and the Sun around the center of the galaxy it's galaxies around each other as well and the cluster and they make enormous clusters of galaxies and they collide and the each each other and this is the this is the center of 1 of the biggest clusters of
galaxies in the Union the and so this is a little journey now we're so far away that there's absolutely no way to figure out how to 2 big able to comprehend how big this is now what happens if you point a telescope
to dark patch of the sky we think there is
nothing at all and you just let it sit there this was done with the Hubble space telescope the 1st time and this is 1 of those images it's called the Hubble Ultra Deep Field so what happens is you pay point
this telescope in the talk but you think there's nothing that you have ever measured anything that piece of sky with any telescope yet and used to sit and wait and little by little photons will come in a really really far away
and 1 use once you patient enough and you wait for all those photons to common feature detectors this is what you get this image
is phenomenal every little dots on this picture except the 1 with the class
here is a galaxy every single 1 of
them is hundreds of billions of stars every single 1 of these
galaxies is evolving is emerging is is is traveling out in space where every we key if we wait long enough we see these objects in the universe is the bigger than you can possibly imagine and the most
extraordinary thing is that we are the ones who actually built the telescopes are put it in space looked at those got these
images and know what they need and and I think that's 1 of the biggest gifts that astronomy gives us is the gift of perspective and so telescopes let's Connecticut telescopes little bit this is really really cool technology that goes into test of some discriminative look talk about telescopes on the ground these are the 10 meter class telescopes that we call in optical telescopes that means that they're they're mirrors are of the order of 10 meters that the biggest ones are listed here the 1 on the picture is a 7 African large telescope and then I forget and let's look just at maybe the Gemini and divulge binocular telescope these telescopes are made with 1 mirror just imagine this 1 near at 8 meters across and imagine how think it must be imagine how difficult must be to polish it to you know to manometers precision and have a fantastic reflective surface imagine how hard it must be to turn around to follow the stars of that because obviously this guy moves that match right those are
some of the incredible technological challenges that we face when we build new telescopes so I'm just going take this out so an additional point of these new is is that for the light to hit the mirror and b it converge towards 1 . 0 we can measure it you know detector a camera and instruments spectra of something the mere has to be parabolic that means it's not as simple spherical shapes which means that if you if you like at the other mayors that out it doesn't say single these are segmented mayors so you built in are like uh segments of mirror and then you put them together and you line them with very high precision but if you have a parabolic mirror the segments cannot all be the same you know the curvature of the shape of the mirror has to be different every single mirror has to be done done that's that's really you know it's it's not easy to
build and also on these telescopes we don't have ice fish anymore we don't look through the telescope anymore
we just put instruments but also all the life that we collect has to be shared across instruments
so so if we look at very faint objects you know we have to prioritize we have to choose which instrument to of channel with what like to etc. etc. that want to look at the spectrum of the light whether we want to just make some imagery but it all depends what we're looking for but this there's also astronomers untested driver of technological
innovation and 1 example I wanna talk to you about is adaptive optics this is great so you have this great telescope but it has a phenomenon there is
you can really gets small small details except it's looking through the atmosphere right and I don't know if you've all if you've looked above the fire in a barbecue or something you see here is making all these patterns exactly the same the atmosphere but we can't really see it but when you look at the when you look at a telescope the telescope and see it so what we should see as points in the sky the stars actually become blurry in the the move all the time so imagine this you laser next to star that you're observing and you look at the point of the laser beam the and this laser beam is being performed by this by the the the wilderness of the air in the
atmosphere and by looking at that you can correct the astronomical image in real time because you can see you know you can see
what what the atmosphere is doing to the point where the laser point you know is a point to use that as a reference and the new inverted elect and you get
your point it increase the resolution of telescopes like that tremendously and this is sort of really cool technological innovation that comes that comes with
astronomy but technological innovation isn't just about making new inventions and their and their and head and entering a lot of money into new technology it's not that it's also about finding really clever ways of doing things with the same or even less money and 1 good example is this telescope the
7 African Large Telescope this year it's a 91 segmented mirror 91 peace and instead of being parabolic is
spherical right so the problem with that is that the light is in focus into 1 . focus into whole blob but then there's some really clever engineering and software engineering that goes into that to correct for that and the great
advantage is that each mirror signals can then be identical so these 91 marries they're all the same they're all spherical they all have the same curvature that can be swapped they can be they can get cheaper
portability across so something like this plus a few other technological innovations in this telescope make it 5 times cheaper then an equivalent telescope with a parabolic mirror the and all the other games so by being really clever and how we do things and we also invent new new technology and new ways of doing
things by the way did you know that term is a spin-off of a radio astronomy but if you look at it and the future optical telescopes there
is there's a lot of future optical telescopes are being built to notably the European extremely large telescope but I will mention this 1 specifically the elasticity because this telescope tries to do everything at once it's got a mass of nerve 1 piece really really hard work you can see the structures rather heavy but he has a 3 billion pixel digital camera to be able to do imaging in color looking deep into space and that an n and looking lost because you can either
looking for a long time to collect more light or can have a really really big aperture or you can you can you know you have all these trade off and this telescopes tries to do everything at once but obviously with 3 billion pixel can regenerate quite a bit of data and how many of you have run out of disk space just because of the size of the city's nowadays right 20 terabytes of
data per nite and now we're talking the data now this is becoming interesting elicited radio astronomy and was going mention 2 telescopes here 1 is the Atacama Large millimeter a there was no greater just a couple
weeks ago in Chile 66 desist because when we observe the universe and radio we use is not there's something that damn works slightly differently the data so you know that are generated by something like this imagine 66 devices measuring constantly and sending data 3 that data has to go from the middle of nowhere in the
desert in Chile in the top of mountain down to Santiago the capital of Chile and then out to wherever the scientists often there's a
big to the US for example do we have all that bandwidth while currently is
absolutely challenge so how do we deal with it the 2nd radio telescope on tell you about is
xk Square Kilometre Array and just has a few facts here for you and
a b is going to be built in the in Africa and in Australia mostly never get this is where the the dishes are going to be space so it's very interesting is not just on 1 side every little white dot there shows a place where you will have a piece of the telescope is basically spreading over 3 thousand kilometers
turning the planet into a giant radio I that's going to look in deep into the universe a few facts and I must
stress here that the technology for this doesn't yet
exist right so 3 thousand times and that just the added the Cervantes of the dishes you end up with a million square meters it's a pretty big
light collecting area on top of that there are 2 types of 10 in the go with it low mid-frequency aperture arrays so we as we call them the low-frequency aperture arrays going to that in Australia and the rest is going to be built in Africa now in terms of data 1 day of observation so the advantage of radio astronomy is that we consulting the day as well not just a matter 1 of observation is equivalent to about 2 million years of music in MP3 format just 1 day of observation
2 million years of music 15 million 64 gigabyte ipods just to put it to
scale something more familiar with that the dishes themselves they will be spread all over the continent they will collect that data and they will transported and just to try to make the data traffic is going to be in is going to be more than 10 times the global Internet traffic today so basically building a scientific instrument that will generate more data traffic than the whole Internet today assessing the non-tree have the technology but is going to happen because that's what we do in astronomy in terms of computing power and we're talking about it so
stops here 10 to the 18 operations per 2nd it's it's it's enormous I mean the the the the just the scale of the sentiments list actually looked at the London Olympics the and the estimated to be
of the biggest data-generating event so far we have about 60 gigabytes per 2nd in images
tweets and e-mails and Facebook posts and updates and whatever whether 60 gigabytes per 2nd that's what the network had to carry well that's just about half of 1 of the low-frequency stations of this k might to really going to incredible scales here and
so on top of generating all this data way more than we can actually handle today we also have a lot of archives that's the big old the big observatories have all kinds of data but if you look around arms you know it's not
like we're very much in um you know Web 2 . 0 can of area this is very academic we have these archives you can download it horrible of gigabytes if you want you know it's it's not
like you can you call an observatory with an ICP I get your data back in Jason pipe it in your JavaScript thing and had your visualization like that we're not quite there yet but would love to so so so what are we doing about it and you know many astronomers are actually really really decay and so we have this community
of the people we get get together ratier-forest use of worship recorded . astronomy as basically were astronomy and the Internet meat the idea here is that this is a
bunch of geeks about astronomers who would like to have the corners of the Internet and the and and all those great technologies that are you know really useful for everything at and see how can we how can we use it in astronomy
grad so we have we have keynote speakers at those meetings and usually it's people outside astronomy
no data visualization specialists all or you know but development specialists aware we also have unconference sessions
just to get the conversation going because that's where you get the ideas and you wanna talk about them when everybody's there and we always have days right and astronomy hackdays have been so popular that they have now set lighted on the series of workshops and you have independently organize don't
astronomy hackdays won the World and and this is where the colonists hits might let me just show you a few examples and 1st and this
is where we have some audio I hope this works this is 1 heck that comes from an afternoon and a bit of an evening of hacking right this is an image of the sky and they have a tendency
to see if this works can hear that uh some moving the cursor here it you can leave it uh and all they've done is they had to engage more to sound thinking you have to looked at different frequencies of light so and given the different so
all tones high-pitched loop pitch
and and there N. and then the the intensity of the sound match the intensity of that frequency of light in that spot of the morning hours or so this is really funny and you didn't have any arrange
tool uh to illustrate the different this
is all the images and again to for example and visually impaired people you know and this is just a hack this is just another name as something else 0 yeah now this is great and of this
1 this this is a little javascript that was written by 1 of our dentist antiques it's a it's a Gaussian fitting routine or astronomers use gas and fitting routines reflect everything with
galcians in this case and this is an illustration where for example you look at the light curve of the stock to look at a stock is right is right is right is right and suddenly there's a dip in the brightness
and then it goes back to normal that might be the sign of a planet passing in front so this is 1 of the techniques that we use to find planets outside our solar system right but you have these observations and they come under quite noisy error bars and everything so as generate 1 of these datasets from and you can see that you want affect this because you want to figure out you know the likelihood of actually and finding a planet
and just to the gas in that routine JavaScript it's sparse enough nowadays you can just do it very quickly just like
that and this is a really cool little job scripting that unless imagine being a researcher in astronomy and what you're doing you just calling an API to to an observatory or an archive or a telescope something you're getting some data you pipe into this you know it's the word all is so much Foster easier to visualize but also easier to share with collaborators and size of this is where we wanna get to you know this is
where 1 . and another of and so this is great another little hack was a cosmology calculator which at this is it's so this guy and and rights and a wider a God wrote to this little script they can put in certain values of certain fundamental parameters of the universe and will calculate the resting on its it's a fairly common speculations that everybody uses the thing you know it'll tell you how much how much dark matter dark energy ordinary matter the age of the universe and all these things and well what the heck sources say well instead of having to go to let's website all the time and to the state elastase this just make a little widget for us and makes life easier and it is so cool I mean I have a widget on my computer that calculates the parameters of the universe from the exact now that's cool stuff that's only 1 ago and so this is typically the sort of this sort of hack to come up with but thing is at these meetings you know it's not just astronomers would do this we the we're just you know be geeky astronomers but then we have to go back to our to jobs and and do the things we do the more traditional way but as soon as we get a chance you know we do this because we can and because it's fun but
but also because we know people who are not astronomers in war hackers were developers had and were interested in astronomy and it makes for a phenomenal
uh interface and we saw much time together so I'm saying all the hackers in the route if you wanna do some strong mean just you know get in touch and there's a million projects we can do and if you want if you feel up to creating an API for
us to call our archives the worst and
so we really need more hackers and the rest right so basically we have a challenge everything is data you go on thicker you take a picture is a picture somebody you know having a holiday right tourists happy what's the data here you have weather the data you have cultural data but look at the person you have geographical data you have you have you know the
whole spectrum of of of of light of the pictures of everything is 8 and this summer's data out there that doesn't even know its data yet because we
haven't just get from the ways of of of of touching it and getting the knowledge out of it and so the circuit astronomy day-to-day guidance is of food
right a long time ago and
the data was taken manually or with photographic plates and it had to be processed and turned into numbers so that it could be compared and well usually will this is this is Harvard about 100 and 20 odd years ago you'd have 1 senior astronomer and he would have all these women would do that all the hard work that he would be the astronomer you would take the observations and then the women they actually were called the computers and since then we've made a bit of progress this actual computers that help them work in the data and that means as soon as we started have to have computers at home and instantaneous instead started being connected at home astronomers thought OK great this use this the city at home
um it was huge in the nineties I you guys still taking part this is the nominal screen saver we could get data analysis evil
radio telescope and go and analyze it to see if the signals from extraterrestrial intelligence and I wanna highlight something here city is a serious question it is absolutely serious because it's deep down in human nature to always be on a quest to search know searching for life in the universe makes total sense there's no reason why we should be the only ones right but as I said our footprint is very small so if we find life you know somewhere in the universe they must have
been around for a long long time for us to be able to see them but let's not despair this keep looking because that's what we do now sit at
home was a great citizen science project but still is it's still works but it's assistance project
that uses your computer's idle time but there's something more that in an incredible results that we had quite talked about it here that's the human mind the and that's where citizen science really brooms into into a real force for scientific
research machines they just run out run out of cleverness all after while right and you know they you tell them what to do they do it
brilliantly but when it comes to making around and figure out what's what's what's out of the ordinary not so much the human I however
is greater than that so I'm just going to about this 1 citizen science project here that really started this strain of is that using CPU power we use brain power in human brain power and there and the galaxies Zoo is this great web platform where you can go and you cannot classify galaxies because this comes this comes from
cervical the Sloan Digital Sky Survey have pictures of millions of galaxies and time to
tell a computer to be able to make the difference between that imagined that image that this is a spiral that has 2 arms and that this is a no blobs so you know it's the elliptical galaxy and it's in base it's really really hard to create an algorithm that can see that well to us it's obvious right so why not ask humans to do
it and those pictures of beautiful so people do and and it's been it's been phenomenally
really has helped research in terms of you know galaxy morphology and evolution it's at sector the this something even more powerful here and that's a little question in the bottom right Is there anything odd this is where we ask people to to point out and I don't understand this in this image and this has led some to some phenomenal discoveries the first one is this right this blue thing here was this image landed on the PC of this school teacher in in hand even ocal and and she loves astronomy and he spends Corazon galaxies at classifying galaxies in the completely passion about it at this synergistic puts this group plot right and so she goes to the full she close to other people and on the form you have as a professional astronomers as well and make Hang on we would have missed this what is this thing it turns out it was absolutely unknown what it was to the point where even the Hubble
space telescope was appointed to this object to try to see it and here we see much more detail we see the green
glow it actually turns out to be the table over all the terms of a tidal interaction where where galaxies have not
interacted and the pull material of each other and you have this Taylor sector of the tides you know force of tied gravity pulling some of and used to be lit up by a quasar that isn't there anymore but we can still see the green light that comes from oxygen and it's such a violent area actually that is a little orange blob there in the top you cannot only see it this domination happening which means that this there's so much and this no so much pressure that the gas is actually moving in its and its collapsing is forming new stuff and this this this is quite another thing to have found um and it would not have happened right not for this amazing schoolteacher just pointing out somewhere because the human mind sees seeing sees the context of things another example
of these little green peas as we call them in other leading green blobs and aside to be picked up by quite a few people and so on and that led to follow-up
investigation and this is this is
1 of scientific papers that came out of it it's actually it was actually a whole new class of that's that we didn't even know about because we hadn't when seen them we just hand all we haven't figured it out you know if you see 1 that seems a little green thing you can imagine maybe it's noise in the data that that this is actually a real thing and obviously they wanted to submit the paper with the full of 200 thousand people who had contributed to this discovery and they
wanted to submit the paper to 100 over 200 thousand authors oversee the general wasn't too happy about that but these are things 200 thousand people contributed to this discovery of a new type of galaxy and that another thing that's just phenomenal ministers it's great that we can and we we would not be where we are were it not for the contribution of citizens so there's lots of these projects
I'm it's actually blossomed into into big platform now we call it this universe and you have lots of different astronomy project that's now also climate projects in nature and even social sciences and things you can go into covers lots of citizen science project and they're all beautiful they're all really really beautiful each of them has this fantastic interface and it's interesting in you learn
stuff and beautiful images and is just so much fun and this is another
way we can we can share astronomy with people and Mrs. robotic telescopes and we can mention 2 projects is this a lot of them I'm
just going to mention this 1 the less commerce Observatory Global Telescope Network these guys have put telescopes all around the globe in a way that means that at any time you have a working telescope it that's at nite both in the northern and in the southern hemisphere which means that at any time around the world scientists all classrooms or you know people can log onto these telescopes and make observations no you don't have to have a telescope new record you can actually use robotic telescopes another network and I wanna
show a talk about cookies that you're a project this is an EU project this is interesting because it's taking existing telescopes and modifying them so that they can join a network of robotic telescopes and they're interesting because you know this setting standards imagine 1 day if we have a um and R a t e c u p e r TCP would be radio
telescope command protocol but here we don't have that it but imagine if we had that you know there would be so cool could just plug and a few commands would be standard any telescope could be turned into
a robotic telescope if you have to stop at home you wanna use it for yourself you just do it and the rest of the time plug it into the network Internet of Things telescopes they the the phenomenal so we're getting there but was next OK today am we have where we stood and talked and talked about software and you know says in science online all these things but there are so many great hardware tools nowadays you know we have we have a raspy Part II we have we boards that it is but this is a little a compatible 1 we talk about multi sensor arrays intelligent cities just imagine in the sensor part of your multisensory was astronomical in nature
no sensors in astronomy to measure the all that light and radio signals in a letter to imagine the possibilities over Democrat izing this incredible science
using this kind of company it's becoming it's becoming possible and I can't
say anymore this stuff coming it's it's coming soon and only I can say stay tuned because there's some really really cool stuff coming soon and I'm afraid I can't do anything more but hint at some but very excited OK so this meeting is inside out might the crowd today the connected cards around the world as I think about 2 billion people are connected to the Internet where more than 7 billion on this so the crowd is not in those 2 billion are connected the real crime is actually those 5 and something billion of the rest of the world so let me turn the question inside out instead of saying what instead of asking what people can do for astronomy let me
ask what astronomy can do for the people and I will tell you a little story about this FIL town called Sutherland in the Northern
Cape Province of South Africa it's a small town about 4 thousand people in in the semi-arid desert the nearest town is about 100 kilometers away associate hard road leading to 7 but a couple of other towns it's just gravel road no in the desert In that you trace trace trace trace gravel road it's very isolated Sutherland is not just isolated from the rest of the world it seems isolated from the rest of semantic n but Sutherland is
beautiful this is the nite sky Sutherland yeah it's it's the it's the sort of place on earth where you go and you look up and you see the stars and use it to 1 side and you see the stars and you see the stars and you go all the way down to the horizon and you see the stars everywhere you look only stars it's so beautiful and the stars are still everywhere that you feel like you halfway there that you floating in space it is p dutiful and all things Mr. will put telescopes right now the question is what does having a world-class scientific facility mean for a town like Sutherland so little telling you a little bit but more about about the time of 7 and the true
Sutherland is about 4 thousand people I said but is so isolated you know it's not like he's not like there's a lot of jobs going on thing for thousand
people there's about 80 % unemployment and it's 1 of the highest alcohol abuse
rates in the country 1 of the highest fetal alcohol syndrome and the country that means that babies are born I it because their mothers doing during pregnancy it's
got to be very very profound social problems and it's got very
little attention from the rest of the world from the government because it's a tiny little town in the middle of nowhere but it has these telescopes
and so what happens well 1st that the the Southern African Large Telescope was inaugurated in 2005 and 7 is famous for its guys dressed tourism right so that's good you know tourists come they spend the nite sky they have these deep profound conversations about it and the and it's great and that can help speakers you know it just tourism so most of the times then has gone from less 5 to over 50 guesthouses uh between before and after salt the Semantically large telescope and I oversee creates a lot of jobs and so that's that's all very positive right but we can do more obviously so that the the observatory astronomers um can engage the community and an and the sorry I'm telling you this is an adventure that started on even 2008 the nite before the beginning of the International year of Astronomy where the whole platter with all the scientific instruments was open to the public shut down scientific observations and and here later if you tell that astronomers signal height you
can't do that because telescopes are so expensive they work 24 7 all the time well know this is negative the public the and astronomers could come they could put their own
telescopes attack it was it was a massive event and you really put Sutherland on the map if that wasn't already and so people can visit to the telescopes to have conversations at
such as as beautiful that's 1 event now we're talking the community so how to engage the community we engage with the school kits obviously you know you given hours you give them stargazing sessions the heart the pro the point of this
is not to teach them about you know the math and science obviously that would be an outcome but the point here is to connect them with this guy because the via people come from all
around the world to see the sky there is because it's so special and this is their backyard this is their home this is a source of pride for these kids and for the community and so we engage the community we engage with the social workers that the community development
workers at such sector and try to bring everything everybody on board to make use of the fact that we have astronomy there to drive the development of society itself
this is a couple kids and 7 and this is sort of houses they live in it's the coldest place inside the gates place that has seen snow every month of the year doesn't mean it snows in them but there has been snow there every month of the year as far as Rick records of very cold and it's not like they have you know insulation in the houses and on close earning it's a very very harsh light the so we got together
with some artist friends of ours and and try to to engage the community and see how
all this perspective that and the skills that we gain from being educated people can help uh with the community right
so the 1st idea was to get the kids to look up In and hunt you do that well you organize a
kind 1st of all this are defined types you know you touch within 5 minutes you have 150 kids coming running benefit from all around the town who enemies them 4 hours and that and this is a very very powerful experiment because not only is it about looking up but it's also you notice that things are moving the clouds of moving the stars moving you connected with what they see at nite as well and I do want to be able to see this movie but you can see here the stars on our on moving over and you know at night this is a 7 cross you're taking on the south pole south celestial pole this is something it's about taking ownership of the sky it's about being proud we have this beautiful sky so we're not going to turn out spotlights upwards and and and forget about it people come from all around the world to see I ask you know it's it's it's a source of pride and it's also something the guy's the life because the stars out everywhere
it's there's so many stars it's impossible not to to have the stars play a role in your life when you there 2nd thing is OK refined cats let's take a look at what Sutherland looks like from the cats perspective you know all this is again we're changing perspective
and this is pictures of the kids were imagining a map of several in the cream to match the surveillance what by measuring the display imaginings themselves being the character looking down uh with all sorts of materials and finding the time to set a the perspective regain is is is very precious you realize you know how far or close your to your neighbors etc. etc. the next thing we do is on or we may constellations right constellations are man-made consolation don't really have any physical connection you know a so and constellations have stories going with some of the stories are an embodiment
of culture and knowledge in the sense that you will have a legend that says you know this consolation appears at this time year and then that means that that's the time of you to go on harvest for example all that sort of stuff is is is knowledge that is embedded in astronomical legends and means but some imagination and lets you know make them make their own constellations so you take these due to make little hall you can look through it during the day and looks like on constellation it's a lot of fun to create the creative it's got to do with the stars and they create their own telescopes if you will and beautiful
objects that they can be proud of and we
also take you know having these and having this project we have we have brought in incredible brains to so and account for a week or workshop art science workshop and on that and so we sit down and there's nothing to do is Sutherland trust me there's nothing to do but to look at the Scott
stars and it's incredibly inspiring place to be to think about the community and the stars uh so inspiring you get great ideas as such as so it's
if p dutiful experiences to come there and to to get these brains these people who come from Johannesburg from all different cities and what used to solving problems in those contexts and bring them to sell and see what they can do and in this case that's so there's a there's a there's an on-site architect slash artist here who was helping us figure out a plan to try to revive this park this area for the so so they would be safe for the kids to planes because there's bulb wire is broken glass such etc. and realized that we haven't thought of that in fact save the shadow is a is a rare thing in the desert it gets very hot during
the day the sun is baking and you don't really have stayed to to the cities would build a place where we can have shade below bring the community together and and and this
ideas like that there will come from bringing people to settle and it doesn't necessarily mean that that it will happen tomorrow but the idea is there and when it happens it'll happen with these great ideas and so we also engage the old people in the community because they have all the stories they tell us about you know even pre apart it turns out there were forcibly removed how the land was taken from them and it celebrate that would bring them up to the pattern celebrate with this symbolic dome that has now become a community dome
with with the with the with the silhouette of of a member of the community said that takes pride in the land and in the nite sky that we share with the community as as as ss astronomer have share with the community and so we also represent
them in the in the visitors center of the of the observed tree that has a lot of science exhibits on but you also have this beautiful milky way uh installation where it tells the story of 1 of the old people in town 1 Thomas
was 106 years old I thing this year
and he tells a story that his grandparents told him that when he was a kid in the see shooting stars fall down you have to run and find it and 3 back into the sky and it's an absolutely beautiful story and and this guy this galaxy this installation here is made with and hundreds of pieces of crockery porcelain that is broken that was found in the old place where they used to live before we departed move them nothing has happened there since and still
now if you will grant you find all these the old objects and then like all I remember this was my coffee cup when I was a kid you know and that's that's still a and so we celebrate the
history like that under and of course education education education is nothing like a kid you know showing what upside down is like on the other side of the planet you know what him experience or it's
phenomenal and it's it really is about making the kids realize that they can do it is if they have the potential to understand everything and and astronomy is really there to inspire them and we have at the observatory you
obviously have a great internet connection because all that data has to go to the to the central part of the observatory and on the picture on the left is the of the optic fiber that's being installed between Cape Town
and the site of this k and Sutherland and and and that's and you know that's the that's the pipe that's going to take the data from telescopes down to Cape Town and then to the rest of the world so all the observatory in Sutherland decides to share its Internet connection with with the community so this this community center with 24 computers and Internet access and the difference this makes is enormous because in people with community you know not just not familiar with computers but the Internet is just you know it's it's I think you have a 3 G connection there since just a few years back right and so this is a
massive difference but what are we going to do with it you know we're organizing Skype sessions with kids elsewhere in the country and around the world to D isolate the kids and realize that that you know kids elsewhere have the same interests and so on but you also want to give them the skills that we have gained as astronomers and what skills in my talking about well this problem solving and you know there's a change of perspective that builds also programming you know roots astronomers really you know we code we're not we don't cover beautifully mostly i'm because in accordance but but we got that and it's an incredible skill to
have to be useful so instead of trying to make the next generation of office workers and teach them you know word processing and spreadsheets we don't teach them programming this is this is workshop where the kids who were learning scratch and they had so much fun integrating the animations and bring them up online and so on so and so the work
with the community keeps going and reusing the at the observatory as a as a result but I think the bottom line is this the this connect to this
come back home when you look at this planet when you
look at this continent when you look when you look at this the real Earth the weight is if you try to point your finger
between 2 regions and understand what people are writing about he doesn't really make sense from up here does that you know you can't tell the difference between this spot in that spot of land
and maybe even thousands of people are being killed over it if you see the like this
from space maybe you know something it just doesn't really make sense you know if you believe different things than I do find the distance
between you know the the the the the the the developed world where people have you know its high-speed Internet in the latest gadgets and so on and have fun and that make the makers of the geeks and the guys who can afford a 3 D pin printer in the backyard and have a collection of Arduinos and step motors and do whatever with them and their kids in 7 Learning scratch is not that big you know in southern what are they doing they don't have much resources that always problem solving that always making a plan incredibly innovative minds and so the distances and fast at all and this is something you
know I'd like to to you leave with you today is that crowdsourced astronomy you know we must think of the whole crowd you know we have awesome technology we have the the normal citizen science projects you know with the
software and hardware we getting there and then there's the rest of the world and they can be brought on board and we don't have to take you know a long
time will be still you know having go so he through you know and so modems whatever we can just bring them on board and teach them the programming and the scratch knowledge
and see what they come up with because they have been thinking problems that they wanna sold and it's so much fun and so this is it's really this is the crowd
is everybody on the planet and astronomy has the power of inspiration the power of perspective the and the power that is actually a science and
it's a tinkerer science so if we can hack bring people on board and In this perspective I think we can go quite far thank you
you the the thank you very much but there are currently no money Monday toy no
Islamic mcmuffin and further so the poles of a and it's here vital and it's good good at the was smoke is like and in a moment
normal iAeneid most of us have quizzes either of the underlying theory in the hands of the digitalization regions may a and a of good so models and home by yet
togetherness and added to the system that will come under the different happy ending and in a switch hitting the size still yesterday you all heard in the welcoming ceremony and also when Max was introducing factor and that have a situation that 1 of us because God and so it is high mass and great stories from Africa and now we can tell you the happy ending of like a European afro of cooperation and and I'd like you will it's
it's to give a warm welcome to and then cut too high and rest the of making the product thanks goodness of them 1
of the new so much for the new year and then I is that the map and what think you so I don't know where R movies in which you know with the same situation but I'm really happy to be here on the 1 I'm really thankful of with the support of the conference and that have you to represent the of Herbie Madagascar and I'm really thankful reading and no I don't have to remind you that kind of thing I had a special thank you special thank you to my house
learning from the Foreign Office announced that Saddam to help make this possible you be speaking
here tomorrow at lunchtime on a panel on export control for to use software so we can also thank him and then have a much higher if you can if you if you better