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Ex Oriente Make: The future of maker culture is made in China

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certain that the the the the the the the hard to believe that
but I think I'm
a and hello everyone I'm just looking for the clicker which is here and super delighted and honored to be here today my name is Lindner as you might guess from a my name I am I actually born and raised them in austere but I currently live and in the United States assistant professor at the University of
Michigan School of Information and art and design and today i'll as Michael was already thing I'll be talking about something that you might have heard of uh more recently that many people began stipulating that we live in something called an age of the maker movement so what is the maker movement so many people think about when they think about making the thing about spaces like the following this is a photo of a
maker stays in China that actually China's 1st make space that opened up in stores in some high in 2 thousand and 10 and they make this space as they might have guessed from the name is
is the is the space where people come together to make things that they shared tools and machines to do so and they tinkered together and make things and and include for example experiment in robotics this is a swarm robot the team of the Shanghai makers this building 2011
and that that they submitted to a competition where they 1 2nd place culture between Harvard and MIT but people to make other things in maker spaces like for example protective aquaponics planting or Interactive Urban
designs and many times of people will go and hang out in because this still the presenter work and make ferrous and like the 1 in Berlin for example many people and I think it would the maker movement they think about this particular device this is steered we know the microcontroller platform that came out of the calibration ads that you re a design school runs 2006 and this is the device really that is today often named as of the quintessentially uh observed device and even the rise of a global maker movement would it allows you to do in a nutshell is to tinker with hard work so it allows you to tinker with hardware special if you don't have a degree in engineering or computer science that was basically a full designed for design parties and anyone else who doesn't necessarily have a training in electronic engineering and it's really help proliferate ideas and practices of making the tiny device that fits in the palm of your hand so what actually is so far
ability different examples of what people have begun to associated with the promise of making so much of you know when people are excited making they think of making them as presenting them with the tools and methods to intervene in established structure speed they be they societal structures of technological structures so did you have to make a movement is really to
give people the tools and to empower them had to intervene in for example corporate monopolies rather than buying the latest iPhone you would be empowered to build your own fall into that of the fundamental promises and idea behind making so this goes back to
the makers of positioning the work as a sort of revival of the earlier 19 sixties and seventies Internet and hacker counter-culture of California and it also includes an making being seen as a form of novel engagement with new materials on the screen here's the lily pads that allows you to heck fabric and making is also associated and with providing new ways of challenging established gender
norms so this is for example a photo of a feminist hackerspace in Vienna
ends but making is also received much broader attention this is a photo I'm after uh make available so that at the White House under the Obama administration to making is also being celebrated as the weights to being banned national identity and industries bring back made in America as abomasal famously uh put it but making is also been associated with the envisioning citizenship and empowering citizens in new ways and all this would have shown you so
far this comes down to 2 things so making took rise at a moment when especially in Europe and the United States people began to talk about and critique the rise of precarious work and labor not only for people working in the the factories but
also the rise of precarious work conditions for people in the creative industries so making surprise at the moment when people began so not just scholars bottles of media and public media and people working the tech industry began critiquing
and the you know earlier visions and ideas of the knowledge economy and saying the knowledge economy was like like the creative class is propagated by Richard Florida were sharply critique because they delivered to the did not deliver what they had originally promised to making the promise of making about ideas
began to those that that people began to associate with making really surprised at the moment of a broader critique of established structures including neoliberal governance and precarious work that was the 1st thing the 2nd thing is that this this promise of making it of really told you about was really couched in a way and to provide people the means to intervene in the pitfalls of this information society and as
you can see on the screen there is just is very as examples you know I have some people in making and challenging will get to do technology innovation and that this was maybe something only for men man or and that's the notion he was really that everyone can do it to the slogan of the make fair for example is
everyone can be a maker so that is sort of the promise of making that it provides the concrete tools and methods to intervene but might
stop and hesitate here for a 2nd us whose empowerment is this so even on the 1 hand now we see and how woman in the make scene of really challenged
established gender norms in the tech industry in and and making is also provide an opportunity for politicians and everyday citizens to engage with 1 another but on the other hand we still see how many maker spaces are largely male-dominated at the of most of the people who end up being celebrated make magazines are dead with their sons and tinkering with robotics and so on so you know making is couched as a promise to intervene established structures it is still a fairly exclusive project and that and continues exclusion so that actually also happened before so it does get contradiction there right on the 1 hand is this vision that is very very powerful to intervene in established structures magenta had to reality in practice often looks very very different so what I want to
do today is basically if we look at a car maker culture and that isn't as well known as the 1 I've just shown you so what I would you see on the screen a really great from all year models of creative practice when you're sitting somewhere in Europe or the United States and Canada Western view of making and I wanna show you today and alternatives and to how we can think about creative production and technology practice and meeting in particular and to do so I wanna take you to a city in the south of China on I can I get somebody audience tell me word is critical places the what the city is yes that's the hands yes so that the city of Shenzhen and you might not be very cool but here is a map and is just because Hong Kong and the
city of Shenzhen is just north of Hong Kong and angle and talking about
Schengen because of conducted research in China mostly ethnographic over the last 7 years and this research in China started out with me as being that of time in the early happened makers basis in China but then took me in 2012 to the city of Shenzhen at that time a lot of attention suddenly moved to Schengen especially in the
makers seen in a maker movement in China and so you to most people gender is known if it is known that all the images like this so this is a photo of some of the Taiwanese contract manufacturer Foxconn the producers for example for companies like Apple and HP and surgeon gender is the place where more than 90 per cent of all electronic devices have been designed and made for the apple phone apart the the word the computer in front of you was made there but more recently another image of Shenzhen began taking shape so this is a screenshot of the 2015 why it's a documentary it came out of the of 2 UK and you might see the handling years search engine the same city that was largely known as the fate of production and and
cheap labor is now celebrated as the Silicon Valley of hard work so we might wanna ask what happened here ends in order to understand what happened in the transition from people not knowing gender just knowing that the fate of cheap labor to it's a Silicon Valley for part
where we have to go back about 30 years ago and so the the kind of city we know today Schengen that 22 people metropolis the produces a life
on other devices was a very different place 30 years ago it was mostly agriculture but was declared in the 19 eighties by Don shuffling as an experiment so this region you can see them shipping error on was meant to help
China transitional experimented with the transition of opening reforms and experimenting with a mood of capitalism and what that would mean for China so this is what happened in the eighties and
China began opening up toward foreign direct investment through Schengen so this began with investment from Hong Kong and Taiwan 1st and later during outsourcing boom in Europe and the United States also attracted investors from from the west and so to say the model was
a success and capitalism expanded to the rest of China so what happened in the years to follow was really an expansion of the manufacturing industry in the south of China this was and in the 19 nineties on basically you but with the expansion off original design manufacturing and large contract manufacturing so the best well known example that's probably familiar to most of you
is the HEC founded was basically
phone brands that was owned by the manufacturer themselves for the 1st time in original design manufacturing process that took shape in but what is less well
known about what happened in change and at the same time as large contig manufacturing grew in size if a culture of informal production an entrepreneur will cover that an entrepreneurial culture applied to manufacturing this culture is very often referred to in Chinese as shown in July so some translates into English something like mountain fortress and has a little bit of a Robin Hood
flavor to add so when people think much often think about the stories over 100 eat grapples who were hiding in the mountains and taking from the emperor and giving to the poor certificate Robin Hood spirit period of Lake and sophisticated rabble also basically intervening the establishment so this term began being applied to an informal production cultured it began growing and asked is large contig many factors began producing for Apple and so on so how you can think about this this this all began in Hong Kong and family owned businesses and started to produce copy retail like the following that the copy can make issue and a
coveted Gucci back and these factories migrated to and with the rise of electronic production and
some of those items were produced in gender and the similar kinds spirits would you see on the screen actually mobile phones is a feature phones that coming unique shape and size of India didn't these entrepreneurs in manufacturing had was and that there is a gap in the global economy as the large-scale 100 many factors were producing for Apple and here and nobody was catering
for niche markets of people who couldn't afford necessarily a cool found so disorder busy for migrant communities migrant workers and who would otherwise not have access to another phone and this later expanded adds new kinds of creation
and so you can see here on the screen for example am as phone on rates and that also at the same time a radio and our
flashlights or the 1 on the left and for example shaved and like in Chinese alcohol bottled orders of my favorite abundance the user going to markets of Shenzhen and and the vendors of was joking that this was the latest i from the Cr about it so I but more recently this in full economy that has built around manufacturing in Schengen has also began partnering with other regions so does for example is a smartphone produced for the African market at techno mobile is now 1 of the largest form brands in Africa
and this phone and comes with a special features as the advertisements here uh tells us well it comes as it that capture the beauty of darkness comes equipped with a camera that captures starts in subject particularly well in low light conditions so this is a very affordable smartphone define designed for a specific markets and this kind of product design team out of this very informal kind of piracy copycat kind of culture in in gender and it is not really a a billion dollar industry yeah so I was perusing my research to understand what enabled these entrepreneurs to work in such ways like what actually shape the practice and what I found was an open-source culture that was
applied to manufacturing so would you see on the screen is the boards that goes into producing and mobile phones in this case an older feature phone device and basically have the support here the resources the bill of material everything that goes into designed borders publicly share amongst the manufacturing factory entities in gender and so you can kind of compare this open
manufacturing boards studio do we know it's basically an open source platform but applied to mass production applied to manufacturing so that kind of shared the same spirit but 1 is typically the 1 on the left you read board is usually celebrated now as the name love to make a movement as seen a lot of new forms of creative practice the bay and cutting-edge innovation kind of peace was very few people know about the board and the right most people think about the board and the right as
being part of the copycat industry that that have anything to do with innovation and what a when contest in these 2 years to really show you a that because the reason why we don't see the the 1 on the right arm as innovative has much to do with our own perception of what we think counts as a counter-culture of what we think cones of innovation and or intervention into the established and so basically what to do at the board on the right
represents is a kind of intervention in happens through product design the dish on ji producer these informal entrepreneurs in many factors evil to intervene in established structures to save not only Apple that can produce products that will be successful in a large-scale markets we can as we can do the same thing we and the small-scale entrepreneurs in in China was not really grown in size so again I wanted to come back to this a match of Schengen solution today celebrate as a Silicon Valley of hard work and I argue it celebrated as such but they magazines like Wired not because it is necessarily like Silicon Valley the
1 in the United States but because it's actually in many ways defined and you need each arm so when people were active in the maker industry when they go to Shenzhen these days they don't go there because it looks like Silicon Valley would act like Silicon Valley because then they could just stay in Silicon Valley they go there because of this unique as shown I open manufacturing culture they go there because they see in sunshine and in the informal practice I kind of promises to intervene in the structures that they find offered to intervene in the United States and Europe so especially whatever witness the last years a lot of European makers designers and artists as well as American makers design as an artist go to Shenzhen because they see a possibility to intervene exactly because Shenzhen through concentrates the kind of production culture and the kind of messy inform all flash whole wall kind
of design and and manufacturing practices that the West is replaced with the build up of a knowledge and information economy and so they kind of see a promised concentrated in the Schengen ability to points to a past that the west so this a has given up as see this
represented in articulations like the following so this is the quote from 2 e
to the director of the MIT Media Lab at MIT Media Lab has an hour collaboration with the city of Shenzhen so they take the students to Schengen in most industries in engineering to 1 from gender and and jointly to Director went to himself and this is what
he said after he returned to his that was happening in gender and they were not making powerpoints apartheids they were fiddling with the manufacturing equipment and innovating bytes there on the factory for the kids in gender and make new cell phones like the kids and to make websites suzerain force of innovation going on when you thought you could only do with software they're doing with hardware and a similar quote from deal Daugherty who is like 1 of the key figures in the western maker movement he started making it a magazine and make medium he wasn't and 2014 and I interviewed him and was there and he was saying the following this thing I started make of in Detroit
and 1 of the events ideas to 1st year had makers come up to me and that they will I live in a manufacturing capital of America but I can't get things made to part of that American manufacturing is geared towards large companies and for smaller entities that much harder to get access to them and he goes on to but Schengen is the French engine is a place that represents the were a lot of things get made so you can access begins live access to his kind of infrastructures and production sites there and what we see here is that Shenzhen and these articulations of especially Western European and American makers change came to be seen at a moment were you know people began to really talk about the ramifications of earlier visions of to make a move of the Information Society of the knowledge economy like neoliberal government in precarious work labor as people were talking and critiquing the systems in place they saw promise in Shenzhen because Protestant and hadn't yet turned into the same kind of knowledge economy that they have been on the rise in the west so gender and became scenes of is the is an ideal laboratory to prototype alternative futures and so I just wanted to return for a moment to word began my talking typically we think about the maker movement is a very hopeful kind of practice that intervenes in existing structures raid and a lot of that is really in some ways remained an idea and an ideal that you know I
think many of us support many of us do you believe in you do that with opening up established structures and exposing how things work from the inside out we can actually change
how people think about the world and how they engage with the world trade and basically what happens a lot of the people were driven to Dudas Sasha engine is a place where they could actually do that on a larger scale so rather than doing it in a maker space when a hackerspace would remains would intervention happened perhaps 1 approach typical level already intervention remained within the kinds of fairly easy to practice as you know if you are in a makers most likely you have a higher degree and most likely you're not a factory worker so the opportunity of people saw intention was visited them directly engage with the kind of factory work with the kind of people who
produce these devices of which we actually know very little off a search engine in that sense came to be seen as a place where especially people in the West can see a future can see what kind of that was much much
harder to see and in established centers like Silicon Valley for example and with this I would like to thank you and take any questions from the audience thank
you that was the 1st questioned perfect you will get a microphone
FIL got a lot of 7 thank you so much for the talk really great on
hand that happened considers came back from a friend and not long ago that when you talk about this alternative futures saying that how is rendered is different nature of the different future
what I'd like to know is is this really the alternative future because what we do know is is still facing China that and there is this governmental kind of interference into the lakers see now Avis's Alica's has visited the maker spaces and made this kind of a gender of China ever since 2014 and do you think this would
actually change the flavor of Shenzhen and from this point onwards and is this really the alternative future or else I guess where is the future land for and specifically the great
questions electing is referring to is and that's just as the Obama administration and was very supportive of making and the European Union all they have it and supported and make a related Internet of Things factor that the Chinese government has become really excited about making an had begun um and dors officially making as part of a new policy called loosely translated into English matchmaking math innovation and the idea behind that is that making i will enable citizens to become entrepreneur all those citizens will be empowered to start their own business that so it's a very similar kind of vision to what we see the United States of what gets politicians excited about making the these questions about that this kind of political endorsement of making that change debate flavor of making and in some ways it does so but I found fascinating to see in China as that from its inception the maker movement and was very much so invested in intervening from within so a lot of 2 people started transfers makers spaces began actually working with policy makers began talking to politicians and this is a strategy and tactic that you see often in China and were political protest and resistance often comes in the nature of the more parasitic kind of engagement where people are rather outright opposing the system because that's really hard to do and they intervene from within and intervene from within these established structures and so actually the kinds of times that the Chinese government is using today for making the Chinese terms which actually invented and amended by the makers themselves they see you see is really interesting symbiotic parasitic relationship between citizen and
and and government engine timing and interesting example here because Schengen as I mentioned in the beginning it was really an experiment trade word the government on the 1 hand declared top down that this region
should be the place where China's modernization project is being implemented and then there was a lot of top down urban planning that happened later but at the same time because it's change is far from Beijing come it's that it's far from the political centers of the state so general's was always also at the same time allow to develop its own informal practice so you see a kind of listed experimentation happening in gender in a kind of formal culture and informal culture make this is constant dance between controlled and grassroots activity in that exist in Jan Jan until today and this is the very reason I would argue why so many Western makers anacrusis find it so intriguing because of the constant play an
experimentation and in between all official and informal culture at the
Council do I see other questions yes 1 there 1 there is so we have 3 questions maybe we start with the 1st 2 questions in the 1st row over there and then we have get your question you agree that so in the maker movement there platforms that makers used
to share files share information get help Thingiverse can you comment that all of the change i where the mechanics of how the Schengen community of which solution should get that's the great question so
that kind of sharing practices that central works to 80 I would say very informal network that comprises a mix of at both traditional forms of networking through people going out for dinner areas and drinking and but also to the usage of digital technologies so there is a very um uh well known I would argue by now well known as in the west and social media app called we chat that really shapes and interaction and all the business culture in China these days so we edge exactly 1 of these platforms do people share and in many ways similar to how we would share the west wall when we collaborate with 1 another is there's a lot of file sharing and knowledge in that happens both offline and a very informal gatherings and as well as
and 3 to reach and then there is an that platforms like Taobao and early
balloted support the kind of trade relationships that's and basically makes under culture happen and so you can think of this as small-scale entrepreneurship the basically exist online and which people informally connective wall and civil a careful oppression in the US just to say that because we chat so
sorry understand correctly is more
taxes posterior after the opted into the right so you have to be included were as anybody come on get hundreds and also shows up as a a standard you have to know someone together and yet they basically goes to use
social networks if there is other mechanisms in we chance to you on and broadcast that a that there is some really interesting experimentation happening sort of microblogging and writing and word that you can actually send out again but through your network but that proliferates right quickly OK a little running of time but I
think we have time for this to work for the 2nd question the suppression also comes OK so the 2nd question was same right next to you right look at the left side there is on and the expressions of the the we get your microphone yeah thank you very much for a great physical I want to the former chief economist of the World Bank Justin Lin speak
about Shenzhen and in his opinionated kind of grown beyond its own it's that's is so much that was sort of going to you couldn't carry on because the cost of real estate is so high and so on and in his in his
talk he was saying that he anticipates that a lot of the company so that we're going to move out to new markets and so on and he thinks Africa might be a very good place for some of those companies go could you comment on this and you see this happening yes think you would have questions to the question of how gender and partners with Africa the really interesting ones you might have heard the Chinese government has a new policy called 1 belt 1 road which is basically an expansion of the Silk Road takes you all the way to Africa and in part this is an expansion of infrastructural building in our day expanding China's capacity to build roads in infrastructures and cities but while this kind of top down at the same time would have seen a march in over several years now are partnership that happened entrepreneur level work for example some people in manufacturing were followed for many years and are partnering with and the people in it you get to set up manufacturing sites there so this is happening really on the grassroots kind of level where individuals are struggling with some of them said economic changes in China and hours of seeking new markets and this is largely happening the partnerships between entrepreneurs so these are not the kind of entrepreneurs in that usually are 2 kind of Silicon Valley venture capitalist that kind of Ventura's but he's entrepreneurs who works to you know getting loans from the bank and this kind of informal kind of entrepreneurship networks where people meet up for
drinks and so on and that's not happening increasingly so into culturally and so I
anticipate there will be way more happenings of in these kinds of trans regional networks between Africa and the South of China so that we have time for 1 more question
chapter 2 we have more questions more questions more questions yes the a great talks and so on you said that the companies that have openly shared designs for the devices and is any legal framework
for that other the liberally to am as they said that the the sharing factor the
coming out of the really inform all and economy practices so there is isn't that sends node legal structure around that's and to uh I would say in many ways you know just unfolds through a kind of grade you know have legal some of it is legal but not all of it a kind of gray zone of experimentation which allows actually a lot of distinct ring on a mass scale to happen the age and so again and a lot of the people wars of committed to open source sharing in either of these you know the rethinking the kind of legal structure that are in place that usually protect the large corporations in out they are drawn to that because the thing of it is a kind of and this is the kind of model that could perhaps also to leave and or provide insights for the kind of open sharing practices we do also work but it has no formalized structure on which is exactly what and allows its to happen basically
1 last question the very last 1 yeah get in the 1st row sort why don't you try to see of his later it was a very informative in I would like your
opinion about how how do of how how do you view these developments and challenges in the the people that live there were will ultimately uh benefits a lot because like right now receive this horrible conditions some of the singular this really will change that to the zoo for
that you know we really have to see what has a wrapped really happened in gender Shenzhen of the last 20 years you
know I would say you know read a lot not a lot of attention to a Shenzhen as this kind of new place you know but I think the biggest transformation has happened in gender and really sort of in the 2 thousands you know especially when there was a lot of opportunity in manufacturing a lot of migrant workers and people really coming to gender and to make themselves to make a better living for themselves they have for their families back home and that is always remain that was always that of something that was made available for everyone grade and as a gendered aspect to that as well and it was also very often available for you know young man who try to remake themselves rates so think when we look at Shenzhen to data doesn't to really fascinating blend happening of a younger generation who grew up in intentions is now a 1st generation of Shenzhen are rate of people really sort of identify with the city and a lot of wealth that grew over the artist in now in that city so I think and we will see the continuation of what's happening there will be more opportunities to will be the continuous problem as much as it is in the west of who will get these opportunities based like with innovation is the many ways they really have access to the structures and they think it will be a continues kind of struggle you know especially for people you know who are and especially but it his Government considered you know the kind of entrepreneur also the sense that they now want to you know really proliferate across the country
thank you think that you're lost
from all
around the room and Haiti
Formale Grammatik
Schreiben <Datenverarbeitung>
Digital Object Identifier
Translation <Mathematik>
Analytische Fortsetzung
Metropolitan area network
App <Programm>
Shape <Informatik>
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Generator <Informatik>
Kollaboration <Informatik>
Rechter Winkel
Logische Schaltung
Ordnung <Mathematik>
Klasse <Mathematik>
Baum <Mathematik>
Demoszene <Programmierung>
Virtuelle Maschine
Reelle Zahl
Äußere Algebra eines Moduls
Ideal <Mathematik>
Materialisation <Physik>
Open Source
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Offene Menge
Wort <Informatik>
Faktor <Algebra>
Prozess <Physik>
Gemeinsamer Speicher
Natürliche Zahl
Familie <Mathematik>
NP-hartes Problem
Arithmetischer Ausdruck
Arbeit <Physik>
Figurierte Zahl
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Software Development Kit
Zentrische Streckung
Ideal <Mathematik>
Arithmetisches Mittel
Geschlecht <Mathematik>
Strategisches Spiel
Projektive Ebene
Web Site
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Interaktives Fernsehen
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Kombinatorische Gruppentheorie
Framework <Informatik>
Digitale Photographie
Speicher <Informatik>
Bildgebendes Verfahren
NP-hartes Problem
Fundamentalsatz der Algebra
Digitales Zertifikat
Matching <Graphentheorie>
Internet der Dinge
Physikalisches System
Automatische Differentiation
Design by Contract
Mapping <Computergraphik>


Formale Metadaten

Titel Ex Oriente Make: The future of maker culture is made in China
Serientitel re:publica 2017
Autor Lindtner, Silvia
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 3.0 Deutschland:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen und das Werk bzw. diesen Inhalt auch in veränderter Form nur unter den Bedingungen dieser Lizenz weitergeben.
DOI 10.5446/33152
Herausgeber re:publica
Erscheinungsjahr 2017
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Informatik
Abstract How is it possible that in just three years, the industrial city of Shenzhen was transformed in the global tech imaginary from a place known for cheap copies and low-quality production to a laboratory of technological futures and a "Silicon Valley of Hardware"?

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