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History of DDoS: From digital civil disobedience to online censorship

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on the B B on
a bit object not to planned they're going
and my name is the players ICA on hacktivists and of sort of upper government as background in their work on that reflect to the dust mitigation service to the fringes of hello I'm Triana and that I used to work for the same the DOS mitigation system now I help for
users at risk enhances nouns helped lines and the reason why I started to become activist and to work with protecting users that trace it is that so once upon a time I was uh and doing something that was it could have been called activism and then I found out about activism online and joined it's very eagerly so it all up and what happened with a friend and
talking to me on the phone and giving me instructions on how to join an IRC channel a chat and from there I got instructions on how to participate in a scene that was called
next strike this next right was there and virtual demonstration as they used to call it at the time and and nobody had ever done before it was
organized there for the 1st time Valentine's group which was called strong network strange metric
translated literally out there they organize it for the 1st time for the is the nuclear experiments that's what France was doing on the more rural at all and you actually can work that well because even if they were trying out who take down websites and that where not be secured or end of where bit primitive and talking about 1995 there was still trying to dig down a websites of the French government and they were still like 100 activists all in work that well but it started to walk well
of the year after year after words in the in May 1996 when there was another net strike organized not only
by Italians but at this point by a network of international groups and they had backed the net the web site of the White House of to protest against the in the protest for deliberation in support of 2 political
prisoners Mumia Abu Jamal balancing about the who had been a members or supporters of the Black Liberation Army and at this point there was a thousands of activists around and they attack the White House and the White House went down it went down the what the website went down for an hour and the moved from from 18 tool 19
PM GMT + 1 and 2 and what happened was simply that these thousand activists where reloading of the page of the White House of manually like they are taking real drilled windows and at the White House website when the so this became
something it became a practice and and activist movements of
the time and it was connected to those support to the Zapatista
movement in chapel as it was connected to many other protests against wars and all the anti-globalization movements that started to embrace embrace this technique and to use it aside the error of
physical technique of techniques of demonstrations and so on and sell up to now to 1998 all these protests online had been gone really manly like people clicking on Renault on the stage that then in
1998 something interesting have tend to another group that was organizing these virtual settings that was called the electric electronic disturbance here there from the United States developed this applet that was called
planet and that people could just open debates with the flat net Apple outlet and click on
to the website they wanted to the loss and teeth on the sent message at this point the browser was automatically sending the real world of requests to a single page must what happened also and hear the story starts to become more complicated and more and connected to power
reactions was that we sold the 1st time when of states started to react to online protease and with the same tools that have been used for the protease and why the protease where of already challenged as being illegal and at the same time a lot of the Pentago not structural strike against the virtual sitting with another after that was recognizing this applet in the browsers of users and make them crash so it was challenged at the time
that the Pentagon was using to find the weapons
against cyber weapons and actually uh mn it
wasn't really something new that Sk told the authorities where fighting back with weapons against for artists of and this was only the beginning we will see during this talk
that it went on and he became a bit more difficult and more of cyber weapon each as done come with a tennis that anyway
despite the Pentagon strike him back on it became the virtual sit-ins became so widespread that they became
1 of the main tool techniques used by the anti-globalization movements straddling the Millennium under and in the this technique became particularly used
also when the physical protease Warens possible anymore because they have these physical brothers have become a bit more it's too expensive and challenging for authorities and that they started to be moved to places where they were not possible like lines
that are and at the end of 2001 and at the end of 2001 there was this that of protest against the WTO meeting and that was only possible 9 so it was going on online at the same time protests gets the crackdown on and this happened also with the next right there in August
2001 just after the meeting of the Jedi 18 general uh window next strike server was seasons and
activities so that strike were arrested and got very long proteases processes and now really overwhelming at users
of all crimes that had only been like taking down a website for a couple of hours and so that's why we
stopped doing using this kind of technique and uh but then after 5 years of so we still have another generation starting again with these
techniques and these techniques became much more media have attracted much more media attention and became much more widespread and this is what Don advised them to those the us so unlike flow their 1st experiences with the more offline activism and and moved into a activism I had my 1st things mechanism online I grew up on a farm in rural Ireland suddenly have much demonstrations to go to but having like friends and people all to align it seemed obvious that intimate roles be a place where you can organize
and demonstrates and poses to doing things to be thinker right in the world so my 1st exposure against anonymous donors like it was enacted 2010 so these next-generation official activists have a neutral and is quite similar to flood left in its function but the kinetic recovers more funds
in other some key new features 1 of the main features that um like the law providing kind had that on the flow that you didn't is a has a so called hivemind mode so the hivemind mode the
activist enough to be sitting at a computer and waiting for the appointed time that establishing attack it instead of delegates the control of the computer of the resources to some
other members of the group so you can kind of delegates to the the timing of the target but actually outliers each other and so once people decide that another time and this is cycle and attack
funeral start making requests you can be in school you can be asleep in their work needed to be written so be up to this demonstration so this is I like to recant prominence in early 2010 and it was a much more popular and widespread that mean that a previous tools that you have about half a million downloads of the story of NATO's and then so is a quarter of the operational the major case where election were like was used was in December 2010 when the removal of larger companies started in this using a financial located on donations to WikiLeaks so the a of some banks and later people coupled with the donations to a German foundation that holds the which is accepting donations for WikiLeaks so after reduced emissions of frozen and electorates got frustrated by that the attempts to Mr. prevents why we listen publishing by cutting off the other funding sources so that this was the launch
attacks the 1st since the main people what such after the toxins since many people outside the didn't succeed people instead of directed their throw a tool to study the people blog and develop what went on for a few
hours so the people bloggers definitely and this is a and other
actors in Operation Payback so all the people blog went down and this is kind of a figurehead for the company it's not exactly at the critical infrastructures so exactly stop your payments causing the major a major financial and in the middle
progression is that our media attention and public awareness is being drawn 1st proposal role in this and something demons of course like like flows of earlier sure that there's there's a law in force in the slums and in that every 2011 at the at the IEA across the US and the house raids and they arrested 14 men and women mostly young people for their position in the stack but which along process over a space of a few years day all the people that have arisen shared without to federal crimes unfortunately a drink processed user law to a misdemeanor and had to pay a combined restitution of a dozen dollars but imagine that it's a pretty dramatic experience something which is like core processes are for a couple of years for a additional put us where but they're just as they were growing individual computers and so this is a long forces student just stop with the legal system
uh in that is it's also got involved trying to stop at this type of long line of descent 1 major attack that we will you know about of because of the documents released by Edward Snowden's is actions by a secret uh gchq a a department says department is called the
budgetary and they're involved in the obtained groups aligned with the Republican their sockpuppets orbiting unwanted thoughts so up here was these 2 situations so that the results of our active is coordinating the tongue of a bitch at room and they launched their
own that ulcers attack against these are activists who were discussing and they not the servers offline this up all the people are communicating i for a number of there's an energy people
left us the service wasn't working so it's so it gets very tricky it's very um is morally dubious when
you have a stations using its power and using the same techniques what like judicial basis to go in the TAC activists and order was dozens of people on this tells you were committing illegal actions the vastness dirty thousands of people were just a talking or just a worthy issues written a recording media uh but complaining that was completely legal at the very broad to when you start using these kinds of digital sites to silence and then to spoof communicating it when it's so this and this
1 is that the use of leftist to raise awareness it's a part of a renewed by states it becomes much more tricky in 1 thing that changed after we're changed after 2011 is a lot more sites answer getting production so what is easy to that there was
a census also changed how these detections happened buddies actions happened lower possible for individuals drawn does the appears to really make an effect and that most of the actions of people with using single botnets sees people using cover was computers try and overload sites Islam was receptors were attending much less the the growing use of computers to attack someone words when controlled by 1 or a small group people with much less of story event and this this type of packed with lots of different appears spherical where 1 group is the DOS attack at the student hours of talk using about that yeah so
often we're saying that these effects are beginning to use in coordination weights of physical a physical warfarin traditional warfare has a during the Russia Georgia warrants as an image but at the same time a Russian which invading Georgia results about the DOS attacks happen against Jordan political
websites in 7 ministries against the other media organizations and as before the Georgian government had good definition services and even resorted to putting the Minister of Foreign
Affairs websites temporarily and people's blogspot service because Google could I keep the sums of I'm restaurant services will concern it's not for it's it's very unclear whether any of these actions are in fact been
done by States orbits just stop dichotic hackers to 0 countries here getting accommodation polish show off that in the canal by data prior the loss and the loss of facts was so that acts up upward 30 media organizations and kind of government figurehead websites which are the symbol but not really damaging and structure of the states in most cases it the missing user text the new in Ukraine
and this is something we've seen in our work with the facts and that is what is the text so that any
and all now what we've seen is that states start state authorities have started to
use these attacks more often than activists activists have to sort of left that technique because you need a lot of resources and that's what we see is that the accounted and tendency to that and this is so 1 of the things we've seen with the fact and effects as we said there is there in website protection the
service so that the text websites against the DOS attacks and it doesn't like with this network of servers you can see here in the middle that cold and is and their response to every visits by external visitors to websites and by serving the resources to web pages that have been asked
for by doing it by your browser or by bots or by hand in any any kind of requests are answered by spiders network of edge servers while the real web server that holds a websites that is hidden behind the network so
when you go and visit the website that is protected by the fact you will never be actually your browser will not send the
request to your to the web server that is hosting the website but will send your requested to the networking between that would then serve the resources to you and the same metric if it receives a request from a botnet will try to recognize the vaults and eventually bomb them and so by doing this work fact can gather a lot of data on about national mobs and analyze the stocks which is what it does with a project called deflect labs and which is exactly In
the tools we are using deflect is using to analyze attacks and and 1 of the attacks in Ukraine we
still in 2016 after the attacks due to the war there was an attack against an independent media website that was fighting corruption is in northern Ukraine and right was fighting against the privatization of a
nearby forest at the website it's called code to be in scope and as you can see in this graph of enduring and these attacks on the
website was getting more at the web site is written in Ukrainian and it was getting a lot of these it's from Vietnam Brazil Korea and that's exactly what when you can see that something is not is wrong because they don't happen to speak Ukrainian immediate numb normally and so
connection with have completely uh taken down the website and
had it not been protected by the fact that that's what it showed was that the corrupt people were trying to silence at the villa websites and so all its state alignment and eventually even the corrupt major it wasn't elected and after some months at the next elections
earlier another uh of states attack or possibly because we cannot really do attribution tradition in this kind of analysis we cannot understand what can be the motives behind an attack uh was uh on top of that that's going on between February and March last year against the boycotts divestment and sanctions movement BDS movement which is headed the international campaign to pressure Israel to comply with international law and me in these attack the the analysis showed that there had been several techniques employed and a very strong botnets employed and
the biggest is movement after uh the report was published declared that these attacks might
as well might possibly come from Israel itself which had of attracted the BDS movement to
boycott it another attack we've seen that has not is not connected to states that is any way connected to breathe edge is and the 2nd connected to the
campaign all up all alright smarter against black life's mountain
they at acts of the black lives matter official websites and have been attacking it even after the report was published and that's why the black let's not website where it was protected by deflect I do have get that went on and it had they had
seen in the beginning they where the launch of publicly on Twitter by a group called ghost hot hyper squads uh but uh then as you can see from an analysis which you can find that this URL which I wrote down there
and that where several techniques involved so there must have been a crowd of people participating in the attack independently from pulses quote hackers at the same time also botnets where employed and the fact that these botnets where implied by a group of young kids in the end it shows how all of the
loss is becoming a tool used for silencing protons uh and therefore censoring opposition and it's cheaper
and cheaper to rent the botnet to launch a diagnostic tax so as much so that Brian Krebs last year and at the end of the year was talking about democratization of censorship who is Brian Krebs bright red is uh and digital security journalist who runs the
website called Creb's on security and she was attacked in September last year by 1 of those of by the strongest the fact that had never been seen uh um historicaly it will it reached a
peak of 622 gigabytes per 2nd and that the Akamai which was the company hosting this website wasn't able to protect it and have to to put out the plan and the website was offline for 4 days before we would project shells which is another D DOS mitigation system for civil society of like
reflects of to be on after for 1 week this thing came out and it was the public
release of those not aware that had been used for attacking Brian trips and
hand and it's nearby and I think the number that can be used to in fact Internet of Things devices which means
that cameras uh free Jesus and any other Internet of Things device can be infected to launch the DOS attacks and it was used again a month after that's in the biggest the DOS we've ever seen so far it reached 1 . 2 terror bits the 2nd which is double as much as a threat to the
security websites back and it so was directed against DNS server gene and took off flying important services web services like Twitter or Amazon or stuff like that for several hours for America
for the US and for parts of Europe as so at this point we are where we don't know the loss is not a party at protests the technique anymore it's being used to silence at the sensor and what we can hope for is that i it t devices I get more secured by the producers but because at the moment if there is no possibility of protecting them against this kind of malware and and indeed in in the at the same time the DOS mitigated this like reflective of the product project shields and which a project or other and civil society organizations and digital security organizations have tried to share their resources and to increase the protection against this kind of attacks so if you're interested in protecting your website
already know sharing resources to talk to hours of that deflected of CA arms we can talk more as we wanted to give some time for questions so I won't talk is finished and and
if you're in this for western this was you and type of the fruitful 1 in this Ernst and i've questions the the that affect service that you're offering and how do you decide whom to protect or is it open problems itself for the civil society and for independent media uh and the users of
deflect mass uh respect to the Declaration on human rights
and it's sad non-for-profit free service any other questions
and maybe have a look at how can we can support these deflects the modest shields against your text however possible to because you're working on these projects right so I guess for other companies that are doing definition service and we get some kind of immunity of we share of information about attacks on we can call it moment and
try and identify some of the people in groups were running these think as a society we can have a better chance of finding against them all information sharing the variances is this rich and that's a very important right that's rather than
you give the whole world
will rule cleaning
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Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel History of DDoS: From digital civil disobedience to online censorship
Serientitel re:publica 2017
Teil 10
Anzahl der Teile 235
Autor Pagano, Floriana
Cearbhaill, Donncha Ó
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 3.0 Deutschland:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen und das Werk bzw. diesen Inhalt auch in veränderter Form nur unter den Bedingungen dieser Lizenz weitergeben.
DOI 10.5446/33125
Herausgeber re:publica
Erscheinungsjahr 2017
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Informatik
Abstract Deflect has been at the forefront protecting human rights and independent media organizations from Distributed Denial-of-Service attacks. We will give a brief history of DDoS, from digital civil disobedience, to inter-state aggression, retaliatory hacker operations, and online censorship. Leaning on real-life cases we will describe the problems posed to civil society by DDoS actions today. We will involve the audience to share their experience of DDoS and propose community driven solutions.

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