Turkish delight: A for Arrest, B for Bots & C for Censorship

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Turkish delight: A for Arrest, B for Bots & C for Censorship
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This panel, organised by Internet Policy Review, discusses the latest political and social dynamics at play in Turkish society, with a focus on the battle over communications. From the infamous internet law of 2007 to latest Tor and VPN blocking, the speakers will provide in-depth knowledge about the radical tightening of the Turkish online and offline communication channels.
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word of the and the and if we think of the game and the and the type
that he at hello
everybody in glad to see you my name isn't a man and doctor a researcher at the moment Institute for Internet and Society and the land and I'm also a former academic editor of the Internet Policy Review which
is the journal on online regulation and the organizer of the session on last year when we had the idea for this panel we thought there was a story to be told the story about how the Turkish government had increasingly tightened up the grip on the online public sphere during the last decade and about how this was attention with democratic principles such as freedom of information freedom of expression with a could tightened last 2 lines and with what followed communication control has been exacerbated in Turkey so this session became more topical then all of us would have liked to so we will proceed the following way 1st we will try to put it under control and some historical context that is important to know and understand the current situation we will then explain and discuss the legal foundation for banning content and so on in Turkey from there we returned to what censorship and government and attempts to control online communication on look like in practice so what does what does it feel to be online and cut in Turkey
and finally we will explore the strategies of resistance and at the end we will have 15 minutes reserved for Q and a as we
imagine that some many of you may have questions so I will let you know and you can prepare questions and come to the microphone stand but before we start me please introduce our panelists and to the far right this African and the Mr. sensory is attacked journalists and a PhD candidate at the file you visited Amsterdam he writes and
occasionally he also sings about press freedom and bitterness and the ships and inter temperature projects such as the . vocative globalvoices as well as German tops most recently mister sensory has co-authored an academic report in which he analyzes Turkish Internet policy after the coup attempts and 1 of the many interesting findings of this report is that the Turkish government is increasingly engaging in informal and less traceable modes of communication control he will tell us more about this later on just left is Professor perceptual look professor shallow teaches international law at the hottest of government in and she's also director of the Center for the Global Public Law at Koch University in the simple among many positions that she has held she served as the Council of Europe experts on the European Convention on Human Rights since 2002 and several for publications she deals with media freedom
professor channel has called for the european court of human rights to become more active more active in the sense that when the court rules in the spirit of media freedom that these rulings actually to more protection for journalists on the ground next to me this doctor Amélie co-modal he was a longtime faculty member in the Computer Engineering Department of Mathematics University diversity in the stumble In his 2015 much download it and well received article on the into the policy review he retraced the wrote an extensive Internet censorship in Turkey particularly Edo points out that the Turkish public is less aligned
with the government that it might appear from the outside he himself signed the academics for peace petition which led to the dismissal of close to 400 signatories from the university positions as of today and including himself so please give round round of applause to offering
Canada's before that we saw the panel few really let's start off with some recent
news many have heard that
Wikipedia has been blocked in Turkey and for users in Turkey since the end of April what do we know about the situation this would incubate year has been blocked since a few days in Turkey apparently overgarment
wants some material to be removed so the overall behavior but so that you behavior lines that the and the they want to lose their ultimate video for my office in Turkey they most want that you that the government has the means to so uh related to to the block out those all long materials but they chose to walk the firebombing so it's something like uh close allow the fire library so removing the word you will that for a few books they chose to do about the course and we fear
that this block is legally based on something that is called the Internet law in Turkey the Law No. 5 6 5 1 on what does this law regulate give us some historical
context and how the Turkey arrive at this of 50 60
you want more money were the sixties the 1 was introduced the father and so on that was 5 years slightly euros power during that time
the you was the pro-democracy hammer the program courses and enjoy the full support of the rest the world uh so of this was some sort of honeymoon with being the uh almost the entire world energy be uh and everybody was surprised the low because essentially it's a censorship so we now understand that so this section you want this very important uh as on the road is they know what the AGP will lie in the max the k so it's important is you won't the censorship issue I it's a the what what the low low rank you know it's uh had some of its own troops on a couple of crimes from the Turkish panel groups such as child abuse process
you show the inside to 3 sites and solvers such things but the child in whose was very important because it was used as an excuse to introduce the wall uh prior to lose low just you to call
the uh Introduction to global search Brussels log why that the job and you stories on 1 that's that was something unusual because job use the problem are Geraghty just like all over the world may be not more than rich but it's not a very big problem on 1 that's so now I understand that has been used as an excuse to introduce below uh was effective because it and use the opposition and use them to not want to get your rules in such a critical issue a
cases 651 growths on organizational differences uh there was an organization a pub organization name you I'm thinkin custom lived you much longer than that this presidency of telecommunications some and was made possible that was to uh for the 2 to of once by the court to order why the uh the sixties you want it became very powerful and became the main mechanism for censorship and surveillance in the work that was the time was the 1 unit of cooperation between the woman and the
heat and the I was filled with the really that's the axon commandments so 50 60 you want and EEG amendments uh located more and more correct form In the sample also through the there was a major corruption scandal implying that have long be stably and his cabinet ministers and so for each other ministers had resigned as a result of that scandal the news was disseminated through the Internet and just off the scandal in few weeks of that the 1st Amendment 256 is the 1 game the wrote the the last locking of the website site the websites did more
house with or without a court order another man carrying uh incest somebody who falls on what he just 1 loss of long rows presidency uh you lose
you will need 1 month before and there's another 1 you uh sort sort of just after the step amendments the constitutional holds all which were implemented some of the amount some very important demands but stated the weight of the force on time uh some key elements of the Constitutional Court the judges through thought and then they grow at the same amendments to be different word than again it thank you then we can pick up pick up on
that come the shot as a lawyer and you found this to be an interesting twist as well what happened with the
amendments what's you assessment as a lawyer of how this changes the and the legal process I mean as an
in many which were just talking about this this this is a very new law it's 2007 and the story of
censorship is really uh from 2007 until now this is the process of discovering with this little the the the weight of the law has been amended and it has been amended so many times and there is some very significant changes in 2014 2015 and now with the state of emergency decrees because Turkey is currently under a state of emergency that has been extended for another 3 months recently and what we see is that the logic of the wall is censorship 1st have freedom of expression perhaps 2nd this is that the weight of the law operates is is is actually sort of instigates 1st blocking of Internet sites very quickly in a very speedy way and there are quite a lot of powers that are vested in in some of the governmental institutions to block things within 4 hours judges can block things within 24 hours and then after all of this blocking takes place the idea is that the of the users and will have to fight back so the logic of the law has reversed the way we we tend to think about freedom of expression where we would think that expression is the principal and the exception under very sort of limited circumstances there would be some sort of editor story is upside down and so the mole prioritizes censorship and at the expense of of expression
and so this has not been left and criticized in in the last couple of years the European Court of Human Rights ruled against the law a couple of times and maybe you can tell us
briefly about the character that these cases had and about what the court objected to so we'll I mean there
are a lot of players uh judicial players and when we talk about Internet censorship and a very important judicial player has been the European court of human rights the 1 that sits in Strasbourg uh the 1 that Germany is also a number of as I'm sure you all know uh and
another very important player has been the Turkish Constitutional Courts they have been for very important cases very sort of principle of building cases both from the european court of human rights and from the Strasbourg court and these have happened in 2012 2014 2015 and a key message from the european court of human rights and to the Turkish government and the Turkish Parliament was about the quality of this law that the law itself was not foreseeable and people who were able to express receiver impart information on the internet had no idea when they will be centered on the what kind of circumstances uh and a huge issue which I think this is what started the conversation has been the practice of complete banning of platforms that you may
have heard the banning of you 2 are treated as a weak he and uh is is another all of these things in the European Grid rise will say well you cannot block the whole platform you
cannot block the whole place where people are receiving and imparting information this is not the kind of the law in itself has to find a way out of this the the good news was also maybe in 2014 Turkish Constitutional Court has also picked up this problem of a very disproportionate way of limiting expression on the Internet so we have had as and if you will some good judgments but from very very high costs at the very top of the hierarchy in Turkey and Strassburg uh saying that there are some very serious problems uh both with this long and weighted applied a in the church and so
what were the consequences of this ruling that is I mean it's a very strong sign a very strong signal also from the Turkish Constitutional Courts against this law notes been applied they haven't been
any positive consequences as far as we can tell as of today but I stand to be corrected maybe things will improve just after this conversation right so we we could hope for that so the the consequences uh had not really come out so the the European Court of Human Rights saying well you have to take a very good look at this along the way that you've been amending the law is limiting the expression further and further and further where the Strasbourg court was saying you have to do exactly the opposite of what you'd be doing as since 2007
this has been met with uh and more freedom of expression all on the contrary we have seen retrogressive measures the law has become worse after this judgment in particular uh the 1 that was delivered in 2012 the Turkish Constitutional
Courts in 2014 signals to the domestic judges the 1st judges that actually do this blocking is within 24 hours that's a very limited amount of time that they have power to do so here the court was trying to signal to them that you have to make disproportionate you're making disproportionate on reasoned decisions you have to balance expression and other urgent needs like privacy or national security uh but again when we look at how the courts have been reacting to the Constitutional Court's we hot or not it to see any any success stories or any
sort of a positive interaction between what the top courts are saying and what the lower courts are are doing on the ground sensors would like this is the piece that's tire at the moment and for now at least still
we still keep hoping and F. again let's talk about how this plays out in practice so what is intended control like from a recent report that you've co-authored speaks about how the Turkish government has tightened the news media and that has been mentioned here before and how all this taking shake well
it's pretty much following this this this this legal history actually and all these legal history and the methods of of looking is is following the government's needs to censor content so when this low and was introduced in 2000 and 2007 a year after that the government Center to block content by the DNS blacklists and
these DNS black lists were reversing of canadian have maybe explain the but what DNS like last fire and domain name servers are are like like phone books or the internet so many our you know writing something on your roses address book then it takes you to google it takes to depleted it needs to ask certain points in the in the Internet of that history there basically it's like asking for an address so be so these these DNS requests domain names are requests are are sent out like that so that Turkish government basically put a like a like a police and control at the corners so that whenever someone is asking for Twitter the police says no the orders Loxley cannot access the Twitter so this is what they do and to overcome this people change the DNS server so they're using other DNS server so that they can you know take another route to to reach the basically but then they introduce a bit that we that we did it the more needs to to
censor content they said that introduce IP-level walk so unbearable looking at part of press altogether and Arab looking at 1 1 low-cost cost or something and then by 2014 orbital these amendments that came after the corruption they need more granular like control of the Internet so they forced its these internet service providers to install BPI deep packet inspection and pulls Indian metric so that when going from this what is DPI OK the effect it has mentioned is like this so yacht again you know you know you are trying to reach to either right or you have trying to retreat failure
this time it is it this far much detail that that and the IASB has provided also the government wants to control not only that the you will reach up or but also the beach articles on the 2 but they are trying to read that's also 1 of the the the great place the great concerns if you look from both sides the concerns for privacy this is and if for example you try to you know put the caps on all the nations of news outlets Internet news outlets out there and then you can crawl I did you can make a profile of everyone who is reading which sources who is reading which articles and acceptor so this came after the corruption because this is when the government needed to blanket sensor all the content about about um corruption investigation basically so they
started to issue and cancelation orders like banning orders by by a URL addresses like news news from this website and added to 2 more news from this life side so this is more of an interest in more granular control over this and uh this is that all this went up towards a postcard right in the possible part and
all this is you know at at 1 level the block traded but then the reasons of blocking through also gets it gets light and so when it all started it was like bonding explosions terror attacks so these were the reasons that the government was issuing give orders and they were also you know some stop looking to it all together but then over e-mail links and like the son-in-law fired on countries and Energy Minister battle all right at the males were leaked biuret by the attack on a heck of groups so this was 1 of the reasons to block of older of cloud services Google Drive of some everything them all altogether even get how they even look the top for that reason so and that the that the controlled increases and the reasons to block content decreases so this is this is kind of tightening the nose and perhaps and how this this this really really like literally tightening is controlling the traffic so instead of looking the and right now government is for telling traffic so that means like again let's go over it with the same like you
are all all of you going to treat but then the government put the control at 1 corner and says that only there is only 1 line to treated so not all of you cannot go so you all right there a huge traffic devoted and it takes about 20 minutes for you to see the fit to the page that the whole on on the your timeline right so this is how so instead of looking to the end you know
when we had the hashtags of total up to date and that sort of thing so it's enough that they have for telling it so this is how the control is is is increasing OK so but as we know the
Internet is usually being provided by Internet service providers who very often and most of the time private entities private companies
and it's that it and it works in the center way so how can the government structure of the traffic of everybody in Turkey houses even feasible unfortunately goes to
the printer much like the media I'm ownership procedure and there are certain
licenses that that these internet from pro-life internet service providers have to have from the Turkish government so if you are
not playing with the game that the government I mean if you're not implementing that censorship orders basically your license to operate in Turkey can be canceled and there of course of course all the business relationships that the former publicly owned companies to telecom the main um states service provided I was privatized it was privatized group that is close to add to these sorts of relations in this relationships also you know we'll be kind of connections so that you know i if these are even willing
to do that because they want to you know operate in Turkey and make profits basically they're not they're Ryker companies that there to be no fight for our rights so you've been talking about the blocking of content specifically you've been talking about throttling you know before what also heard stories about total blackouts what's is that it with in this and how how I mean a general question in from the outside also always is how do we know about these measures how do we I understand that these measures that taking place you know how how you how do you as a tech journalist and make sure that what you reporting section arises
there's a there's a great monitoring grouping Turkey
it's cold Turkey blocks and if you are interested about Turkey please follow the road and they put some probes of like a small computers on every network basically all maybe i is to be an all around Turkey so what the small computers do odd there like an sending because the reader so everywhere so in the end they have they had the data of that the Twitter is is accessible from
charity Twitter is accessible from this corner of Turkey that the internet is accessible from this corner of the 30 and what you refer other regional regional blackout so they shut down Internet uncertain region of Turkey and it's and it's related to the Kurdish conflict and so they were replacing the local local elected of of of official lower deck up elected mayors and and there were supposed to they were expecting protests and to prevent protests this is also a you know that the the the the the intrusion that that interferes with the connection increases with the uh with 2 reasons be becoming
you know some smaller and lighter and I'd like to and the shark maybe just briefly you for already alluded to that earlier and
these different types of measures do what do they look like from a legal perspective is that all the same whether a block specific piece of content or of a block of people platform what does this look like from your perspective and then also fall into that to the people who are affected by the banning of content and this should be an appeal process maybe you can also talk about that a little bit but 1st what can the situation
legally is it all the same so I guess by the time you learned the name of the law or the number of the loss of the 5 6 5 1 6 6 that there is a lot of answers
to your questions our are in little in the year and are lots of ways of looking at both the euro you air you are ounce and also the domain names that the possibilities provided for this uh under different issues of started with this sort
of the pornography and that sort of a lot more general concerns but there are also specific provisions where you can block the websites or content on websites and on grounds of national security uh prevention of crime and national order and then there's a separate body and where you could look these things based on privacy concerns and so there are lots of exceptions so as to how he would be
blocking things in there could be multiple routes to this and for national security for example to governments could initiate the process the prime minister's office or any of the ministries could say we have a concern with this particular sites with like to be blocked and then it has to be follow-through within 4 hours of an interim measure that it will be quickly done and then this will come before a judge and the judge has to decide as sort of within 24 to 48 hours of these things so it quickly making these things can be very very quickly
happened in terms of slowing down the Internet's or some of the other measures and there's a huge debate within the Turkish legal community about whether these have actually legal basis so this law there's no allow for these things to happen the ball is about blocking websites or blocking the uh to the view but not sort of the slowing down on the internet so they're just to be clear there's no Turkish law that says you can slow down the internet it's not written down there anyway to in terms of the appeal process uh when someone websites or your is blocked or the website is blocked uh what could they do on the law operates on the principle that it will 1st get blocked so you have to fight that back to you cannot sort of have a time to have a discussion about whether it should it shouldn't be a you have to appeal to to a judge and these these judges are a sort of single formation and judges of they're not sort of a judicial appeal but a single search explained that a little bit more single formation just as
information judge right so this is called a criminal uh piece justices uh this is a particular judicial uh arrangement that was brought brought in uh just a couple
years back this is a very special judicial information that only deals with this type of decisions and for example blocking or unblocking of the internet so this is just composed of 1 person to another panelist single judge that will make this decision and if they make decision you can appeal to the next judge so you don't appeal up hierarchically but you uh so if if your internet was blocked your URL was blocked by Judge number 1 you can appeal to judge number 2 and they're at the same hierarchy which
has been an issue that has also been debated safe judge number 2 agrees with Judge number 1 and that's it you have you have actually exhausted your entities that or you can
go to the Turkish Constitutional Courts up on grounds of freedom of expression freedom to receive or impart information and of course from 1 charge to the other is a very good journey so this schools you know you could be rejected uh within a few days from both of these 2 judges would your journey into the Turkish Constitutional Court will be months if not years suggests that have to be a very long process to get your constitutional rights back
after quickly you will be rejected from Judge number 1 and 2 and just to come back to where we started about the Wikipedia and what stage the Wikipedia case right now so the let's say they just 2 could never things uh so there are 2 types of of legal activism uh that has been born in relation to this type of censorship in Turkey which is also quite remarkable 1 if you're at the beach so if your own site was blocked obviously you will want to do this but a lot of individuals will not want to do that it's quite expensive you need a lot of lawyers to go to the Turkish Constitutional Court it's very difficult to uh but what we've seen is also a
user activism so information to twittering due to it's not at which you to for example the people are actually using these platforms as said well by you blocking the sites my freedom to receive information has also been block so we have this wonderful academics human rights lawyers were actually bringing uh these cases so this is a part of legal mobilization into into the Constitutional Court but these are very very
long uh journeys so you have to be very patient you have to have a
huge amount of legal advice you have to have good lawyers and if you lose at the Constitutional Court's than your next step is that you may be able to go to the European Court of Human Rights but if you add you know 2 years maybe 3 years the Turkish Constitutional Court another 5 years to the European Court of Human Rights for 1
single case you're actually looking at uh a very long legal process of getting your your sites and to be free so before the session
you told me that there's basically an incredible amount of cases and that the Turkish Constitution accordance well has the duty to work its way through maybe can just give us that number but then that that's that's just briefly come back to a where's the Wikipedia case of that right now just so we're Wikipedia together just briefly I mean we found that a quarter of the Turkish judiciary had been purged by now the quarter is that right while this this obviously links up and
to the state of emergency and that has been declared after 2 crew were that the government has been sort of purging on looking into a very wide range of individuals where been claimed they're related in some way or another and his this quit and so the judiciary has been heavily hits and by perch uh this statistics and sort of change with some say 1 in 5 of the judiciary has been hits and in some way or another uh by by these practices now since the coup which was also raised uh obviously there you know there are lots of individuals who are our seeking to claim their rights under the Constitution so the recent
statistics are talking about over 100 thousand cases that are pending before the Constitutional Court these are not only maintenance cases are cases relating to the Constitution and the Constitutional Court's remit so that the
amount of time it will take the constitutional court to deal with a hundred thousand cases I mean I don't know you can you can imagine that you know that this is going to be an exceptional amount of time some of these cases will be information to Internet closures that this will be only a small part of these cases coming back to
wikipedia so this it follows this trend of having an interim order that's 4 hours within 4 hours this this Wikipedia's blocked than within 24 hours that judge number 1 has to make a decision so that decisions made the there's been 2 appeals 1 is user generated activism users have launched an appeal and of course Wikipedia through their lawyers are
perfectly entitled to do that so we have 2 types of legal challenges both by users and by the pedia so that 1 group have already been rejected uh by uh by the by the judge is judge number 1 and 2 so what will happen is the next stages going to add on to those 100 thousand cases are pending before the Constitutional Court and they will wait their turn for productive decide thank you
and if Akram around it and control is not only about censoring
obviously controls also about them an approach that say their own online presence influences the amount of the government pro-government forces idea apparently have their own on forces and the Washington Post and them has reported that in 2013 the AKP from the social media team of 6 thousand volunteers and what you know about this and it was right after the Giza protests and perhaps how we build remember and
we need a metric studies that that how the gives protest was organized so they think it's fair to say that it was organized or social media baked not not much more on Twitter and Flickr so it's as if it was this and then it was it was it was going while it is reaching everywhere uh
and um evolve perhaps more prominent users of Twitter or or the
group that is using more was on on on busy protests also so they were using it so this was forming these volunteer um you know the the ATP you basically add ons you who you know who are part of our part of party perhaps supporting and you know sitting down altogether and and and giving a reply like promoting ATP in a sense that ATP is also will on the sensors so perhaps it's kind of an affair that they will also have a reply right they will also put an online presence here where the difference to how the democratic discourse the but the the difference is what what they try to do then I mean on the promoting ATP on social mediators is fair game but then you are also attacking the opponents of ATP then it's it it becomes you is that that that that it it started it meets journalists actually I want particle the Journalists received hundreds
of attacks of so he wrote something critical about about ATP about our bonds policy basically especially than of the thicker the policies criticized especially internal security the decoders matter of his foreign policy in in in Syria is is is debated criticize also
visible in the big case of the reaction gets gets very high so these a volunteer members whose you know sound like peaceful um at the beginning turn very very abuse of a has they they really targeted online harassment attacks a special to female journalists IPI has a research on that although the you know um like the IIcx the height the eyes the International Press
Institute and they just concluded a research about this especially female journalists making Turkey baby seed hundreds of rape threats and in a country that is also the the the police force the security force and the reality no
impartiality of the judges and these threats if the stress cannot be you know stopped by the by the by the police force then you lose all your you and then the tracks threat threat becomes a much more much more serious much more risky for you so they turned end users and they said the attacks also physically they got organized in 1 case last year they organize and that together and as they kind of public stones at 1 of the 1 of the main steam newspapers in Turkey and because of the reports so we have this a
story about these people being volunteer volunteers on the 1 hand on the other hand you were saying that around the peak you were talking about the leak in 2013 of government of communication in the area of family and that there's a connection there what is this about
it it then move on I mean and that that that the depression doesn't stay on on the higher level right I mean if if if if the government is corrupt and and we also see a seat on the branches to so these and that most of these people were also employed in municipalities in local municipalities so that so that the system can be you know recovered itself so it'll be you know um going on and on so these people have the of financial sources as well you know by the miscibility making the propaganda of the government and the government also then sends more money to the to the same this policy so that these people can be so this is this is kind of how how how this is done and in in in in right now we have all these people know building a lot all over internet you know us snitching basically they're reporting like normal people saying like critic critical stuff about government and you know people scan tweets stuff right they are they are they are critical they can be critical about them but right now it has consequences because we around the state of emergency and their huge blacklists of people being approach from the of works it from their jobs from their employment positions so this is this is how the distal of of of young people sitting down and monitoring Internet can be used for for ABC reasons
under under under a repressive regime this is what we are experiencing the Turkey OK and we've compared to some of his intention to so that this will be more and intelligible for all
of you and in 2000 16 December just 6 months ago and another story made the news and that is that Torah I hope that most of you know to just by name at is the Torah and the top 10 the VPN services were banned in Turkey and and maybe maybe what can you tell us about the role of Torah and so the role that place for circumvention of censorship and
Turkey I will turn off the system and the 1st slide well more than 100 thousand the bombings of lot of the key uh so that this this year that the people have the
what's skills to use some so when she that's 1 of them is the simplest maybe to use the Google Public DNS the CAM has mentioned briefly about that was also a lot of this is uh another way is to use the here as mutual part the works of but they may not be very secure of the most obvious case about used for for is there you Europe
the produced system maybe uh you all users uh what it was you know what the velocity is that it allows you to look the excessive up a bit towards things 1 is that it's quite your identity the the 2nd is that thing crypts your communication so that's an high used tools for uh accessing the internet uh being in and what amounts of where they use censorship or danger uh I would call them on to the next so I
use text the you know that's so the goal of has the issue what would be the case that is the
body uh that has been the use of for the censorship and surveillance of you
I was a multitude of what's was uh the shut down lot
the cool BTK is now responsible water reviews assessorship it used to be the parent
organization of the idea and the decay you should uh uh or the lawyers piece to use the censorship mechanisms for a loophole in the BPS as a figure answer checks and of the year and so the problem is that the the decay the the most or all you wisest or that expresses the wisest and
56 50 the wall uh of say is that cause you was this loss the Pats purchased wide always use so the really let me just and just to make sure that we are at the right spot 1st we see the the increases of Troy usage in the past and you're referring now to December part last year right when the eyes fees were mandated to install that just to make sure that this this becomes clear there was a change in the end of last year or 2 that state from the beginning you know so and that is the poor who was which was also used to use Skype during the this is from almost 0 to to the the thousands and then we have uh almost a straight line on qubits opsin balance but uh in 2 calls and so when the we have ball that tax is responsible for all state you so we have as wide you to and then into laws and say in the we have some gradual decrease that explains the results of last degree of the the OK so some wise use of allowed using the blocking mechanism
but the problem is that use that's those lies on what's new
and the idea is to use must for them uh so apparently song use can be without the some can lots and we should have another 1 that is a results we
have to such a bigger this is a good bi-directed connected to all users from Europe so of Ponte lost during almost a straight line and then we have some supplies for for some neurons and we
have great deal about told this is the default usage of the whole but more also pro-whites some more so this accessories and that's through the bridges there are several bridges uh like
me he told the if this or that the more we need to tell and nature the knows what bridges are what bridges and and turning to the next slide because bridge traffic goes up that's the important thing bridges of the was of on not listed on the web so if
the if you your more formal access to whole is what you can use bridges so that is an alternative more source data
way or using the bridges so those the wisest that that you bought the they can possibly the block the pull some extent they may have some questionable effect and that's what
uh Regis seem to be the more difficult to walk OK so I kept and we we are running a bit out of time and I'm trying to make sure that we get to all the topics and just a note to you before I ask me the the last question and make sure to think of some questions yourself from our panelists will be happy to answer them in just 5 minutes and I think the microphones will find you and because so up
to this point we've talked about control we've talked about how the open web has been restricted and we've talked a little about strategies of resistance and
now as you have lost your job due to a signatory that you made under and a call to resolve peacefully the situation in eastern Turkey and have been very active online and in other ways as 1 of the ways that people in Turkey to resist we've looked at toward what other ways well there is a strong and resistance so the answer key and part of
that resistance is on the Web uh long that the question was a gift from the gods of other so that neutralize the power of the burden is what's use that's the gifts also for neutralizing many people we have nothing to do with the with them on like the so there are lot now will more than 120 thousand employees of the father being removed from their jobs uh almost 1 quarter of them all in prison there uh and so the the resistance continues and you wider
resistance includes 2 1 is the goal and the others is legal although you know what's we can mention the uh remaining you'll newspapers uh namely the true Mori it's bigger and their side there's still a reasonable but a song members of the strong base
so the newspapers or prison uh and that they have strong presence also on the web the 2nd group of political support you use the Internet news portals such as a nuisance call Senegal and we should have Senegal is the work that you do and
so it has been the most
widely holds all the gold months of skills this morning through the mind parts so
grand loses when she was and ECOC 20 of what or is 1st 26 these available 26 closed and so on so they think that they will go on Till infinity like that there you have lots of a lot of such as the 1 who 2 portals injured and we also have the synthesis drawn uh fights like as you know what's a more local example is wrapped facts that is that the group factor group variable there on the activists and so what would the gates and the most important action the most recent action 1 of them is that they the fact that all white oaks computer the was that was
that variable wired up is the song move over a long and he is the a energy minister uh they have to put this little use e-mail still on that and there it's available will e-mails or
available on the net on the Ricci side as searchable importance uh 1 thing important long drawn into 1 of these that's the thing is you jousts imprisonment may be related to that because he mentions dots in a report in the newspaper with the wealth and so what's more important is that the union bound to the reports the establishment of the the tube wall only individual mean and uh that uh all bottle of you won't be company policy France which we know that's the got company as has been the all the all trades with the so-called Islamic State that is the important thing because it has been banks will sort of the trait is there and the wider
United Nations Security Council thank you and so now I can be a cannot see whether microphones are but if you have any
questions stand up and make yourself seem to so unenlightened if any questions however we would like we would take 2
questions at once and then answer them but please be brief actually pose a question and speak clearly please thank you all right phonemes Dominic just want I wanna know if you have a true that 1 is behind that used say that again and get through without might was low that and because you said you know that which might be slow but was responsible for about let's keep the 1st question and you can answer to that is the other question and direct answer OK please answer directly involved and that of course there's no button on our bonds dust that the presses and then the the slows down but this is kind of a business relationship that is established
after years of these so that for for the obviously this uh the of e-mails from argon son-in-law is 1 of our primary sources that we know how these business relationships are formed Baltic make and and and the rest as well so we know that although the treaty had different prime ministers and after add-on was elected as the President he always had the last say on on any matters including you know of each of your policies will have a field will have an opinion article on on on a pro-government newspaper so that on on the detail so he he's he's and you have a much controlling controlling country concentrating so so this is this is how we know basically OK the next question please
of the yeah please introduced herself shortly as well momentum pointed around and from the Justice school problems I'm just wondering like concerning the role of the European Union of our society for example in the 2
questions 1st is what's like we're talking about a very long period of time of slowly and putting putting and sends it to convert to a society what time what kind of this and of this of this time we could have done something the European Union could have done something inside the question is now that we are at that point so many like a web sites and and and and possibilities to to communication are limited control what can we do right now nowadays what was what chances do we have to to help people in Turkey to say something there
you I would like to answer it maybe 1st the shock effort if you would like to add something that well I mean I think on the European of the European Union level it's in the the
problems of the law to have been very clearly outlined uh including by by judiciaries at the Turkish Constitutional Courts and the european court of human rights so what is everyone and you have to do is to behind to stand behind a legal judgments that have been declared in uh and the the problems of the law have already been identified that so you have to be a lot more principles and actually push forward the legal decisions that even the Turkish legal system itself has managed to to come up with an criticizing the law I think this has to be done on a very consistent and bases but I I think I also have a suggestion for for outsiders and I think at the highlight of this that some of these organizations like Twitter and other beaker organizations they easily sometimes agreed with the censorship laws as well so 1 of the other things is actually to look at the private providers and there's a lot of things that people outside of Turkey can do in relation to asking public private providers are are actually dealing with the censorship questions and then and I think this is another issue that freedom of expression is not just there were at this stage but also for the corporations that protects and this is something that we're lacking and a concerted action to also look at the corporate behavior behind censorship I
think that question as well and so we like to add something yeah if we if I guess at that time for 1 or 2 more questions of their brief of animal questions please raise on that that than a person's well we will stick around if you have any questions and also the report that Africa remnants
recently which I've mentioned in the introduction and you can find that I'm sure for instance on the Twitter feed of the Internet Policy Review and as I said the organizers of the session and I think our treat that out so thank you very much thank you so much for all of you being you it's been a great pleasure and honor for me to have you here
and as long as I guess this last question maybe if you want to have the last word of what outsiders can do to help I'm sure many people are interested in also touch that what said so what is your to specific and suggestion
about well I am much more naive in this and even this this very session that you are here asking this question I replying and the playing about tricky even even this is a is a very good start actually knowing about 20 knowing about what's going on right now we are in in Germany you know we can right these things we can criticize the government but people of similar age a few The similar profiles in the education they should have similar rights right but they don't so knowing that and knowing this contrast was I think is the beginning so I think the session the session is what you can do really you
can thank you very much please given 1 of them the bird the world
around me


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