Brutality and Complexity in the Global Economy

Video in TIB AV-Portal: Brutality and Complexity in the Global Economy

Formal Metadata

Brutality and Complexity in the Global Economy
Title of Series
Number of Parts
CC Attribution - ShareAlike 3.0 Germany:
You are free to use, adapt and copy, distribute and transmit the work or content in adapted or unchanged form for any legal purpose as long as the work is attributed to the author in the manner specified by the author or licensor and the work or content is shared also in adapted form only under the conditions of this license.
Release Date

Content Metadata

Subject Area
Word Kolmogorov complexity Data acquisition Bit Series (mathematics) Instance (computer science) Metropolitan area network Computer programming
Complex (psychology) Type theory Arithmetic mean Dynamical system Googol Software Information File format Physical law Tracing (software) Theory Element (mathematics)
Time zone Open source Euler angles File format State of matter Phase transition Physical law Quicksort Disk read-and-write head Rule of inference Spacetime God
Domain name Constraint (mathematics) Set (mathematics) Bit Field (computer science)
Type theory Arithmetic mean Radio-frequency identification State of matter Multiplication sign Mobile Web Instance (computer science) Social class Stability theory
Arithmetic mean Functional (mathematics) Content (media) Bit Inequality (mathematics) Window Social class
Frequency Category of being Website Acoustic shadow
Video game Website Circle Lie group Acoustic shadow Inequality (mathematics) Theory Window Product (business) Spacetime
Focus (optics) Hypermedia Branch (computer science) Quicksort Table (information) Inequality (mathematics) Power (physics)
Point (geometry) Type theory Data recovery Power (physics) God
Category of being Complex (psychology) Mixture model Arithmetic mean Logic State of matter Power (physics)
Mixture model Category of being Standard error Bit Quicksort Frame problem Element (mathematics) Power (physics)
Information Sound effect Quicksort
Information Computer configuration State of matter Statement (computer science) Bit Element (mathematics) Wave packet Power (physics)
Bridging (networking) Cellular automaton Right angle Quicksort
Medical imaging Frequency Default (computer science) Pointer (computer programming) Multiplication sign Expression Variance Element (mathematics)
Point (geometry) Word Multiplication sign Network topology
Point (geometry) Proof theory Frequency Multiplication sign Social class
Type theory Physical law Set (mathematics) Price index Power (physics)
Point (geometry) Source code Algorithm Digital electronics Channel capacity Link (knot theory) Neighbourhood (graph theory) 1 (number) Electronic mailing list Mereology Mereology Power (physics) Number Mixed reality Personal digital assistant Physicist Order (biology) Ranking Modul <Datentyp> Quicksort Abstraction Resultant
Trail Dynamical system Process (computing) Physical law Materialization (paranormal) Set (mathematics) Insertion loss
Source code Table (information) Bridging (networking) Multiplication sign Neighbourhood (graph theory) Materialization (paranormal) Data structure Number Physical system
Average Multiplication sign Right angle Metadata
Area Source code Figurate number Stability theory
Source code Mathematics Explosion Term (mathematics) Chain Cuboid Right angle Local ring Form (programming)
PC Card Inheritance (object-oriented programming) Prime ideal Green's function Website Maxima and minima Quicksort Figurate number Mereology Local ring Product (business) Number
Metre Building Direction (geometry) Modal logic Instance (computer science) Office suite Quicksort Mereology Power (physics) Form (programming)
Axiom of choice Block (periodic table) Personal digital assistant Operator (mathematics) Set (mathematics) Spacetime
Building Term (mathematics) Energy level Acoustic shadow Quicksort Spacetime
Category of being Frequency Different (Kate Ryan album) Term (mathematics) Keyboard shortcut Graph (mathematics) Self-organization Acoustic shadow Parameter (computer programming) Mereology Condition number
Arithmetic mean Software Matrix (mathematics) Similarity (geometry)
Electric generator Phase transition Acoustic shadow Form (programming) Formal language
Building Electric generator Latin square Local area network State of matter Modal logic Latin square Counting Mereology Measurement Process (computing) Different (Kate Ryan album) Figurate number Acoustic shadow Task (computing)
Computer virus Different (Kate Ryan album) State of matter Multiplication sign Telecommunication Right angle Water vapor
Ocean current Point (geometry) Window Formal language
Area Arithmetic mean Game controller Transformation (genetics) Multiplication sign Energy level Water vapor Bit Mereology Extension (kinesiology) Public key certificate
Point (geometry) Curve Focus (optics) Graph (mathematics) Set (mathematics) Line (geometry) Number Twitter
Source code Derivation (linguistics) Real number Line (geometry) Mass Limit (category theory) Sturm's theorem Computer programming Number
Word Goodness of fit Graph (mathematics) Term (mathematics) State of matter Acoustic shadow Formal language
Word Source code Graph (mathematics) State of matter
Point (geometry) Physical law Motion capture Insertion loss Line (geometry) Revision control Frequency Crash (computing) Process (computing) Pointer (computer programming) Fehlerschranke Right angle Stability theory
Revision control Source code Frequency Personal identification number State of matter Natural number Different (Kate Ryan album) Thermal expansion Bit Plastikkarte Rule of inference Social class
Building Multiplication sign Order (biology) Office suite Quicksort Mass Inequality (mathematics) Power (physics) Formal language
Greatest element Multiplication sign Shared memory Motion capture Set (mathematics) Control flow Insertion loss Total S.A. Twitter Revision control Negative number Pattern language Series (mathematics) Data structure Position operator
Arithmetic mean Building Telecommunication Multiplication sign Mass Information security Element (mathematics)
Algorithm Operator (mathematics) Telecommunication Set (mathematics) Mathematician
Word Mapping Expert system Set (mathematics) Public domain Quicksort Information security
Self-organization Acoustic shadow
Torus Multiplication State of matter Source code Order (biology) Physical law Quicksort Object (grammar) Partial derivative Exception handling
Standard deviation State of matter Physical law Bit Instance (computer science) Frequency Word Order (biology) Right angle Absolute value Information security Metropolitan area network Exception handling Physical system God
Arithmetic mean Personal digital assistant Average Branch (computer science) Quicksort System call Transverse wave Condition number
Domain name Type theory Group action State of matter Term (mathematics) Physical law Set (mathematics) Bit Quicksort Event horizon Exception handling
Multiplication sign Data acquisition Bit
at the end of it
and the back
well it's an enormous pleasure to be here and I love those d inside all this man so that thing that beautiful of it's gone have a so and I want to talk with you and I hope that after words we have some questions and comments I want to talk about a kind of reality in the making that I find extremely troublesome I was doing an interview for is the the f program on well we all know the issues with Google but who will atleast gives us something we use it but there are other realities that only take and I want to talk a bit about that and I think that this is a very troubled at book and partly because when dealing with a whole series of intermediation into mediations are difficult to track when using mobile there is or will we know about it it's a company it has a headquarters it actually has many headquarters a but there are other realities is that that are not that way they really are the losers so in my mind for instance 1 of the things that's happening today can I
interrupt I hear an echo can you hear me well no problem so it says that that may be there so I I want 1
of the the formations that I see marriage is something I refer to as predatory formations the press predators actually they're often very nice animals and we need them in the biosphere Virgina predatory also is that other just purely negative meaning grabbing taking destroying to take and these are predator information that constituted by a technical networks elites pieces of law types of accounting so even if we took all those predatory elites which is different from predator information that would put them all a wall we got rid of them we would not get rid of some of these dynamics that I want to talk about it so 1 way of putting it is that while we are very concerned and I think justifiably so with the whole question of Google and how you know that the traces that it only needs I want to talk about a larger uh complex of elements that we also need to take into account and and and and I should say that that I've come to understand that in my research and theorization practice I really an into the discovery not
replicating which is work mostly happens in the social sciences that discovery and in that effort to discover to trash to match which isn't quite
fully visible and fully mass but I need to sort of this is all of freedom on the social scientists so you know you have to adhere to certain rules that I need is is the space before I call it the the method states that have already talked about it and other talks with some of you might have heard this that it is in a way reminiscent to what Kafka our and then also the that talk about this phase before the law and Kafka God that's the easy for the law this is Phase I of terror because you cannot control the law because the law might come down and chop off your head or it is the state of a kind of mental indignation and this is covered in his writing right not terror the indignation and for me it's the zone of epistemic indignation the way a suppose that truth is constructed to does violence to the the neo liberal explanation of what is happening in the world it does violence to me that it is a mental violence so this is a very mental attitudes and so in this film the format that the kind of stuff that I do and the kinds of features that I want to discover I added to the required if you want to what I think of as analytic tactics and I want to dwell on
this a bit because I think that in many different domains i the the set of useful instruments and so on but when when you speak when an ice because an academic as a social scientist
etc. and the question of elaborating those freedoms when in fact most of what is legitimate knowledge which is legitimate social science really produces constraints doesn't allow you to say anything is is getting translated translated their own are not a german is everybody understanding my english I thought you were seeing it in German there but that's just
more English I like that twice the question is does double English become something of course that's an interesting question and so on so here have a few of these analytic tactics that can be used by an ordering of and use them in many different fields
so 1 of them is at a time of instability I think
this is such that it becomes very important as a researcher for me at least to actively destabilize complex meanings that have become stable for instance the
economy the middle class those state these types of things how they are never fully stable but for a while they acquire a certain kind of stability today I think we MUST what does the state mean today simply does not mean what it meant 30 years ago what went Germany has a special history of course you but in many countries you know what it meant 70 years ago it says that it is a transform meaning of the question of
inequality poverty middle class all of these issues you know are in unstable but I think what I'm talking about is the need to actively destabilized rather than as a tool that you know and very often these meanings
are sufficiently complex that when you say immigration the economy the function as invitations not to
think because become charged with so much content and that is what needs to be destabilized what is today immigration it is different from 30 years ago it raises other issues when citizens are also losing ground you know transversal solidarities should be happening not happening but they should be happening they're happening a bit the 2nd 1 powerful explanations you can fill a powerful explanation or a powerful category out of the window but which you can because the reason you can throw them out of the window is that they are made collectively they come out
of long periods of finding out what what does this mean what does that mean they do explain when we say the poverty when we say immigration we are also explaining something where capturing something that which you can do is I ask
what don't I seen when I simply invoke this powerful category this powerful meaning and so I find that again next false not take that the site of research for me in my 30 years I'm a grandmother so I've been at it for a long time for in these 30 years this is this site really what where I do my research where I do my theoretical work is in the shadows if you want in the penumbra around a powerful explanation so if you think of a powerful explanation as a
circle of light on the dark street up dark nite on the street the stronger the life in that circle the more you can see everything inside the circle but the more difficult it is to see what
lies in the penumbra around that circle of light so that is the tension that I'm interested in right I don't want to throw a powerful explanations which our collective productions after all out of the window but I do want to understand what I don't I see when I am in that circle of light I need to call crawl and explore it that in that the none wrapped around it and so my site for research and for theorization has been that around that you know that space in darkness and shadows around that circle of light now there is another issue that for me seems extremely important is not simply to talk about inequality injustice justice whenever the to to actually ask how is it
made yeah I mean not made as you might make a table but still made so I'm interested in the making of inequality inequality doesn't just fall from the sky
it is made power is made justice and injustice Abdul made this is the focus that is partial because the other thing there are inherited genealogies of meaning there are all kinds of other things but capturing this made seems particularly important to me in this at all because in this ethnically sort of our confronted with enormously powerful your actual global finance that the executive branch of government think of Angela Merkel how much power over all set their happening
up things that we my god it so much power it was made it is made it can be unmade to my concern really is yes it's partial but it is about capturing and recovery and this making now I think that most of us in our sort of
Western-style societies we have become consumers consumers of of our citizenship of in all of our whatever it is that the explanations that we accept and we have to become makers against so in there also handset type of issue for me on and the final point that I'm probably not going to get at is that it this is about and we the book it I'm writing as soon as I finish 1 book and already
writing the next 1 so and and here I want to go back to a complex category territory which are which has been
taking a very long analytic CSS it has 1 meaning today and when no matter how complex it is it is there only 1 meaning it's not working analytically and that 1 meaning today's national sovereign territory so my question is if I take this complex category and I should probably explain I think of territory as a as a mixture yes sure ground land but it is not it is not terrain it is not simply ground it's not simply land it has embedded logics of power which is our modernity in our western modernity became the state it has embedded logics of playmaking which again in our modernity becomes CitySearch so once you think that
altogether territory is actually an extraordinary mixture of elements and I want to free it up so that it can work out analytically and and think of look at some of these realities that I that I want
to now start uh describing here in the what what do I see if I use this category territory there was this complex situation where both power and playmaking come together now to frames
what I what I want to talk about a bit more empirically now I sort of have this little question it 1 way of framing it and that is half what's the
steam engine of our at our now I'm giving you a 2nd to come up with an answer and I won't ask you to speak here and so they're I'm hoping that some of you are thinking
about this question and that you have sort of a sense when I ask people they usually say information technology that is the steam engine I see no partly as a provocation because the information to guide users so pervasive so powerful that we saw effect but of course it is the steam engine of our approach so partly as a provocation but partly because I also believe it I don't think it is information technologies because information technologies are
extraordinary intermediary things that can be used in many different ways so there is a bit of the steam engine and this is the steam engine I also mean an element that is the steam engine itself the train the steam engine train cetera and that is also
indirectly present in just about all of the sectors so it's that kind of powerful presence so information technologies are a good option I say today it's global finance now quick little statement here finance is not back finance is not about the money finance is a
capability and that is why it is powerful and dangerous it shaped and reshaped our lives our economies our states a whole lot of things so so
I think of our sort of the distinction if you want between banking traditional banking and finance is that the banking a bank sells something money it had this finer cell something it does not occur and in that setting what you understood finance right and in that setting what it does
not have a lot its creativity is and it's danger because it creates a rich after the British after the bridge
into everything it needs to invade other sectors and that innovation happens in a certain mole through instruments that are elaborated in
financial firms in way and it needs if you want grist for its male that's a very English expression I don't know that and what it means in German but I hope variance so it needs something of a million it's something to make that animal work and this is in a way which financed us now let me give you an image very quickly here of finance as capability to
look at this I don't have a pointer but look at this in 6 years that's a very short period of time so this is particular instrument that is just 1 element that very innovative credit default swaps went from less than a trillion 2 16 tall trade I know that in Europe is sometimes use Chilean
differently to living is a lot of uh and on the on the on the side where it actually counts and now 62 trillion was smaller than the global
GDP of in other words it's GDP of all the economies in the world in that same year which is 54 try out
and this 62 trillion in that year 2 0 0 7 that high point was only 10 per cent of the global value of finance which was 600 30 tree that is almost 15 time global GDP now those 630 trillion it doesn't exist as money we have a very hard time knowing how much
money actually money money you know way that currency exist at any given time including today you exactly how much but we know that it is much less than what finance can achieve so the value of finance in the last year has gone from has gone has reached a point trillions quadrillions is even more zeros 3 more zeros than trillions of OK so what like that that does not exist this class so in that sense capability capability in the sense of how rapidly it can grow and capability because
it produces a venue that we monetize that actually doesn't exist when the crisis came 208 prices you see that little decline already 45 of these trillion work along in a period of a month proof like that as if they had never existed not because of a
pile of actual cash over no because some traders went wrong that we give you an example this is an instrument that has been used by many firms and also by municipal governments so a year ago some of you may have read that 40 municipalities in it to the municipal governments protect all Baltic alone and they thought it was a known as certain types of law and the same type of loan from a European bank whose name shall remain on set for a while at
least here and 1 day and they were painted of the thought that they were paying a monthly interest on the loan 1 about a year ago they find out that it was a derivative and they all went broke because the whole thing disappear suddenly they were in debt it nothing with that and those 40 municipalities that were able to that thought they were able to pay alone they discover that didn't have enough so that is also an indication of the power
there are many many such stories and I want to show so now what I want you to show next is one's all which which again
tells us the power of finance and the capacity that finance
has had to invade invade all kinds of sector and so this is
sort of the extreme case and you see the phrasing here when modest neighborhoods become part of global finance and the issue here if you want dates how does finance so complex the algorithms made by physicists not even by microeconomists how this is actually build the bridge into
modest neighborhoods now some of you already read all of this I don't want to to to to serve repeated the key point is that power in the 2 thousands the high-level investors you were saying to the financial world to develop some instruments that have real stuff backing them now in the United States at that point just about everything had been financial last what was left was modest households that didn't own a house who inevitably we're going to have a very modest holds that they would fight so what was the challenge of finance to D link the value of those little houses from the instrument that was going to go and produce lots of profits in the high finance circuit it took 16 steps again in the manner of physicists to dealing with the modest house and to create to invent an instrument mixed up with high that great I know there's a bit abstract for those of you who are not familiar but it doesn't matter if you don't totally understand out this is just a minute of this sort of of your stuff and in order to produce something that really great all of profit that we just be brief but here I want to show you the results so in a very short brutal history that begins and a 5 from continues today to 2013 and 2014 but over 30 million houses were brought under foreclosure according to our central bank 10 million households + was thrown out of their homes because because of the instrument was not designed to protect them to give them a house and all the instrument they were used now this brilliant design has also entered Europe so if you look at at the numbers are smaller but if you look at the European countries I have in the book the list of the 27 EU not quite the 20 now where 28 as you know and have the highest foreclosure include Germany now all you read about Germany in the Financial Times which is a very serious newspaper and what you here is that
Germany's doing find it is doing fine incredibly fine actually but this also a linear beneath there that is quite invisible where there is impoverishment there is loss of protection such as track including
every as you see every year 90 thousand 80 thousand 86 thousand set of people thrown out of their homes now and then among the law once it's Bulgaria Finland Denmark Netherlands milk country estate these kinds of dynamics and these are
processes that and so what what interests me also this how invisible they can become there's a kind of invisibility no matter the materiality so if I go back to the prior slide of
here the numbers just to make the numbers fat glory so take you know these 10 million households households can be 1 person to the it's about 30 million
people and Dutch my country has 60 million people it sets if some voices from up there would
say OK everybody on the territory of the Netherlands out out of your house is out of this territory where you go I don't know that out and now we're going to repeat it again as an exercise that is the
materiality and this is quite this is because the neighborhoods are there and all these MD houses mean goals that nobody goes there the tent cities that have been set up on the outskirts of cities they're all the same little tennis of in the international refugee system blue where means nobody goes that so there is there this is the issue of how we can produce vast meant to the structure and it is not necessarily visible now I want to to continue with with something that concerns us all actually and that is what what is the bridge that finance can build into our homes modernist homes included so the user here is again a short brutal history and look at the time you just each of you don't look at all the numbers and is going to emphasize a few so 1st the tighter ratio of household credit that sounds great
doesn't credit money to spend well no it is that it is not money to spend this is
actually dead so the ratio of household debt to personal disposable income this is I metadata and they have it for the whole world look at Hungary 2 thousand it is 11 per cent very reasonable by then in the United States it was already over 100 per cent so there were a
hundred per cent in debt the average household right and you hungry
again 5 years later 40 per cent that is the debt you understand that as a huge increase 4 times more than than 5
years later of debt and if you look at United States it was already
132 versus now look at Germany 70 70 17 78 quite amazing that kind of stability it is almost funding now when I see these kinds of figures I want to know who owns that if a little
local that traditional bank loans and debt put to pay an interest some of it at least is going to circulate in the town in that area whatever if a big foreign bank owns it probably to stick it out the chances that it will recirculate and minimal and so I went digging into the IMF papers the iron that actually has a
vast amount of data is very boring to sort through it but you know you can really find interesting when I find this interesting I know that everybody does so look at Hungary 40 per cent this is for 2 of 6 40 per cent of that dead is owned by foreign banks no they're not all Americans it's Swiss German and Austrian advanced form that that chances are they're not recirculating those terms of the people pay in the little town taking it out who knows where it
goes to any franchise does that by the way the franchise he's sure that you know what I mean by franchise right like a hotel chain or our star box whatever you know main change pyruvate is taken out sticking out of the locality rather than its ability so when you have your own coffee shop out of local stuff that tends to recirculate
much more whereas any franchise is going to take part of it out and probably take it in you know creates some complex financial instruments out of it so it's very good to have better locality generates of it's all sort of sites for consumption for
production at center now the there is another side to this story which
is an invented market which is just the opposite these other the super rich and 2 stories that this someone to run very quickly through this but this is that what you see here these figures these numbers are the minimum prize for a house or an apartment
it's a special market it operates in about 20 cities and it's a part of a serious you know storing and those are the main nationalities is mostly foreign by where involved it's a market that started maybe 5 or 7 years
ago now here is more than just going to run through this and more so so here's what I want to capture from this you actually you
stand back and ask yourself what am I seeing in the super prime market and this is just houses this doesn't involve office buildings and all of that that's also get involved but I think that what's happening here is the buying of urban land how do you buy the land you divide as land you buy it in the form of buildings and so if you take for instance the center of London the hyper like the financial center at such a 70 per cent and 1 that is a powerful cm of concern so concerned about it that 70 % of the buildings are owned by foreign capital and that is a story that repeats itself Berlin in that sense it's quite special the various also going in that direction you know that that traveling has for quite a while but certainly when meters stocks are been so generated its own sort of squatting modalities in small ownership that there is a
real push in the world to buy urban land and so in many cases really its commercial operations so you made by a set of blocks with little streets etc. and they made it into 1 owned complex but something that is all that means that that
privatizing all that which was 1 street space so when you go to some some city that is you know a global city etc. I there is a lot of that
happening and that to me also choice the whole notion of the city the city as a public notice should the public space that is the street estates MockWrite indeterminacies you all over determined that this is if you create a
shopping mall well once you have urban tissue lots of illustrates a lot of little houses low shops you simplify that stays and in that sense I think that 1 of the my sort of reading 1 of the challenges today in terms of urban space is this issue of indeterminancy we and whose indeterminancy but over determining stays the same thing with the super prime housing built by 5 little houses and make what we call a Mac mentioned you know what I mean right a huge so so these are a whole series of dynamic so if I wanted to find it you know what I see in the shadows all of this dominant thing about buying houses and buildings what I see is the binding of urban land now that's a whole new frontier in
on some level since the buying of land that is not urban is an older story and here 1 of 1 way of
of shifting now to a different kind of binding of land and I want to frame
it in this sense again in the shadows of this dominant category that everybody speaking about urbanization and getting very very irritated when I hear politicians who have never ever been interested in the city all not saying most people in the world live in cities you know and that's all always in the city is the
city is a city he the argument that I'm trying to make is that there is a whole history that is part of this organization but it is in the
shadows around that urban conditions so here's what I'm talking about talking about what we call land graphs right you know what I'm at that means that an N and basically to put it in empirical terms there are about 15 governments yes it includes China includes the Gulf countries but it also includes the UK the United States Sweden South Korea all bunch of countries very diverse countries and about 100 plus firms now I'm talking about a particular period 2 0
6 2 2010 it continues there is still on where over 200 million hectares that we can count this global network called land matrix what has been bought now when China just to mention 1 country have because as I said there are many to
China 2 . 8 million hectares of land in Zambia and a similar amount in Congo these are things that happen just a few years ago to set up a plantation of Paul for biofuels what actually happened but what happens is now use if pictures of Florence fall announced but also rural economies of villages that have long genealogies of meaning that
have forms of knowledge that they have had for generations it is total you but 1 thing that also happens is where
do those people goal guess what able to cities that the city is the last phase of big on marketing cities are the places where you can actually still cannot find places to put your body down so to say and you have the slums around them it's so back to the shadows what's in the shadows of urbanization in the shadows of urbanization of this urbanization language is a whole world that is absolutely not over like these land grants I hope that I'm making myself clear here so in the same
way that in the shadows of buying buildings and houses in cities lies deeper process which is the privatizing of urban Latin which is happening in many different modalities and you just to give you some some figures in Africa look at the yellow problems Africa remains the key destination but you know
what it's happening in other parts of the world as well and is happening in Europe in Europe and it looks so small because the counts sensors the measure here is at least 200 Hector task well you
know in Europe 200 hectares all so there are many smaller amounts of land that I get involved by corporate private firms Our that that and not getting counted differences in France in France there is a kind of a new generation of men and women who want to do that kind of farming that that was you know small farm so they're very productive very well run they can't find LAN to France in a France as a rural states they can find it why because it's all bought all this is just the history that is just beginning
and an end to our in in I just spent some time in Cambridge shy and that of the awful
Cambridge Higher Self like in all the time so that is right around the mid university in other was a very close to London you know who's behind land there I mean buying a off lot of the Mormons from you which are a corporation you it's a huge corporation they're buying land in many different places once you begin to dig
into its history it is quite a standard what always happening by the way in Africa into also think right before the crisis explodes but we
know that the financial world knew that the crisis was in the making and was coming guess who were the main virus of last in Sub-Saharan Africa in 2 of 6 it lasted for about 6 months hedge funds not you know what a hedge fund is a financial firm + Goldman Sachs JP Morgan pick financial firms they bought land in Russia in Ukraine and clearly they were buying land not because they wanted to become farmers that was not what they wanted to become that they me that liquid investment stands for industrial crops state to make biofuels for fault crops for water for rare earth another rare earth right the our what we use a lot in our electronics uh gear
still so this is the this is deeper story that is happening work chunks of last inside countries are bought by foreign firms and by foreign countries by foreign governments so that I see that is white territory as I said at the beginning to be becomes an interesting window a window onto onto current
history in the making of most kind of arrangements that is very material moreover itself and is different from the usual way that we see it was the language of imperialism the language of you know whatever so I Edison hoping again to see something now just a final point on this this is what
most of the latter 2 that is measured remain there more acquisitions that we may not necessarily have the data for and as you see the me use of that land that is involved is for biofuels now that has consequences so it's not for 4 people often think it's for for which no it's not now there are 2 issues here that that that are consequential 1 of them is that
when you when you are planting a lot of biofuel crops like soit you're actually bringing about humbler among the workers because a workers Gravano planting what they can eat and they might just generate their own little farming it's such a set up of the planting something that they cannot
meet so in parts of Argentina and Brazil where you have long had a whole lot I mean poverty but not hunger in rural areas you now have homework and these are also the city's micro histories that come with some of these transformations secondly when you're when you're growing biofuel mean
industrial crops you can put pesticides and fertilizers to a much larger extent than you can with food crops which have a bit of certification controls so that means that the level of poisoning and toxicity of the land in the water and what is grown is very very high which means that all around
the smaller farm areas that may stay in the area their their land and their water sources are also contaminated so that is another way in which these people even if their farmers and this to have their land it is poised to and so they also eventually leave for the city's so the matter how you look at it is a very problematic storing now I I let me check my clock because I don't have a good sense of my time
OK so so I want to very quickly wrong but not describe because I want to begin to wrap up on a set of curve I like to do these graphs where you have a lot of a lot of numbers
but you make them into a line rather than a matrix and so it lying in
that actually tells a tale alignment tells the story and so here are some of them and you would I would not you to
point to note is that what this is about corporate profits the focus here the data come from the United States but the trends are quite similar in the in Germany and in other rich countries now so you have
this you know because it's in billions you wouldn't
know what that straight line means not that they were doing nothing but that it was the low billions you know the BN the zeros have really been multiplied as it begins to blow up in the seventies in the in the nineties when the
global economy globalization's saying it's not just limited number but it's very large and then it goes up very sharply
sharp fall that's the crises which lasted about half an hour exaggerated it's more like 2 years and then it goes even higher profits right now are higher than they were before the
crisis now that is partly because our governments have passed on massive amounts of real cash not the derivatives is money our money the United States Government put at the disposal of the global top banks including German banks 7 trillion dollars of citizens money that's a lot and we now know from Freedom of Information Act that 21 thousand plus requests came mainly from German banks Austrian banks Swiss banks French banks etcetera etcetera etcetera plus all kinds of American firms yes I will take your T cash in the meantime of course we're cutting programs to feed the poor at at such as the need to develop that is really that and here's another 1 this is corporate
assets look here you don't even have a data when the crisis of it's like they happily keep on growing even as 10 million households have thrown out of their houses long term unemployment increases the little firms go broke owners of firms
commit suicide because they can't manage it any more and here corporate efforts just grow happily these are extraordinary dysfunctions so in the shadows of this language of Christ that we the citizens of these countries have state we have delivered the goods to our government will then deliver the goods to of these kinds of characters you grows
grows growth now here's 1 of states this is the opposite this I decided not to put in a graph that looks even during the summer the increased debt that our governments have now don't even Germany was in the
19 eighties from 13 per cent to 44 % 3 3 fold
increase of the United States calls from 25 to 61 again a threefold increase starting from a higher so those are increases that say we the citizens are indebted our debt is growing it said that managed
handled by our states but it is our debt we have to recognize that our state and we should we occupy it and make it work differently
right that is not the state that's our state we are partly that state now use another graph which to me tells the tale in
extreme version for the United States but in milder versions everywhere and this is a hundred years moral that's almost spectacles on till 2010 is cut off here so it is almost really 100 years now what this shows you
is the capture of income and this is not well this is income from jobs of the top 10 % errors it was up to 47 per cent in the high point in the early nineties which then ends with the big crash on Wall Street right labels will down stays more stable that is the period I wish I had a pointer go that law line of the canes unions that that indirectly tells you the loss of of capture at the
tall is the gain of a middle class 19 eightyseven rule it goes out and in fact if you look at it it goes up further further you know if you extend so this to me
captures the particularity
of that period when we had the expansion of the middle class then and state of nature for capitalism for a capitalism that has the corporate where that's finance our
industrial it's really those 2 other periods that has the accept and it lasted for about 40 years you know it varies a bit in different countries and here you have another version now again this is the United States this is growth in after-tax income from 1979
to 2 0 7 by now we have the 2010 census and the strangest that just goes up to the top 1 per cent has almost 300 per cent increase in those 30 years in again this this is income this is not well wealth grew even more sharply half almost
half of the people who had almost no growth but the visual order of these 30 years with the visual order of the global city fantastic new looks really restaurants look really office buildings luxury blob not so that when when I was doing
my research in the eighties on the global city I was saying we're ahead at all chapter that we're heading to was going inequality he was if you look at the New York used to be poor and now it is reinvent it and you could say that for all kinds of cities for long and productive here for Paris for front for general in their how they sort of rebuild the mutually city and so the visual auditory talked a language of everything is good getting better these big cities were quite had become quite poor you know in the fifties and the sixties because they were not these massive centers of power and sort of corporate power so this to me again tell us quite a detail and here's another kind of growth well wealth so this is from 1962 to 2010 for the known as time sure the top 1 per cent of wealth they were
always getting a good chair and you put in the 2000 it should off know and that is the time of the crises as well that is in for a lot of people it went down the loss and here's another 1 share of total wealth gain
from 83 to 2010 the bottom you know up to the 4th up to the 4th thing so that is quite a share of the population has no loss to 1 3rd of the
house have lost well wealth and because any breaks down in the top 1 per cent of 95 % it's all there now if you do that for Germany you are not going to find such an extreme but you're going to find the pattern this pattern is everywhere this is telling us that whatever the intermediate structures that prevented this extreme capture at the top of the week and we have capture at the top so and here's another 1 totally different this is internally displaced people I have a whole series of Dexter positions of increased imprisonment in the United States the population that has been increased has increased by 8 100 per cent from 1980 to today that is an extreme version of a trend that is also happening in the UK and Australia it's not not by Germany there this is displayed here so these are negatives that are all growing it's just an extraordinary set of land because now I want to conclude with something
about unstable meanings and focusing on the notion of membership and really who are we today the citizens who are was and adenine citizens in the narrow sense I mean those who reside in a country
in a church or it could be immigrants not to arrest us that you know people who live here and so I want to show you a mass and went to make 2
comments so this is a matter of 10 thousand buildings that our full time data gathering about all our acts of communication so they're very busy 24 hours non-stop 1 million top-secret clearance Mr. Snowden comes out of that 1 million to have
1 million top secret clearance it's used secondly it's actually quite international you know the the set of all of the data at the top levels because if your best algorithm builder there is a Russian
mathematician you're hired that most of these are private firms this this operation is done mostly by private firms on behalf of our
government and so this is a government operation but subcontractors so there's all kind of gathering data about all of us all are acts of communication is very very international and I always say that's the most sympathetic pyruvate denoting sympathy but of course what
they're doing is not so great now I want to mention 2 things this matter from 2010 before Mr. Snowden this matter is in the public domain The Washington Post a well-established newspaper did it had 16 top people working at it it was a lot of work created an interactive set
of I really recommend people going to see if this is just 1 map of that when I would talk to people about this before Mr. distilled I don't mean to experts in a bid to sort of more general audiences they simply could not related the yes they so it they understood the words but the reality was to March to understand I thought that was very
interesting and I'll tell you why I thought that was interesting when Mr. Snowden's story becomes a global
story people begin to understand something that was happening in their country and when I would then posts noted presented this data and more data like this they could relate to the had questions they wanted to know so this some of this comes back to where I started you know what is it that we see again the center of light and not produced in the shadows of that stuff and I think that and for me as a researcher organizations becomes critical you why is it that certain material realities
become invisible if we don't have the intermediation of some sort of a story or a torus sizing of something like the story of who
will help will right now becomes an object of multiple criticisms because we have undistort that this is data gathering that data is a source of profit that data can be used in many
different ways you know we need intermediation in order to understand the reality or what I was saying about all those people have been thrown out of their homes invisible not that they are not visible
understanding and you can see them with this high but you cannot see them with that conceptual i that passes narrative attached to it I find that really interesting now the 2nd issue I want to point out is given this set and by the way it's also in Germany you know that you bowls this is enabled by the way in the UK in Germany in the United States this notion of data gathering about the citizens that falls to the outside standard law is enabled because all of us all of our governments are existing right now under a state of exception it's partial but it's so
for instance people I I 1st understood that about Germany when some people were thrown in jail attorney general by orders of Attorney General Germany captured them but the
Mandela didn't inform anybody in other words absolute violation of standard law habeas corpus such the United States this is happening quite a bit with aspects of terrorism and system mostly Muslim man and on and this is what the state state of exception in needles which is that this is after all a state of except in other words the security right securities state is is that the justification is 0 my god I have to end now alright but the justification is that the the country and that means of all of us are under threat threat you know in our particular period it is the threat of terrorism and on so so this also comes out
of that and so that the question that I have is you under these conditions for why we need this
assistance what this is really mean and here this issue that I was saying at the beginning that the executive branch of government has been a real partner for the making of this global corporate and financial world that is really demolishing big honks of our average citizens reality that port how we any you almost feel again when I say citizen I mean full-time residents of a country I don't mean as they could be immigrants to him but it's it's the generous meaning of citizens where we the citizens how we knew colonials you hold are going and what I want to bring out of that this is sort of a call for transversality it's not that we
all love each other know but that's our destiny is going to have to be more marked by the transversal solidarities and understand not love in agreement but solidarity growing in Latin America up in Latin America
solidarity is the term not empathy you need to have and the with some they agree with how they're feeling or agree whether no will share their suffering event that was a bit problematic solidarity is foundational strong and has a sort of indifference to the emotional side of it right that that is what we are going to need each other with going to have to make a new type of citizenship where it coalesces when using all of our states and these western leading states they all have a state of exception that I repeat enables the State to violate its own foundation law some actually needs to be taken and I think the actions that are happening that are being taken our all focused on very specialised domains which I think is good that is the only way to do it probably but there's also this more if you want a general set of issues so now I'm going to shut up and
here we have a bit of time for questions thank you very much for the few
mn back