Diamonds are a quantum computers best friend

Video in TIB AV-Portal: Diamonds are a quantum computers best friend

Formal Metadata

Diamonds are a quantum computers best friend
Title of Series
Number of Parts
CC Attribution - ShareAlike 3.0 Germany:
You are free to use, adapt and copy, distribute and transmit the work or content in adapted or unchanged form for any legal purpose as long as the work is attributed to the author in the manner specified by the author or licensor and the work or content is shared also in adapted form only under the conditions of this license.
Release Date

Content Metadata

Subject Area
The next revolution in data processing is Quantum computing. This talk is an entertaining "tour de force" including a brief introduction to the fascinating yet strange theories of quantum physics, the concepts of using these in quantum computing and the latest results on qubits in devices made out of real diamonds. If you want to learn about the machines that decrypt your passwords in the coming years and how you can actually grow diamonds in your microwave oven (and who wouldn't?) this talk is for you!
Area Group action Moment (mathematics) Source code Data storage device Fitness function Computer Sound effect Volume (thermodynamics) FLOPS Student's t-test Orbit Product (business) Goodness of fit Hypermedia Data acquisition Quicksort Descriptive statistics Local ring Resultant Form (programming)
State observer Cellular automaton Multiplication sign Decision theory 1 (number) Expert system Volume (thermodynamics) Line (geometry) Rule of inference Measurement Process (computing) Visualization (computer graphics) Data acquisition Right angle Quicksort Resultant Physical system
Point (geometry) Rotation Shift operator Weight Execution unit Morley's categoricity theorem Open set Machine vision Element (mathematics) Type theory Digital photography Kernel (computing) Population density Different (Kate Ryan album) Video game Data Encryption Standard Mathematical optimization Capability Maturity Model
Greatest element Group action Functional (mathematics) Decision theory Execution unit Moisture Water vapor Binary file Dimensional analysis Mathematics Data acquisition Endliche Modelltheorie Quantum computer Form (programming) Social class Time zone Standard deviation Forcing (mathematics) Moment (mathematics) Diffuser (automotive) Sampling (statistics) Physicalism Category of being Arithmetic mean Voting Personal digital assistant Order (biology) Normal (geometry) Video game Speech synthesis Right angle Quicksort Resultant
Area Point (geometry) Standard deviation Functional (mathematics) Multiplication sign Control flow Distance Event horizon Computer System call Process (computing) Different (Kate Ryan album) Data acquisition Speech synthesis Quantum computer Reading (process)
Presentation of a group Multiplication sign Materialization (paranormal) Computer Bit Water vapor Online help Mass Computer Area Category of being Word Goodness of fit Physicist Data acquisition Universe (mathematics) Quantum mechanics Quantum computer Quantum computer Rhombus Social class
Algorithm Information Software developer Multiplication sign Materialization (paranormal) Computer 3 (number) Bit Shape (magazine) Evolute Surface of revolution Computer Power (physics) Surface of revolution Word Different (Kate Ryan album) Time evolution Game theory Quantum computer Quantum computer Rhombus
Metre Point (geometry) Vapor barrier Line (geometry) Scaling (geometry) Direction (geometry) Materialization (paranormal) Insertion loss Bit rate Counting Computer Theory Number Twitter Endliche Modelltheorie Traffic reporting Error message Social class Predictability Scaling (geometry) Closed set Surface Physical law Physicalism Fine-structure constant Bit Line (geometry) Cartesian coordinate system Limit (category theory) Process (computing) Moore's law Doubling the cube Physicist Quantum mechanics Physics
Probability distribution Simulation Building Vapor barrier Moment (mathematics) Sound effect Bit Special unitary group Mereology Line (geometry) Mereology Computer Quantum mechanics Core dump Videoconferencing Right angle Data structure Acoustic shadow Object (grammar) Quantum computer Quantum computer
Classical physics Noise (electronics) Information Direction (geometry) Physicalism Bit Mechanism design Velocity Physicist Universe (mathematics) Game theory Endliche Modelltheorie Quantum computer Position operator
Classical physics Distribution (mathematics) Vapor barrier User interface Multiplication sign Bit Computer Number Position operator Particle system Uncertainty principle Velocity Velocity Personal digital assistant Physicist Quantum mechanics Universe (mathematics) Physics Arrow of time Diagram Nichtlineares Gleichungssystem Quantum computer Position operator Quantum computer
Classical physics Presentation of a group Information Quantum state State of matter Control flow Bit Computer Category of being Particle system Word Qubit Velocity Physicist Core dump Information Quantum computer Superposition principle Position operator
Point (geometry) Position operator Randomization State of matter Different (Kate Ryan album) Calculation Universe (mathematics) Cuboid Complete metric space Disk read-and-write head Superposition principle Power (physics)
Classical physics Superposition principle Randomization State of matter Real number Direction (geometry) Multiplication sign Computer Food energy Field (computer science) Number Quantum entanglement Mathematics Qubit Root Different (Kate Ryan album) Cuboid Information Position operator Physical system Pairwise comparison Information Compass (drafting) Sound effect Bit Exergie Particle system Quantum entanglement Personal digital assistant Cube Physicist Phase transition Video game Pole (complex analysis)
Email Complex (psychology) Information State of matter Multiplication sign Bit Computer Power (physics) Quantum entanglement Particle system Quantum entanglement Atomic number Term (mathematics) Cube Universe (mathematics) Complex system Physical system
Complex (psychology) Observational study Image resolution Virtual machine Sound effect Physicalism Bit Computer Power (physics) Calculation Quantum mechanics Universe (mathematics) Quantum computer Resultant Quantum computer
Length Forcing (mathematics) Multiplication sign Classical physics Physical law Computer Sound effect Bit Cryptography Prime number Computer Number Power (physics) Roundness (object) Calculation Universe (mathematics) Encryption Universe (mathematics) Table (information) Quantum computer Router (computing) Routing Physical system
Classical physics Complex (psychology) Email Password Encryption Endliche Modelltheorie Communications protocol Quantum computer Computer RSA (algorithm) Quantum computer
Algorithm Polynomial Arm Information Multiplication sign Classical physics 1 (number) Database Exponential function Prime number Computer Number Prime ideal Strategy game Atomic number Single-precision floating-point format Universe (mathematics) Integer Software testing Quantum computer Integer Superposition principle Quantum computer Physical system
Trail Algorithm Closed set Multiplication sign Prime number Computer Quantum mechanics Integer Quantum computer Qubit Physical system Superposition principle Physical system
Algorithm Radio-frequency identification Software developer Uniqueness quantification Bit Nichtlineares Gleichungssystem Office suite Quantum computer Computer Resultant Physical system
Exterior algebra Perfect group Physicist Materialization (paranormal) Quantum computer Rhombus
Perfect group Quantum state Multiplication sign Surface Laser Computer Category of being Medical imaging Qubit Personal digital assistant Atomic number Cube Normal (geometry) Rhombus Rhombus
Slide rule Pulse (signal processing) Compass (drafting) Multiplication sign Direction (geometry) Bit Counting Laser Computer Food energy Measurement Natural number Single-precision floating-point format Energy level Pattern language Right angle Quantum computer Superposition principle Rhombus Physical system
Area Data mining Radical (chemistry) Natural number Moment (mathematics) Self-organization Right angle Office suite Food energy Qubit Rhombus
Metre Videoconferencing Rhombus
Inclusion map Rhombus
Shooting method Goodness of fit Perfect group Process (computing) Oval Multiplication sign Quantum computer Simulated annealing Rhombus
Slide rule Algorithm State of matter Bit Number Mathematics Password Right angle Quantum computer Rhombus Qubit Quantum computer Rhombus Physical system
Logical constant Slide rule Sine Presentation of a group Projective plane State of matter Computer Bit Surface of revolution Mereology Computer Number Sign (mathematics) Strategy game Single-precision floating-point format Order (biology) Quantum computer Qubit Rhombus Sinc function Quantum computer Physical system
Point (geometry) View (database) Figurate number
it and
not yet
another madness of English engines enough undergoes look over me and and a lot of storage of the valid the orbitals of cultural volume of effects of interested a few fit the I not from the year of of the signal under moments and then also at least 4 of the minister of a flop of a lot of going to be involved you know these aggressive
to emission of the the following is the finest out all all the again and this is the fruits and the year of the beam this as the vise tightens up and it will become clear that it's results is odd moral land all of this is from the from the bookstore on descriptive devote your high minds of whom are more than almost like of final confronted student at the heart into the wild remain unaltered incandesced to do that is you will deliver itself so tight of Savoy in this area there would be cited wrote that has been more alignment very tight border of the this of a source of the scientists in the mood to get because of friend I understood the Ministerial in this form I wasn't few products and then these are white it's good news you won't find in the in the locality 1 gets a little more aligned with this there would have shown which merged in this we got kind including but not home and if you are forced into the group that is you some that's what sort social media desk in the from the Communists canals of fun of them besides the juridical
on volume was gusty Muslim hats engaged the does have some manage I'm from him proponents of the ones you want to search on the outside the design systems have this job always want serve on the Jesus out stage the stimulus wanted them what would you do colonization of its is rights are going by also associated with also that's in the result of this and this is chairman of longer afford incomes and discuss chromatids no agreement with just employee the and this is omega from problems in this other sort of this involves shoal of this buddhist missiles for the room enforcement of IDB is that is system of producer cells during time of year monolignol relatively level you to foster obsessive tissue rule visualization of original moral just I'm always holds off trying to form a directed so that was the common cold and diseases of the heart so you know
after Montego go through a details of his and shove them through this business of measure of about 1 thing so just the guys you to assume that you're from the Fed unsaluting observations all that you just displaced text and I'm not so far above this is the line of park and divide the unique to disorganize you deported dishes to join our organelles readable ago argued that 1 that's inform you Deutsch was all the minor holds for long on this and stuff of experts in Beckley abolish I want a Clio going for finfish be a happened that's what I spent here of the letters in latitude as they have the antecedent is some decisions of artist from this is all about that wasn't activity in a tiny improvement and this
should and climbed oftentimes posting from the start of all hardcover posals or something Best of beam there isn't like going to be honest and dysentery by interests you this so that and the unique users to fall asleep you know somebody will improve his shuffled fossil fuels or half of this is that the Hua Malone being Dangerous of Obadiah and openness to more ideas on life the of its when all photos log as I discussed the global or tool used for her but also a beautiful often of all with to and then that also influence on on on care for worked on the does the disobedience defense in some on the phones courage and of the of the units of the proletariat that in and there is a shift in the fortunes of pulling the photography
maturity the solvent personal Mahler was allegiance handling of semester here comes our Collobert here a good passed from 1 was just enforcing was you element type of often hybrid also toss of interdisciplinary mouse toss want you to notice is a harder than trying to going the wrong different doses from shirt it is your and distraught proven all due to Walter open access and open data on gets switched out of 1st artist of a citizen science and and the shipment to our and all that inside the point is different of it was goes so this is the 1st step on their swords this density might you know what's your own my kernels on morals the tried in ionization of on unhandsome vision of the Sustainable was reached rotation roguish someone can also because a selfish violence if not baffled by hybrid upping its own took on the categorization the users of high his optimism must make use of the of the middle ponders ricocheted so that all manner we can use this stuff in the so Monday and what you see is as i've
defined in of moisture Auguste Comte can also the best of all of us to do what is your on the dimension of the norm have bins on the north moment in written descriptors that's in pursuance well above all I know it's a lot of of the people deals with every years by these into schoolchildren Ranvier wants often I'm ignition stuff edition standards like lessons did the Gordon I'm in the market is given so how about this all of the form of the latter to the bottom a sort of infusion of I plan on going from from Titan diffusing and all of the water and I was result Mississauga properties and zones common via the minds some by a can this over the DVD commentary was the best organize your finished vital distancia
vinyl from the from the future that changes and so on the of autonomous units for this year was particularly in the size the Dolphins over but introduced you know you all the 411 this mean of India and exam function reduce off center samples to ruin of vast individuals who pretty high shot from was order me a short speaking most 0 and I showed this and also by nocif UV-Titan most of the moral and guidance on a legally it is my assistant is that this in via math and was thus in my life all of you give decision off you noticed that visits of results on the is and other models that in Eigenschaften of gratitude to get at is you can just replace curtains was absorbed storm of future could be resumed 1 Jul groups the are about rise in the in in dealings is of interest about the but this is this 1 of the about underlying hypersplenic cancer member ofyour definitely chandelier having a prodigious heard this leads to the user what does the Congress in schizonts on-the-job amount of their digital April because often been from pollution thing in the yeah to negligent for tough on so mean and quantum computer book of Romans or by just as it is the 1st of our physicality disease is specified thing but somebody classes you digitize you own analysis quantitative and thus was that you adjust all voltage of decide using less than voters all fresh right it's an issue for the problem so most before do the strategy of official log in going so that's an omen rather than the competence among the curtain and stay in the discussions of the emotional forces along along answer casually about the and as use this
wouldn't say you know for the guys job and longer fit eyes each other disability different from standard break received the call was comb that of of of about computer how these distances will more than being in all read and dozens of pointless and the glue song freedom and freedom and in the unfiltered all for hearts does this was here that I'm from and feelin under this and I 10 unlock this event this this homeService commits status the speech these are trapped in computer minus the area problem often you might see like a month this most of them mentioned the 1
discovered his all their side and a Point immigrants about quantum computer datum and the bark out about us of ITER was shown to most people them following right this exists in your mind and mentioned in these news in finished as premotor so that's your time under this gratuitously I'm flying higher that's about from current this demand function convention if you to discuss a woman following this huge fossils so the Rome under the goal English for this what you you
have few 9 for design lighten body let's get back to English now our next speaker he words and then not a Energy Technology Center at the University do book sn he believes in science and education and wants to bring science to the masses Masses of what he actually does spies dreaming his own podcast mit waters incorrect please give a big hand to the class well and he's diamonds are quantum computers best friend without but thank you very much so you guys really surprise me a bit so there is a presentation without any hashtag any buzz words and actually stating that I'm talking about quantum mechanics quantum computers and you still here thank you very much for that and I'm a physicist and even more I'm
also material scientists I I'm I'm very fascinated by materials and that for good reasons because looking back at human history and you see that the tumor is always defined help people live on actually materials gave the whole time of their names like the stone age show people use stones as weapons as tools and a little later they used promise a metal and metal alloy as the material with harder properties
so they had an advantage using this material even later that was the siren error on at a metal which is even harder still again techno logical advantage by using better materials summiteers always gave a advantage for people so and not only materials actually but also the technology that arise from these materials be looking at the last few hundred years it was classical age of the Roman Empire they had some at the technology that they use very efficiently or at the age of discovery where navigational skills make the difference of who had the power and in the world and looking bad at the last few decades as it was this technology which pretty much defined how the Powell was distributed in the whole world dividing the world into east and west and so on this fall was so big that even a established scientists like prefers Einstein said this year I do not know how the 3rd world war will be fought but I can tell you what they will use in the 4th rocks again so another stone age so the question is what comes next what what is the next weapon um uh and I guess with you but now we can helpful for sunshine a little bit here next weapon will be this year and well not really a sort from from the game my craft but it's directing us in the room in the right direction because if you think about the next weapon than the next technology that will change the shape of the world so the power distribution it makes sense to to think about what what is it what will be important in the in the next few decades what is it what what we're fighting for and and that we believe that would be information that would be knowledge that
would crucial that free of participate in that game gaining knowledge and information so the 21st century trenches will be this year computer chips whoever will have the faster processes the better the algorithm so we ever uh has this technology will have an advantage in this world so my talk today will be a I wanna show you that we are and where not not so much in the time of an evolution of this technology but the time of a revolution and we will talk about why can't quantum computers might play a role in this revolution and I wanna show you and we actually building here on a quantum computer and and I will show you why diamonds will have a role in the in this some development the so whenever we're looking into the future it makes 1st sense to look a little bit back on the on the past of computer technology and whenever we're
talking about the past of computer technology we're looking at this year was law wet well can we coming from and ends was Laura's Gordon Moore was was also was a engineer and 19 65 that's this report pretty remarkable 1965 in the in the early days of computer technology he stated that's the processes will develop like this line is showing here that we see a a doubling of transistor loss on our on our process also every 2 years this is what the line says and the got the the data points are and what what actually happens so the prediction was pretty good from him and what's what's really remarkable is if you look here at the Y axis that that we we started with a few thousand transistors and now we're in the billions of transistors on a single chip How was a possible well by a by simple idea we're just making the transistor smaller that's that's really play idea and if you look at the sizes of a single transistor on such a computer ship is see that we started with a fairly large transistors like 10 micrometres large single-transistor and now in the 2015 uh we're down to sizes of a few nanometers so those so that the technology we are using right now is EUD 22 nanometres at another meters technology that's pretty small and how was it possible well 1st of all it was rather simple we added this error of simple scaling we just made the transistor smaller and smaller by improving our technology we use lithography for that and we just improve this technology to make these trends is still small and we have so barrier there's so we had to be a little bit more creative uh um with the beginning of the 2 thousands and still some scaling some innovations for we started not only put the transistors on a flat surface but only started to to do some kind of 3 D packaging we use some new materials but will that continue can that continue over all the way uh in in for more decades to come well as a physicist for my feeling their theories of the physical limits of army you see this y axis here I I I put this number here all . 1 and they're not 0 meters 0 . 1 model meters is 1 angstrom that that is basically the size of 1 single atom so it's hard to believe the transistors can and can get any smaller than 1 the so physics I mean this some kind of dictates that the absolute lowest limit that we can reach and so real hard to to get there actually um what and in fact there there's another thing even getting their close to this absolutely limits and we will add into some problems and that's the problems come you will come from quantum mechanics and I'm gonna I'm gonna tell you why that is it is his most probably a problem for us if we look at
that our technology all macroscopic world is a bit like this highway everything works well when everybody stays on their side of the road I would say so cars on on the right side go in 1 direction class on the left side going another directional problem here no interference that changes or the same is true for microchips everything works
fine if the electron stayed on the lot lanes that we gave them so this tidy to this tidy couple of lanes if they stay there no problem the starts to become a problem if we make the structure is smaller and then we have quantum effects and this is something that I showed in this small video on the right is a simulation of an electron and it is an electron hitting a wall a wall that's their electron cannot pass through and you see most of the electron or the that the probability distribution of the electron is actually reflected just as we would expect it but on the right side of this wall of this white line you see a little shadow I can hardly see it here but I view if you believe me there is sunlight a shadow going passing through the wall to the right side that is what we call quantum tunneling and if we started this this is really strange effect electrons pass through objects that's a that are all was what were planned for us to be a barrier and on uh barrier that they cannot pass through that makes building computer ships of course a little bit hard the electrons just start jumping around like we didn't expect it to be so the core of the question that is behind my talk you of the behind the science that would that we are doing is if we cannot avoid quantum mechanics and we cannot avoid it if we get smaller and smaller why don't we use it and that's the basic idea so what we
wanna do is let's build a quantum computer and them so this is the final moment where you can leave the room if you're scared about served my 1st part we have to talk about sunk once a concept of quantum mechanics but very briefly and then in the 2nd part we just build 1 quantum computers so 1st of all that the Sun could concepts of quantum
mechanics if we need to know and let's take a look at classical physics are uh and we we take a picture we take classical soccer this model and all noise the our goalkeeper and he plays a fairly simple game no offense taken the year after that I love him as a player but so that the game is fairly easy these 2 informations to play the game he needs to know the position of the ball and he needs to know where the ball is going just fairly simple but that's a classical soccer now we player and quantum soccer a very small kind of soccer and here the going gets a little bit more complicated Martin and has to and decide what you want to know you can know the position of the ball if he decides that he wants to know where the ball is is absolutely no idea where the ball is going the or you can play it the other way around you can say OK I want to know where the ball is going very exactly direction and velocity and that has absolutely no idea where the ball is he sees this game is a little bit harder to to play a personal note maybe i fi delivered on 4 it fair that monoenoic gets very much money for playing a single game and we as a physicist and I'm not merely getting as much money so thank you and it that she hard to get a full position at a university in Germany and but a and this so that get getting back
more to the physics on there are
this is classical physics you know the position and the velocity no problem and is a quantum physics you can all the velocity that's the arrow then you have no idea where the particle that we're talking about is so that it that this is red ball beach the thing that I have written there or like the physicists like it more we make a diagram we have this contribution here it's the x-axis tells you where is the particle and this w means so
what is the probably the ability to find the particle at the given position so it's very likely that it's here so it's not so likely that it's here but it's still can be here and that's basically that that's how we like it even more to show a little bit off this is an equation and that that's Heisenberg's uncertainty principle the very simple equation the the precision we know where the police the the particle is times the precision we know the velocity or and in that case it's the momentum but for you it's the velocity is always bigger than this number is simply a number so you cannot know all and this is an intrinsic principle how all worlds and actually is that it's an intrinsic uncertainty when you're going to small particles you cannot know at all that's really that that that contradicts what what we see in each day all mocked macroscopic world so it works a completely different but going to small particles this is how the world works works and and from this easy principle we already can explain as quantum tunneling that i was already talking about we have this barrier we have an electron let's say it's an electron and this has this so distribution we don't know exactly where it is on this this so how well we physicists like to to write it down now you can already see that there is some probability that the electron is behind the barrier and that's how quantum tunneling is working and and you have got you have now the understanding allowed quantum tunneling is actually working and the what 1 the uh uh 1 pitch I have to show you because of founded on a that that might might seem to be a little bit on appropriate now but I've thought from this picture on the toilets in all university and it's it's physicist you I guess but but you will see what I mean is this
year highs American may or may not have been here and that's what physicists laughable to in the break so I
OK there is an uncertainty in the position and the velocity of a of small small particles but that's not only true for positions velocities but only about but also for and other properties like a States quantum states that that that is a concept I wanna show you here we are in in a classical words of computers we have classical informational information classical bits we can have bits which are turned on or off 1 0 0 that's not true for some suitable quantum bits we call them q bits that we have a superposition we have some just same like in know uh in in this position and velocity where we are not quite sure and what position so we on the same is true for this quantum state now we might have a 0 we might have a 1 but we're not quite sure and that's what we call a superposition the superposition of really from fickle and if we if we interact with them or take a closer look at them they break and and we have either 1 or 0 that's why we have to high it's the superposition in a box and we're not looking inside when we're looking inside to the using the superposition and we having either 1 or a 0 that leads me to the crux of the although presentation here and I wanted to flip a coin in front of 100 people and and and a bit nervous about catch can catch it but I I I did it and this year what I did now if it the core and this is not a
superposition this state of the coin now is just a described by a probability that was a 50 50 chance either to have heads or tails and my ignorance because I don't know what I haven't looked so I I'm I'm not sure what it is but of course the state of the coin is decided the universe somehow decided so either it is heads or tails it that's a complete difference in kind of a randomness when compared to all superposition because
this superposition in our box nobody decided that that at this point before we look into the box of if we have a 1 or 0 and that is the power of a QB it's because we can use the superposition to do calculations so I will show you uh but again this is an intrinsic randomness not use a or a it is not because we
have not the that that would that we physicists are lacking good microscopes to look closer at the at the at the at the particle it is a real intrinsic randomness nobody decided the state of the cube at that this time when it's in the inside of the box so what is actually a cubic how well can we get a pure bred in real life classical bits we we can then use another picture for classical bits the spinning tops for a child toys and they can be either up or down so that would represent a lot 1 bits or 0 bits and that's are a bit of we we physicists also say that uh that some of the uh very small particles like photons electrons they also have the spin and the the name is not very very good because these particles are not really spinning but what they have is they have a magnetic field they a north north pole and the south pole so if we put now such a particle in a magnetic field so like the UN like in a in a giant made uh and magnetic field and this small tiny electron for example with it's been what's flip in a way that is of the north pole of the particle would face to the salt and vise versa if you can imagine that the air like a lot small comfort compass needle that you're just bringing to the magnetic field of the Earth you can open the compass and use a little bit of your energy to turn the magnetic needle which is your compass into the other direction you can force it in the other direction and be gone can also do that with our and cubits we can use energy to turn it the other way around then you need to information even if you ask me in what state is you cubits you to information 2 numbers basically how likely is it that the cure it is facing up or how likely is it that the cubic is facing down that doesn't seem very I'm innovational I would say but as an the the magic starts when we use more than 1 cubits and if we have a classical to system and these are the states that you cube it sorry as a cube it if we have a classical through bits system uh this system can be enforced stateside can either be 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 4 states but you only need to information to describe this system you need to tell me what status the 1st bit and what status the 2nd bid to information and With the Q-Q it's system it's a little bit different and there is some mathematics behind that so but I Y 1 I explain it without any met that mathematics to you From this tube cubits system can be in 2 trivial states both are facing up both to the cube roots of both are facing down what's really a little bit more complicated is that these 2 states of these are 2 states that we call entanglements and 1 is up 1 1 1 cube and 1 is down these cubits our now very free in whatever direction they 1 of phase but they're absolutely not in independent so if the 1 spin is up the other 1 is down but beside that they're really really free to have whatever position they want to have and that you see that system is way more complicated you need more information actually to describe the system in that case you need for information a B C D E to describe completely this system of 2 cubits it's getting even more complex when you using more cubits and this is a comparison of classical information or this
quantum bits systems how complex they are getting you see very trivial this this complexity or of on the classical system which is the blue 1 but this other all cubic system that that is really getting complicated you need a lot of information to describe your entangled qubits system effects so many information so
that if you have this system you 300 cubits you would need more information to describe an entangled system of from 300 cubits uh you need more information than atoms in the whole universe it's really complicated and that is 1 of the of the power of this term
of this cube bits uh entanglements the because you can describe complex problems complex systems 1 more thing that we need to know about entanglements and then
we're done and we start building a computer and if we have an 8 bit register and we want to read and write to register we need uh we really need to revitalize the the register step by step so we right the 1st bit than the 2nd bit the 3rd it and so on that takes time and that entanglement system of is different if you have this entanglement of 8 cube and you change the 1st states or you measure the 1st state and the 1st puberty all the others all the other cubits will change their status immediately um that's really that's really powerful because you could see it if you have to and tangled particles and you have the 1 here on Earth and the other 1 on the other side of the universe if I would measure the 1 electron the spin of the 1 electron those the the spin of the other electrons which was a superposition before and not decided at its instantaneously on decides it's state so if if I measure this electron to be up for example this electron will
be down instantaneously despite the fact that it's on the other side of the universe this is really is that really strange effects uh that happened with quantum mechanics and that's why you have support is 1 of the 1st scientists really worked on
quantum mechanics at if quantum mechanics has profoundly shocked you you haven't understood it gets so and that helped me a little bit for the 1st semester so follow those of my studies of physics and so don't worry that the these are just some some some some easy concept are not really easy concept and some concepts that we
we have understood now and now we can really starts to build a quantum computer but but maybe but 1st the question I showed you know that quantum computers really complex is at best 1st faster more powerful than a classical computer well not really may maybe it's even smaller because it's such a complicated machine but the power lies in the fact and that it can solve complex problems unless steps so whenever you have a problem which needs a lot of calculations a lot of steps to get to the riots results that might be a problem that is made for quantum computers just like this problem here I'm very trivial problem of you have a traveling salesman around
and he needs to visit some cities he wants to visit all cities but only once for every city only once and he wants to find this that the shortest route to go from from of to visit all the cities that seems to be really easy problem and it is not because the number of of morality that he can take it is a vast it if you increase the number of cities so that the creation they're up there on the factorial of n minus 1 N is the number of cities and the big and is then the number of rolled he can't possibly take this is the table I made for you if you if you have 2 cities there's only 1 wrought that's trivial give 5 cities the 24 also not OK 362 thousand Roberts 20 28 see this 1 times 10 to the power law of 28 thousand rolaids it's pretty much even if we take a normal classical computer to calculate all these routs and find the shortest 1 sold that let's take a brute force approach so we test all the all the possible rods but 10 cities that will take us 0 . 3 ms so that's pretty OK I can wait that's entering it in my navigation system in my car 20 32 years 28 cities although than the universe you cannot solve this problem which looks all trivial are more when when that when the number of cities is increased to such a low number
and that was that was 1 of the problems that a quantum computers maybe what made me might have or may have an advantage because they can calculate more of this that that that classical computer needs to take 1st round 2nd router droughts and and calculate every length of it conical computer can make that in parallel OK where is the that set for the salesman but where is the the larger on the the larger effect on our society it's here and cryptography on the our cryptography is based on this method I would say that you have to prime numbers and you multiply them that's really easy everybody of you could do it with a pocket calculator and yeah but if you do that the other way around if I give you this large number and tell you tell you please give me the prime numbers that if you multiply them give this a large number this is really hard and not only for you but is also very very hard for a computer and and that's basically what our an encryption system is based on and if you if you take a larger numbers this is not a really large number but what would usually is taking today is to 1024 bit numbers that
takes classical computers thousands of years 2 of them to G colds your password and quantum computer could do that in a minute so we have heard gets hands on a quantum computers has some a the advantage in this world he could read your e-mails yeah the get your money from your bank account and so you see there is some some incentive I would say to to work on this technology and married now the other and for me as scientists I'm not so much interested in your bank account but what I'm interested in is as some modelling got really complex modeling of molecules or all crystals that that's what mean uh I'm interested in that's also something that quantum computers could do very effectively and and I have to tell you
about 1 problem that we have when we now start to build a quantum computer and that this decoherence decoherence is 0 and and the Florida that's a classical computer and if you take a look into this in a while it's combined could calculating if you look inside the computer there's no problem you will not take care that you look inside the computer With this super because superpositions of
cubits I already told you know there's a problem if you take a look at that there if you take a measurements and so we we have a problem because we lose the superposition and when we measured this system or take a look into the system so we end up with a single bunch of atoms and electrons and 0 and ones just like you but no offense taken here but um also like me but and this is no no special computer anymore so we need to take care that we not that that the system can calculate by itself and not and not being disturbed so I would say there's actually 1 of the good thing about that some of the NSA will be at will have hard at times to the decrepit uh quantum informations because we would recognize at least recognize that some of that and as a was reading always e-mails Our quantum trip to our of our quantum and Colditz e-mails so what we need is a new concepts and the data reminds me of this book here Douglas Adams and we need a computer which is calculating by itself I just give us the of the results of and and that that really sound strange and so and that I'm not I'm pretty surprised that they are actually quantum algorithms way before we actually physicists start to build quantum
computers there are 2 algorithms I wanna show you were the 1 is the the the show algorithms this is uh with with this as an algorithm it is possible to solve this problem that I already showed you you have to prime numbers or you have a large integer number and you want to know the prime numbers and that if you multiply them give this arm this large integer and this works in principle and the other 1 is a global algorithm is also a problem which is really sounds trivial but it is not I give you a telephone number and use you have a telephone book and you want to see on which name belongs to this telephone number that is also a very hot problem for a classical computer because the only strategy a classical computer can have is started a and walked out or test although all those all the names on and go through the through the through telephone book basically quantum computer is an advantage you because you can change a test more than 1 name at the same time so that the Grove algorithm also some theoretically from established in 1996 and OK we have algorithms soul
what what we really need now is a quantum computer so we need cuvettes I showed you
that we need cubits trapped and still detectable every need long coherence times because we don't want to lose the superposition states so we want to have a close go system so our and
how do we do we want to do that and there were some approaches and I will briefly touching the axon 2001 IBM did occur 1 computer was 7 cubits with an an M. R. computer and I would say something to that later and and they use chores algorithm you remember this cold tracking of prime number thing and and they were able to find the prime numbers for this integer is anybody able to that yeah note 5 his good yeah at and 3 yeah the Rosario probe quantum computer basically and OK that that doesn't seem to be impressive but all these strange things I told you about quantum mechanics and then those algorithms these people are calculating with Cubans with superpositions and the
algorithms we don't understand that's pretty amazing although the result is not so impressive uh we could have done it but so anyway the concept works so that the I think that is pretty fascinating there were some more developments um uh with a few bits and I
transporting cubits some this this fall you with system on the bottom soft this equation I didn't dare to ask that question here and I could solve it by myself and but anyway there there are concepts and realizations of this quantum computing actually the 1 thing that is a little bit on which is the uh will what could be the problem is that these concepts U N M R computers I Trans are not explaining it but they're really complicated you need to go into the vast VQ chambers because you don't want to your you are an actor and spins to to interact with with gasses and unique low temperature is really low at 0 kelvin and unique laser systems these are really complicated systems filling out moralist this whole room here you don't want to have that on your office desk sold but blind as bad
as science so that costs a lot of money so that the material scientists and that we're coming back to materials always looked at alternatives more feasible more easy ways of realizing a quantum computers and people were surprised to find it right here in diamonds and the not a perfect diamond actually but somethin
um that I like this quote here it's
from a physicist crystals are like people it is the defects in them which tend to make them interesting in yes it's a when I'm thinking of Netherland I wanted to make a remark about my wife but iceberg so we're talking about and diamond crystals but not perfect diamond crystals we need some defects these defects in
in all cases our and envy center that is the nitrogen atom that that's where the end is coming from and a vacancy avoids and that's here that this wall perfect crystal but this is a nitrogen atom here and avoids of vacancy this and v center has some really interesting are um the probability at but not probable properties for us is a trap for electrons and we need the evidence fall quantum bits and because as I already said that the aleatory has been it is a Cupid for us and it has a really long coherence time in diamond because the Diamond is made out of carbon is our common atoms they're very light and the bonding between the atoms is really really strong so the only thing that
really could disturb our and our quantum state in our in our Diamond is vibrational this letters so leave in these carbon atoms would start to vibrate because the temperature is too high all v center all cube it would be disturbed and we would lease lose or coherence that that is not the case for diamond at room temperature because the the the bonding is so strong that basically the carbon is not vibrating there are no full norms that's why we call it on and that that's a good thing because that means the coherence time of a cube it in Diamond is rather long so that's some material we want to work with now the next question is of course are we able to detect our on our cube it in our diamond well yes and no what what we usually do is we shine light on it and laser light and what we see then is that a different light comes back from the which is what we call of photomontage sense and if you take a microscopic image of of surface is blue which got there the
source single and the centers so using a laser a really simple approach just shine light on it you can detect Euler cubits and that's good the how does it
work and well we have an electron in a bronze data without any additional energy and now we shine light on its own and that means the electron goes on an excited state it doesn't want to stay there and in nature likes to be on the ground state you know that from Sunday afternoons on your college and you going back down but you know and you you have this fluorescence lights that is coming from this uh dropping back on the on the ground level and this is what I showed you on on the slide before now we can detect 0 and the centers but cannot can be also and and that's essentially if we want to build a quantum computer based on this technology can we also distinguish because between spin up and spin down well we can with a little trick and before we shine a laser light on our electron we use microwave radiation microwave radiation is a tiny bit of energy and that has 1 affected we lift up all our and or we we um we leave our and spin down system and going to something that we call the spin-up so we we're basically changing the direction of our little electron compass needle so now the compass needle is facing up and now if we now will shine light on the using all lasers on on this electron and it goes up in the excited state again but it drops down on a different way it now takes an intermediate step and drops back down on the ground level the special thing about this way back is that there is no detectable that the detectable lights or patterns at least not so much the tactical detect a polite so we now have a system where we can just with a laser and a microscope and measure if I was being was up and down and we also can use microwaves to and tools of rights our Cubitt and make it spin up or spin down and what we can even make more as if we make if we have time this microwave pulse the right uh and the right time was so does make it too long not too short then we have an actual superposition so just by having microwave Salazar and and the centers in diamond we have a quantum computer and actually quantum computer if you could say that that's
really and it would fit on a on a lot more or less on office desk here and then now of course the question is where do we get the diamonds from and we cannot
take natural diamonds is a nice picture here this is a a diamond mine from 1948 was calls but and this is going to be the largest whole excavated so by hands and some people really were digging this hole by by their hands to get the diamonds sold at Kimberley South Africa really impressive we cannot use these diamonds because they're too dirty nature is too dirty so in nature is too dirty we have to make it by ourselves and what we do here is we use
microwave and plasma reactors that sounds so and nerdy so I call the microwave overnight and so what we have here is a plasma chamber along microwaves that ignited plasma and in that plasma this is this bluish area year we take a really simple gasses methane because that's where the carbon from follow Diamond is supposed to come from and hydrogen these gasses going to the plasma and plasma is more or less energy and we can break these molecules and so we have some kind of radical CH we the CH free radicals and these radicals wants to find new binding partners and at that moment we give them a binding partner with the substrate and on that substrate this these radicals goal and form a diamond letters and so far organization we were already talking about that today and basically we we just turn the right not and this works by
itself and it really works on and I wanna show you that's by I'm showing you this video here this is a look inside or plasma Chambord this going stuff is all
plasma and we have here and diamonds of substrates actually 10 mm is the thickness half a millimeter and want to I'm running this this video and you see the diamonds actually growing in our uh plasma reactors I also again no and so OK thank so what unfortunately in the course of a few days
is not was as fast as as you can see it here and these diamonds are drawing from half a millimeter to 3 millimeters the they
don't look like the diamonds you would give you are um if you spouse you'll your wife but I'm that's again again a little personal because when when you're able to grow diamonds you wanna see they are shiny as real diamonds that you would find a shops so I went to a jewelry and ask them and could you please Polish me this stone which is not looking like a natural diamond either like a they're not looking like a natural diamonds could you please Polish me this diamond as a brilliant and the the the the the guy in the shop was a little bit such suspicious and said OK what kind of material is that and said that's diamonds could you polish it please do so where do you have it from the but I said that I made it by myself so um we had issues I say that I found somebody you punish me the stones and they look really beautiful there they're really shiny because the perfect
there no more or less all inclusions there really whitish and and so I I made that 1 so that the don't worry I'm not using taxpayers money to GroEL diamonds in the in personal dimers in my laboratory with just 3 that on weekends it as you are laughing
because the and 1 thing is
missing we can make diamonds now which is my story for the 4 Republican but for quantum computers we we need them 1 thing that is left we don't want to have the perfect crystal we want the crystal with the these centers in it so where are we getting our nitrogen from and where are we getting our vacancies from an well uh 2 methods that we use the 1 is ion implantation we use an eye and guns that we have this really in our laboratories and I am going and we're shooting that science is pretty cool but the you're using cool stuff all if you think about science as a career in science mean you can should provide guns and we're using designed for shooting ions nitrogen ions on or perfect diamond crystals and that is what happens so those science are in planted in our perfect diamond crystals what happens is not of obviously nitrogen is in this crystal and also some voids because we made some defects that we simply put the diamonds into an old friend and do something that we call annealing 700 degrees and and then again self-organization again we're but that's all no magic and the holes vacancies are moving to the nitrogen and what we ending up are the envy centers that we need for our on the good cubits in in in endowment is the 1 way we do it the other way that way we do with this this year we call a death of doping we're simply drawing diamonds just just as I have shown you we take this carbon atoms and we arrange them and then at 1 specific point in in our growing the process we enter uh we we put not only methane and hydrogen as I showed you into the process but also for a very short time nitrogen so what happens then we good we putting the nitrogen into a small layer of of of this diamonds and we have something like this nitrogen in in in all diamond crystals that we need some the now we have also electron guns of course and we're using electron guns tool to shoot it on those on the on the substrates and meant by that we we are um we're getting again voids vacancies in in our crystal then again we make this annealing and so again we have some of a we we we end up with this and the centers that we need far quantum computers so he made it sound where basically through the talk I wanted to say was staying with her
and very impressive and it I wanted to ends with a with a final slide where I showed you um that's this this quantum computers based on diamonds really work
and I wanted to show you this year uh April 2012 there was a real uh people really built some something like that a quantum computer on all from diamond to to cubits Diamond quantum computers they used to grow over algorithm this is this databases finding your telephone number in a large telephone book and and 95 % right answers from the 1st try and now I will I wanted to show you that and so on I wanted to tell you that if any of you I wanted to decode you are passwords you current passwords with such a cubit systems the system we would use around 4 thousand of those q this where a bit too far away from that right now but uh we on on our way don't change your passwords nights
but maybe you think about it and then the nest next couple of years and but there there are documents from Edward Snowden says NSA actually runs a of a project but that thing called penetrating hard targets I like the name and the way they invest 80 million uh west always to to build a quantum computer so you see although those constants are quite abstract and might seem to be far away from as always in science also those concepts can be become true pretty fast so OK I plant that this is the last slide that but then I realize that's the that's not what I wanted to tell you about in my talk it's not so much about numbers and it's more about the Revolution and it up to now we build of we were building computers by scaling down so I showed you that we made the transistors always smaller and smaller now the concept is a completely different concepts now we're taking Sin cubits bits and making those Cubitt computers more and more complex this is a completely new strategy before we we call
at some top down the starting with the large the macroscopic system to make it smaller and now it's bottom-up we're taking since single cubits bits and building the systems more and more complex I want to this talk is more about that we as a society we don't want to miss this revolution we want to take part in that and that's that's why it's important that we have and we talk about these concepts and that we know give scientists like me money that we can work on on these concepts because of their and of their that possible order all the potential uh that they will have on our society and and for me personal and this presentation is about the is about the beauty of signs because whenever you think that you heat the
figure the barrio where you cannot get any better but scientists will find something you know which is even more in my point of view beautiful and um to to increase Ella out to make technology better the what 1 final sentences this talk is about it's almost always pays off to leave the beaten path and going into the wild thank you very much