Merken

The Automated Public Sphere

Zitierlink des Filmsegments
Embed Code

Automatisierte Medienanalyse

Beta
Erkannte Entitäten
Sprachtranskript
and the and the and the point is he and
what not but if the type of who
and well thank you so much Geraldine thank you to the convention so fantastic to be here and I'm just going to dive right in because I have a lot to cover today and just serve but my talk segments when when the stock this by discussing really troubling
applications of big data algorithms and artificial intelligence to the public sphere to politics and culture after going through some of these problems are next going to talk about 7 regulatory approaches that could be deployed in order to address the problems caused and finally and reflect on some situations where perhaps regulation is too late were counterproductive so I think with that the presentation will have a balanced and will try to understand what can government you can do anything to respond to the evolving media landscape that in many areas is very troubled I want start with serve for ways in which recent developments in the public sphere over the past 5 years or so have reversed the common utopian story about the nature of media online and I would say arises by saying that we've moved from a wealth of networks to a black box society how did that happen what it 1st happened because we were told that know the ability of almost anyone to set up a website to save your own piece online would end the big media domination and would power everyone but we've also found is that it's enabled a great deal of fragmentation and extremism secondly we were told that the enabling of anonymity would give people an extraordinary courage and freedom to speak their mind but we're also seeing is the most powerful plutocratic forces in societies can set up shell corporations result of Panama papers they can sort of other entities that essentially allow their influence to go unchecked annually on March because it is so secretly funded and accomplished of 3rd example of utopian version of the public sphere of the was the idea that all parties they all have a right to speak but we've seen the flip side of that is say hashtags spare where we have everyone has the right to speak and you certainly also have the right to say flood the hashtag black matter with white supremacist propaganda right and to the extent that this is permitted it is almost immediate effort to strengthen the cradle of the amounts Batory potentials of the public sphere that we all hoped and dreamed of 10 years ago or so and and perhaps even you know to make it even more topical the last week or so our original conception of WikiLeaks was this wonderful tool to discredit the surveillance state now it seems as though it's sort of really bent on discrediting anti-fascist candidates in elections and so when we see this type transformation we have to worry and go under
some particular examples of this on the proliferation of Twitterbots I think is not merely a reflection of technical evolution that people liked him on writing about years ago yeah it's also a reflection of the commitment to what I call free expression fundamentals where the idea is that say if anybody can code of a program that wants to speak or tweets thousands of times online that that is a natural extension of the right to speak I think we really have to come back that because we can just allows say the romantic appeal of Isaac Asimov talking robots to influence our idea of how software and automated methods of speaking can influence the public sphere because you know I can never keep up with about that country thousand times in our you're going with here and the logical point of such a completely unregulated and the unmediated public sphere is 1 where those who were the wealthiest with the best coders are able to drown out everyone else
I also see that the content on Facebook is a huge animal challenge to the idea of the marketplace of ideas ultimately enabling good true speech to drive out the bad speech in fact what we're seeing is dark ads and personalization our directly targeting certain types of content to those were most susceptible to it and those who would dispute it will never see this content because it's in the dark it's sort of things about but the but what society that no 1 will be able to see this and counteract the speech because it simply bands soul slide is targeted on such a personal level and what's really scary I believe about this is that we have a problem of human subject experimentation in many social media we have constant efforts at a b testing to see what works what doesn't and this can just as easily be a way of accelerating propaganda as this way accelerating truth now have sophisticated
observers will ask you what is this matter put believes the fake news who actually believes that you know Hillary Clinton had 5 people killed you know the during election 2016 server so who would believe these otherwise well that does make some sense for a lot of folks that run into a highly sophisticated highly educated circles but we also have to worry a great deal about floating voters low-information voters voters the marginally attached to the political process being particularly susceptible to a lot of efforts at propaganda and online manipulation and when we consider the possibility of little information voters being the key ones who decide elections I think you can use your own experience when most people 1 knows they know exactly what the political buttons are but the ribosome poorer flow information voters that can be really disproportionately
influence I'd also say that you know the promise of Facebook was that of a unified national supranational even global public sphere where we could all talking today and that still is part of the 6 thousand words Zuckerberg manifesto with respect to Facebook but the problem is that the server radical egalitarianism as source can lead to a total lack of educated effect or branding as to the validity of the continent so when you have a situation where automation homogenizes the presentation of information so that everything looks the same something to be from the Denver guardian so-called that was just put up by a couple people a few days of a a site like that was just put up in this way could appear with the same level of authority as something say that was from a prize-winning newspaper investigative team and this again this idea of sort the beast egalitarianism a way of serving everything with the same is very troubling I also think that 1 of the biggest problems
here is that a lot of people that run the biggest online platforms and intermediaries Google Apple Facebook Amazon Microsoft so are they come from the US and the culture of the US really has culminated at least with respect to free expression something like all 1st Amendment fundamentalism the idea behind this is that it's in a book called according the abyss where the stranger of value system is that the worst the speech is more misleading it is the problem we are to allow it because it shows how radically committed we are to let everybody say whatever they want the culmination of this is and things like this accuse called USB Alvarez called the Stolen Valor case with a spring the government of the never right to make it illegal for people to lie about whether they had military honors was another case from the Washington State Supreme Court essentially guarantees political candidates the right to life and it's it's really just that's the thing that you know which is going to allow the parents for and we have a public sphere that has this type of cultural legal attitude toward free expression of course you have the bible stories that say you know lies about that there are 3 million illegal votes or what have we also for the material
foundation that has the legal foundations of this so automated public sphere and I think these are really brilliantly investigated by Judy Dean in her book blog theory where she describes the circuits of driving the profit that is made by simply out people right rational opinion formation and liberation is not a profit center rapid sharing engagement is and that's 1 reason for example why even dadaist interventions like Ben grocers effort to randomly on me your reactions to Facebook posts why these things are so popular because people have a sense of the sort out of control public sphere that really is very hard to understand where it's going or what 1 can do to even influence in a positive way at a
responses have been various to this problem so we have a situation where you have a lot of people they're trying to figure out what is there a role for regulators is there role for consumer protection authorities for media authorities for other entities unfortunately the 0 there's another aspect of US American centers but I think is overly influencing the which is a rhetorical commitment to something called the 1 unified open Internet or don't break their and so often what happens is that when are efforts that rational public interest regulation of Internet media a lot of those at trade authorities from the US and other entities say if you allow different roles and say Germany or France or Argentina Japan and then you US standard rules you will break unit and this I think is something to be resisted because we need culturally and nationally specific responses to solve the problems that I've just gone
from the problem also is that we have an attitude from the US the communications Commission pioneered in the 1980 is that television and now the Internet under underwriting 5 apprentices chair is little more than a toaster with pictures and if we trust the market to give us the best toasters we entrusted to give us the best of Internet the best program online of course in the case toasters that's not true the product safety commission that actually try to ensure the your toaster toward close to explode in your face when you put bread
but nevertheless this is 1 of the
problems in which we of many other robots rhetoric from the US saying no just don't regulate it'll all work out in the end but this is very disingenuous because essentially deregulation is
alive once you deregulate by the state in a given area you essentially see power to massive corporations to be the de-facto regulators and in our case especially the problems we're discussing at this conference this convention Facebook and Google effectively are the regulators but they're acting in regulatory ways without the normal modes of accountability such as due process public comment public responsiveness that are the hallmark of a legitimate regulatory authorities and so as I go through 7 of regulatory responses part of the inspiration for this is trying to figure out a way in which the de-facto regulatory power of online entities could be translated into something that is more legitimate and more responsive to public ideals
this is in a nutshell the 7 items that I'll be going over over the next 15 minutes which are to label and monitoring explained he driven search results to ban certain particularly dangerous content to all the lots of data that into algorithmic systems to allow some limited outside annotations to limit the probation possible by online intermediaries I think that's a huge part of the story here is that as you see so much money power and attention being sucked up like a vortex centripetally into these online intermediaries there's so much less to go to the standard for our media forces the right to be forgotten as 1 case study in this area about accountability and finally a shadow of a media literacy so 1 example here's
labeling and monitoring biased of search results and an example that I am am so putting on most of slide is when involving the rise of advocacy by all right to promote a revisionist accounts of the Holocaust and of history up to world war 2 and what we see in this situation is that people searching on the term Hitler on Holocaust on the 19 thirties in germany etc. all these types of searches are leading to extreme provenance for renewed right wing of results and were far right so that the results and this was revealed in a piece by Carroll Campbell over 2 weeks ago she does a lot to get some empirical research so the total studies were stories of
here what kind of ironic here is that we actually moved backwards from where we were in 2004 I started writing about search engines and the arrangement of information back about 2003 or so and when I was writing so my 1st articles like ratings reductionism responsibility I found this example of to watch which was the color constant outside that was in the top 10 results for the query to at the time what Google did they were extremely worried by this the Anti-Defamation League complained to them and they had an asterisk next to it at the bottom of the page they said we are very concerned about this result we believe it's been manipulated but just know that we can't really change its but we would would like you to bear in mind the potentially illegitimate origins of this result and what Pamela's reporting revealed in the past year so is that there was no backsliding from that commitment by the company it rather ironic right because if anything that was 10 times more powerful and more rich that it was in 2004 but a battle another problem
that I think is really important and what demands some responses is autocomplete bias so we have a problem where for example of completes about sort of individuals are leading to really biased results but here's 1 because it's a public figure I am less inclined to endorse the user intervention was early whether private figures were automatically it's going after them that's really troubling and suddenly when we have a whole racial
groups having although completes that are derogatory they're troubling there deriving but that is something we have to address and I'm really looking forward to this forthcoming book by suffi noble who has explored in great detail exactly what is going on
in many of these algorithmic biases that show up in our completes and this proposed some concrete ways in which
large intermediaries can try to intervene to assure that there is not this kind of bias influence and certainly even governments that have nt was should seriously consider how far this could go how far down the road we could go I Susan particular because 1 of the most troubling terrorist incidents in the United States over the past 10 years or so was this dismantled roof went to the South Carolina predominantly African-American
church and killed over 10 people when asked why he did it he said he Googled black-on-white crime and saw all these
results that sort of within the site saying there is an epidemic a race war happen were essentially the there was a White genocide possible because of all the black and white part of course these things are entirely spurious all hatred and so the idea is how as society is committed to formalism to tolerance and diversity we try to ensure that what we have committed to formally we commit to education is showing up in our online media because to be frank that's much more important to many people than many of the standard media attitude about that's that's how people read the connected to each other and connecting to the Web
now another thing that I think is so important here is audit logs of the data fed into algorithmic systems and I will explain the significance of this with reference to the scandal that happened the United States was bizarre situation the story called pizza gate where essentially there were rumors based on the ostensibly based on some of the WikiLeaks releases that there was a child sex ring that popular it's read in Washington was connected to the Democratic establishment again entirely false but 1 it took some time to get to the bottom of the because the people who spread this news were savvy about how they would disseminated if you had better audit logs we can better understand exactly where certain stories quite suspect rigidly this 1 originated white supremacist tweet this type of public regulatory understanding of the black box of these algorithmic systems could be crucial to rapid responses responses that happen before say in this example a gunman goes to the site and so starts firing shots and says i is what's the what's really going on here think this is where audit logs are really helpful and they're also really helpful because we
hear a lot from Silicon Valley lobbyists other attack advocates that the current modes of ordering information on search engines and social networks are so complicated walking never catch up there is actually 1 Machine learning expert that was quoted in recent stories said trying to explain how Google or other sites range information for you to track for me as a computer scientists to explain that to you as a layman would be like trying to explain shakespear to adopt and and I think it's very important when we hear these metaphors we push back immediately and 1st we say you the story about the today that's that shakespear OK and then we suddenly say you cannot adopt the server condescending attitude that the computational sphere is itself automatically superior to modes of human solve interpretation the Huber understand but that is precisely the core normative value at most in most of the deregulatory efforts here and 1 small push back against this is to say even if we can't necessarily understand or explain humanly relatable way how machine learning works on thousands of variables with those parameters we can at least have lots of data the influencing certain results that we see on the spot in Google and we could try to isolate and try to find a suspect sources of information those suspect sources of
information could for example be part of the annotations on certain posts so if you recall that you watch example i gave regarding about how white supremacists were search engine to lead to analyze results that could be a most that much faster process if we have data from audit logs but allow us to identify suspect efforts to manipulate news feeds to manipulate search and result engine results and then immediately or very close to immediately allow annotation of those results
and I think this is a very important step forward but in how we regulate the economy it yeah because we have already committed to the idea that we need to have labeling of the Food and drugs so we understand say how many calories how much fat is in food what we need to take as a 2nd step the information economy is we not only need to have information about goods and services we need to label we have to have information about the information we get k we have to be able to understand that there might be certain suspect or troubling influences on the data were getting that helps us to figure out what shows we're going to watch what news we're going to trust what if you were going to follow and that's a promise of Mark Harris's book on antitrust 1 the new economy is an effort to serve step to a 2nd level of awareness and to break out of our self-imposed tutelage about black boxes to break out really light in the public sphere in these areas I also
think the heart of this is inevitably going to involve restoring human editors and what I see restoring human editors I don't mean doing this in the classic Facebook style of creating a caste of untouchable journalists for out the trailers somewhere there's contract workers who can be immediately removed or vetoed by anyone who's an engineering company K which we will review lot realize this the caste system very explicitly described and he lost his book about Facebook but is a reality about the way in which a lot of entities in Silicon Valley see the relationship between journalists and engineers what we instead use we need to really make sure that there is is robust and substantial commitment to respecting journalism as a profession not merely a source of piecework propaganda PR and to ensure that human editors can for example look at breaking news story and just knock out once so clearly have no basis in reality
Google's backtracking initiative is 1 small step in this direction they have partnered with entities like start coming that that word they're trying to ensure that there is some rigid parameters to qualify those service that checkers to have some level of accountability and responsibility there but I do think there are some issues 1 is sort of the
interface problems so 1 problem here might be that you even though Stokes . com is the bunking the story the Pope Francis inverse Donald Trump for president but we nevertheless have the headline is the pope endorses down from the president and we have to be sensitive to a world of you know as apartment Rosi? characterizes the world of acceleration and social acceleration that we have the ability of the entities to respond to the possibility that people may only be reading the headlines so maybe even headlines have to be altered to respond to the real part the activity of the reception by new audiences fast audience audiences same with the story about notes and campaign chairman involved in satanic spirit cooking again false story let's perhaps not require people to click to the 2nd page which have a better sense of what the actor and 1 would look like and I also want say that the groups involved so 1st of all you know I have a question are they being adequately supported by the larger media is the 2nd question I have is
nor have we really opened up to all potential groups right where we have a very narrow concept of what that checking entail I think that this type of civil society initiative trying to recognize it's quite a governmental nature trying to recognize that the questions of legitimacy of representation involved is very important in trying to be open about that right and I think that even to those go response rate we forgot decision there's not quite enough pluralism in terms of how they established board to try to respond to that there could be more In going through the what was is that
you know we have to when I talk about funding these other entities part funding probably has to company intermediaries themselves and we have the proposal back in 2006 a sold by Harvard professor Terry Fisher to assure that content was getting some share of the I mean profits were being made from the growing connection and Internet connections of other people around the world and he would actually have a proposal that would allow a lot of access to content and response in after having the tax on Internet connections now of course I don't I think that is far too regressive tax I would make it much more progressive tax I think there's more than 1 division of some of my Germany anybody you know the sum of the he also has some other ideas about how to make sure that content is actually compensated but part of the idea here is that we have to recognize that has more and more revenue goes through the media less and less to the source directions enabling intermediary to be something of value we have to respond to the I another
example give number 6 of my examples is the right to be forgotten and I think that the example here is 1 where I know it's controversial I know there's certainly concerns in the press about potential censorship collateral censorship would be more accurate term but I think that when we look at the demands of individual set when you have a woman who says whatever people search my name the 1st result they see is the fact that my husband was were 20 years ago I don't want that to be the 1st result everyone sees about my name for the rest of my life into perpetuity it seems that a humane and compassionate response to that really is for the intermediary to help that person say obscure the story you know at least 1 to search on her name right it reminds me a of a credit for dossier private investigators report on some of the really need the ability to respond to the and this I think is a 1st step toward assuring that we're not to serve drifting into an artificial intelligence future but we're dripping into a wiser future where there some artificial wisdom that informed by a contestant response and requirement under law that intermediaries be somewhat responses to individual concerns can be abused of course but the answer to this view is I think is better more legitimate operationalization rather than and in the right itself
and I think this is part of the you know the pits in together with some of the ideas that I've already been talking about respect to obscuring certain content banning certain content because it really is quite possible that we're on the cost of the social media genocide you if you have the ability of individuals to spread hatred to spread damaging stereotypes or fake news about the minority group in a community we could be very close to a scenario where that group itself could have accelerated hatred directed against it and we need to have mechanisms in place to try to this which heart that slow down the acceleration of damaging content a
final example that I was given this steps back from natural disasters and the thing about the earlier slide is educating users and media literacy 1 of the concrete examples here that I think is most compelling is that there are lots of people that do not understand the difference between sponsored story on Facebook and that organic content that all understand a distinct difference between sponsored ads on Google and real content or content it's of ostensibly again and just have these basic levels of media literacy talk median 4th 5th 6th grade so that individuals no what they being paid to see what is something that is arising out of the last commercial process although certainly commercial process this type of media literacy is really crucial and it's also crucial even the smallest settings so for example there are lots of scandals now on US about celebrities promoting not just fire festival on but promoting drugs online and we have this like Kim Kardashian was actually warned by the from drug administration not to promote a warning sickness drug without atleast acknowledging this is that right because people should have some level war of skepticism about advertising about organic content also the 7 ideas
out here the 7 modes of regulation there's something that I think will the medieval past to move a bit closer to the better modulated more representative more legitimate online public sphere I'm not saying there's the solution to everything certainly there are many problems of the legacy media that I've not even touched on here to this point I'm going to in the last 3rd of the talk but the least give some sense that there can be democratic will-formation by quality that is coherent and that once to set certain rules of the road with respect to how information is disseminated and consumed online but I also want to think about
what happens in public spheres that are like all posts deliberative and I have this slide to social theory so I think I really uh there's almost a rivalry between the font and whose spot will most influence the 21st century and politics and the you have a mouse encroachment and when we think about the you have a master's work over a lifetime she is look forward idea of an ideal speech situation and a public sphere based on rational formation on unforced force of the better argument and many people say 0 this is a pretty idealistic notion right and it is ironic we think about the intellectual history of German social theory that you know he himself was was acting to be a more realistic voice response the Frankfurt School but I think it's very important to have these as regulative ideals for how we enter into political debate dialog the alternative of course is the crown tourist of the 3rd Reich Carl Schmitt's concept of politics which is the politics is essentially a battle between friend and enemy and we have to try to win and we really have nothing to learn from the other the other is the enemy and what is this social theory relevant to what I think it's
relevant because we should do a thought experiment about any reform that say based on the concept of a filter about some let's imagine that you they were really concerned about militaries response of the filter bubble and we ensure that everyone on the news feed all people who are identified as left see some right wing stuff on the news feed and all people are identified as right see some left-wing stuff on industries if everyone was committed to the relatively cover margin ideal of deliberative democratic politics this is going to moderation right maybe this will lead us to a consensus to societal harmony however if you had if we can just imagine a society where the Liberals a very open minded gives the liberal run laughter open-minded and you have those in the right word in the close minded then if we iterate over time we can imagine a scenario where there's some folks on the left to say you you know these these showed me a liberal or net uh policies with respect to an immigration with respect to taxation etc that it's incense medium a little bit closer to the right and then you might have a right this as we will never know we are here in if you have this type of scenario it's pretty easy to imagine what happens iteratively over time right and I don't think this is just a thought
experiment real I think it's actually something coming somewhat close to reality in the United States of the time the present time and this is where I wanna draw distinction between saving concerned about algorithms being concerned about the legacy media in a lot of the United States we get served media those presented so for example in this slide the jobless rate for for president as compared and were meant to assume that essentially trumpets the vesicle 1 of us before and 1 of the words because after 3 months look trumps Excel problems it's even
worse where you have essentially 108 job-creation figures and you have say from began looking as the best person to the other stuff if this is the media diet that a being fed to 1 side of the spectrum and part of the filter bubble is a commitment to ensure that more and more people see this media diets that me would probably be a perversion of the fairness doctrine right that's where least 1 would not necessarily want to sign up for it so I think we really have to think hard in the future about exactly what is the public sphere we're dealing with another example that I
think is relatively telling at least from the US context here is if you look for example on free trade on the left hand side of the slide and there was a huge Republican shift on free trade so the began 2009 and you know you had a relatively stable support for free trade once you have a candidate who was against it suddenly against it's even more dramatic if you look at the serious for you have among Democrats say relatively stable opposition roughly 2 getting warmer least ventures the US whereas you have an energy GOP 22 per cent supporting democratic president 86 % boring Republican pressed so again the problem here is 1 of the if your model of public sphere regulation is 1 that presumes rational relation among large portions of polity and it seems that there might be safe for some college really don't want the committed to a certain way of viewing the world you gotta think very deeply about how that is the improving public sphere potentially not improving potentially forming and playing into the hands of 1 side or the other
Michael online for this talk is that the US and free expression advocates really should not try to stop well-ordered societies from imposing reasonable consumer protection competition regulation I think that the 7 items I 1 over earlier that those could be quite helpful in assuring that places that have a relatively well ordered and deliberative political system can maintain that and how they can be used to get in the that certain forms of extremism or ways of undermining the political common understanding the imaginary of politics to Charles Taylor's to that undergirds robust democracies but also there is that after a certain amount of time in some public spheres there's essentially a loss of this common understanding and the public spheres it's relatively easy to see the regulatory bodies being captured or regulation itself being put 2 and that it was never intended for and so this sort of cultural sensitivity to whether we're in a harbor margin and Schwarcz million public spheres will be essential to how committed we are to the 7 types of reform of the automated public sphere lattice and so with that I just want to thank you so much and I look forward to questions in dialog from this group thank you mn few
few thank you so much thank you left some time for questions and I and we show that be sum and we have I the entity sets come around and give the
microphone to you if you give me and Frank and Frank and if you like to raise the question of comments the following hand yeah
they Fizeau thank you very much enjoyed it very much and doesn't have a question you had
this idea but information about information on site in leading the information I was thinking why set like how would you or what kind of thoughts here valid them that people trust this label because there's so much mistrust there's so much like a conspiracy theories that people really even when you talk about like what is your idea about like establishing trust for these kind of senders that labor right that's a
fantastic question and I think that the
problem of achieving some sort of self self-reflexivity self-reflection about public sphere is really critical 1 I know that there's some certainly the organization factor that word was widely distrusted by a lot of people who felt that it had extremely narrow approach to public financing for exam and so that is something we're enabling many groups to be part of the dialog should be the 1st step toward allowing more legitimate forms of label information online and I think this is going to be true the consultation process that should be a cooperative endeavor say between governmental authorities and the intermediaries there to of you have most effect here I just think it can be left entirely up to the leaders themselves because it is and I certainly in distressing
and I wanna see more involvement by civil society now part of the involvement of the involved looking at the past record applications from the group
setting up commissions of both through the applications to figure out what the state who's done most work in this area the most probable work and to allow challenges so for example in the rulemaking process administratively you have common periods and then you love someone sometimes there's an allowance for comments on the comments on so that can be part of the issue as well but I also have to acknowledge that you don't wanna create a situation where it's simply the
person that is most logically interested with its because that sometimes you see like Wikipedia wars and it so you have be careful to sort of make sure that you're not sitting in a system where it's simply about over expense most effort best is somewhat more close process but a process that is open the beginning but then also allow some contestation in some renewal and some circulation to what the same organizations doing over state of the past 5 or 10 years but
all those things I think have been addressed by the Intergovernmental advisory panels or other panels and all that really focusing on here is trying to ensure that these methods are recognize that something that is like a state action is recognized as a In the identity of what can be should do that they're acting like governments these act like and 1 last
example is my my colleague Daniel Citron has an article called technological due process
path-breaking article where she says that when they make these decisions which also be due process right contestation right to be heard and that's why I think the worry about algorithms lovers intelligence I think really bites is because so often the entire firms it's seen anything that involves a human is a defect that of indicates a failure of code that we need to do is to reverse that say in fact humans are essential to governance and involving them is a sign of legitimacy of process not of its deviation from a Platonic ideal entirely automated public sphere yeah yeah on animal
questions enough to wave and make yourself very visible over then thanks right then it so there over here so the year they have getting you 1st think
then you ask that thank you write and I wanted to ask about this you have this yet this little scenario that is sketched kind of the the hard right a clear position in the beautifully liberals liberals there so open and then develop kind of shift the whole of society to the right now I'm kind of part of like a mixed tribal marriage my wife's family is conservative evangelical Kansas my my my own family comes the liberal east coast I hear from both sides especially after the election I so much ignorance of on both sides and and I'd I just don't quite buy them that can beautiful idea like picture that you point painted of the liberal since in the United States it should not I would
say certainly could you could model it the other way but my point is this this thing about culture model right you could model the exact opposite way you could say a society could do completely to the left of electrons will that I could be this stuff because you know where this is 1 hardcore core but I just about as a convenient slide because most so image that I think is quite compelling in terms of with the body to model the filter bubble my the bottom line is that democracy is fragile and that if you don't have a real commitment to openness by all the major entities in a political spectrum you really have to worry about that you know and I think that is that is very troubling and so that such as the point the point is that it has to be you have to have a general beneath political commitment shift of have so how about including I think to actually listen to the other and then you
have a definite my name's Craig Fagan with the World Wide Web Foundation some which is set out to give basically keep the weather opens a space for everyone obviously algorithms there are key I use the term social media genocide it's affecting
how this vision is kept alive but in a lot of remarks focus on the US which of these is a good example of of how the scene is layout in other countries because 1 of things that were very concerned about is it's very much this you're talking about silicon valley driving the agenda in the US it's Silicon valley driving the agenda in models in Delhi in other countries where there isn't that type of the concerns is talk about the filter bubble is on a totally different scale and there's also a thing which I think you alluded to which the round algorithmic calm the idea that there is a social farming creative algorithm so we need to do something about it which is similar to me in the concept of where the environmental debate where the driver dead in Germany you ask is not going to be the same level what's happening again in Nigeria India so what you know how you kind of looking at this broader spectrum and bring it back to you how you see these 2 things playing out in the debate in other countries thank you thank you so
I would say that of 1 of the key messages of love and I think 1 this the 1st part of the talk of the ending was that I am very worried that the US centric view of the world
is overly influencing international body that might misinterpret the culturally specific US idea of what free expression of free traders In order to eliminate the possibility for many other countries to develop culturally nationally specific responses and you just to to turn the question around but I guess I would say that perhaps my focus on US examples performatively embodies that attitude to by indirectly confessing that that's what I'm familiar with right I don't mean that all German papers each day I don't really offers the resistance actually died I don't read other countries the procedure I do look quite specifically look quite closely that's what US spirit of experiences and I think that what it shows is that in countries in a country with a very advanced penetration adoption of some of the most advanced automated public sphere of methods that you have a lot of opportunities for distortion so all that my bottom line would be is I am trying to essentially use US parochialism against itself I'm trying to say is essentially that don't necessarily trust what is being advanced by largely interest larger identified with culturally specific ideas of what the expression of free trade is the open to other service for instance so yeah that would be my my response and there's 1 question and 1 of and of an entity that
can a member of the trade union Mandy and my question is if it would be helpful to open the discussion more out not only talking about the filter bubble but uh talking about the necessity of transparency of algorithm in all the years of some democratic decision making but also about security I think and we have to have much more transparency of algorithms in all the basic infrastructure it's extremely transparent unfortunately and therefore it's a security issue but also for example in the trade union we discuss we do have talking about different laws in different nations than in Germany we have co-decision making and we need to have transparency of algorithms are at least as criteria what's going on and on with the software and functioning in the decision-making processes of software and to be able to code decide what kind of could technology can be introduced so in I think that they're in general for democratic and procedures and safe infrastructures we do need much more transparency and it's part of the filter bubble and kind of 100 years to maybe if we discuss it s in January problem of democracy and security maybe in and we have a little bit more strength in pushing thank you all I would
completely we reiterate that point I think that you know in particular in my but what society book I was really focused on the data brokers the media sector
and by except that I thought particularly look at the crash of 2008 global financial crisis much of that was down to the extreme positive obligations but what's so important is that we have to emphasize that this opacity was a social construction of a lot of firms they always just too complicated you will understand in fact it's because of trade secrecy requirements etc. and more the number concerned about the European context is that the right explanation that is a guaranteed under the GDP on that that will be essentially cut down to nothing thanks to trade secrecy assertions by large public but the travestI's so we really have to watch trade secrecy solution I
also say that I have to preview my next
book jobs on robotics that in the areas of medical robotics education robotics law enforcement and the military there's extremal pass the about the guts of robotic systems and if you think it's bad when it's opaque as a news feeds and Howard incident results Imagen when it's a robot deciding whether to arrest you or not or whether to how it's going to be teaching or photo diagnosing norms so as these algorithms power more and more parts of our lives we're going to to really recommit ourselves to exactly the type of consumer articulated so thank you the kind of thing 1 will question from that
and they need identification Frank thank you well thank you very much 1st of all this is a very inspiring talk and I look forward to following this out with your book and
I am not quite sure what I really can't put my finger on my question precisely now but I would like you and it to love can make what you just said to the notion of democracy because what struck me is that a lot of what he suggested is actually very top down you were talking about regulation and you were talking about the old notion of gatekeepers information about labeling information and on the concept of democracy democracy says that out people actually participate from the bottom up um that seems to me to be a bit at all of and 1 of the good things that I think that the Internet has brought about especially also in the context of the Trump election is that you've been reading seeing a lot of grass roots journalistic outfits start at center pp soul and how do you put this together so it should have a the set and go to make some questions and I think that
part of this approach that I'm putting forward response at 1 of the 7 proposals for regulation of for student self-regulation was and some of them it really is a plea for structure and here's the here's the how I would repeat this and it actually comes from the James Q. Wilson book about bureaucracy is a great mystery lost of political scientists and use administrative law and he compares ideal types of how political struggles done and he says that in and again this is very crude but I think it's illuminating this is in Europe many decision procedures seem like they follows something like the markers of Queensberry rules it's like a boxing match there's a fight people contested there's an argument this is on a winner and people were going along with the generally the compare that to the American political process which analogized to a bar all this so that the fight never ends there might be a game that goes out of our interest somebody else to come and beat up the enemies 7 and is that sufficient administrative process in the US reminded him of was this for a complete free-for-all I think what my argument is that I think that 10 years ago see and when we were most influenced by the wealth of networks type of utopianism about the potential for networks online treaty that we thought that this would bring everybody in that would serve automatically induced to democracy to free free-market surveillance very high vision of spontaneous order I think over the past 10 years what we've seen is that what's really happening is that there is a there are large intermediaries that have enormous power so 1st of all it's not like regulation is intervening on or interfering with the process that is now an open ended and grassroots 1 it's really 1 where the process right now the default is 1 of extreme socialize corporate power and secondly that this sort of grassroots vision grassroots a very easily replaced by structure by the graphs right and so to even be supportive of a grassroots group you have to have some concept of what's grassroots and what is like that what about I showed you simply purchased time from very good protozoa
from others to manipulate the public sphere and without that type of
basic differentiation between authentic civil society institutions and the fake ones that are essentially made up by manipulators were essentially discrediting also society it would be the same as if we are counterfeit money in circulation right Gresham's Law says the counterfeit money the good the bad money drives good in many respects and we have that society these driving up the fake ones driving interpoint how do you make that distinction that's difficult but at the very least entity should be extremely transparent about funding by how they were informed about the government structures it's of the armed fortunately don't many context there's lots of think tanks to say were just so society group were trying represent the grassroots it's obvious where the funding is coming from it's never noted on the reports news media it's so this sort of self protection of civil society demands some forms of structure and without it we're going to see that type of bar room brawl model politics that really
ends up in exactly where US is right now and the rest of the world that are
crammed in here you need
Resultante
Web Site
Vektorpotenzial
Punkt
Nabel <Mathematik>
Sphäre
Multimedia
Blackbox
Natürliche Zahl
Versionsverwaltung
Kartesische Koordinaten
Transformation <Mathematik>
Kombinatorische Gruppentheorie
Computeranimation
Algorithmus
Datentyp
Softwareentwickler
Maßerweiterung
Regulator <Mathematik>
Leistung <Physik>
DoS-Attacke
Datennetz
Quick-Sort
Sphäre
Forcing
Flächeninhalt
Rechter Winkel
Hypermedia
Extreme programming
Ordnung <Mathematik>
Neuronales Netz
Aggregatzustand
Facebook
Hash-Algorithmus
Punkt
Spiegelung <Mathematik>
Sphäre
Freeware
Content <Internet>
Sprachsynthese
Twitter <Softwareplattform>
Hinterlegungsverfahren <Kryptologie>
Computeranimation
Übergang
Spezialrechner
Arithmetischer Ausdruck
Software
Gruppe <Mathematik>
Datentyp
Speicherabzug
Generator <Informatik>
Inhalt <Mathematik>
Maßerweiterung
Optimierung
Softwaretest
Fundamentalsatz der Algebra
Zeitabhängigkeit
Automatische Differentiation
Quick-Sort
Roboter
Netzwerktopologie
Rechenschieber
Twitter <Softwareplattform>
Rechter Winkel
Evolute
Hypermedia
Facebook
Web Site
Abstimmung <Frequenz>
Facebook
Prozess <Physik>
Sphäre
Multimedia
Information
Kombinatorische Gruppentheorie
Computeranimation
Eins
Übergang
Hypermedia
Radikal <Mathematik>
Luenberger-Beobachter
Soundverarbeitung
Autorisierung
Kreisfläche
Abstimmung <Frequenz>
Validität
Übergang
Quellcode
Datenfluss
TLS
Quick-Sort
Auswahlaxiom
Mereologie
Server
Wort <Informatik>
Facebook
Reelle Zahl
Information
Quelle <Physik>
Abstimmung <Frequenz>
Facebook
Freeware
Sphäre
Web log
Gemeinsamer Speicher
Sprachsynthese
Euler-Winkel
Systemplattform
Physikalische Theorie
Computeranimation
Arithmetischer Ausdruck
Subtraktion
Datentyp
Kugel
Fundamentalsatz der Algebra
Videospiel
Open Source
Physikalisches System
Quick-Sort
Rechter Winkel
Zahlenbereich
Rationale Zahl
Digitaltechnik
Gamecontroller
Dateiformat
Facebook
Versionsverwaltung
Prozessautomation
Autorisierung
Internetworking
Subtraktion
Schlussregel
Euler-Winkel
Biprodukt
Regulator <Mathematik>
Hinterlegungsverfahren <Kryptologie>
Computeranimation
Gruppenoperation
Endogene Variable
Internetworking
Hypermedia
Einheit <Mathematik>
Offene Menge
Rationale Zahl
Endogene Variable
Hypermedia
Kontrollstruktur
Facebook
Optimierung
Regulator <Mathematik>
Autorisierung
Internetworking
ATM
Facebook
Prozess <Physik>
Ideal <Mathematik>
Regulator <Mathematik>
Computeranimation
Endogene Variable
Gruppenoperation
Roboter
Hypermedia
Flächeninhalt
Endogene Variable
Mereologie
Facebook
Normalvektor
Regulator <Mathematik>
Leistung <Physik>
Aggregatzustand
Resultante
Beobachtungsstudie
Algorithmus
Content <Internet>
Physikalisches System
Term
Computeranimation
Inverser Limes
Endogene Variable
Rechenschieber
Systemprogrammierung
Flächeninhalt
Rechter Winkel
Datentyp
Hypermedia
Mereologie
Abschattung
Inhalt <Mathematik>
Standardabweichung
Wirbel <Physik>
Leistung <Physik>
Resultante
Retrievalsprache
Abfrage
Web Site
Bitrate
Ranking
Hinterlegungsverfahren <Kryptologie>
Quick-Sort
Computeranimation
Homepage
Homepage
Konstante
Rechter Winkel
Suchmaschine
Minimum
Endogene Variable
Addition
Information
Figurierte Zahl
Gruppenkeim
Inzidenzalgebra
Computeranimation
Resultante
Neue Medien
Web Site
Benutzerbeteiligung
Primzahlzwillinge
Mereologie
Hypermedia
Formale Grammatik
Euler-Winkel
Computeranimation
Shape <Informatik>
Standardabweichung
Resultante
Web Site
Sphäre
Blackbox
Maschinelles Lernen
Euler-Winkel
Login
Computeranimation
Systemprogrammierung
Virtuelle Maschine
Variable
Unterring
Suchmaschine
Datentyp
Endogene Variable
Minimum
Informatik
Bildauflösung
Algorithmus
Expertensystem
Parametersystem
ATM
Interpretierer
Prognostik
Physikalisches System
Quellcode
Web log
Endogene Variable
Verknüpfungsglied
Twitter <Softwareplattform>
Komplex <Algebra>
Login
Server
Speicherabzug
Information
Normalvektor
Resultante
Algorithmus
Prozess <Physik>
Sphäre
Blackbox
Güte der Anpassung
Information
Kontextbezogenes System
Login
Computeranimation
Übergang
Energiedichte
Dienst <Informatik>
Flächeninhalt
Suchmaschine
Mereologie
Information
Algorithmus
Parametersystem
Facebook
Klassische Physik
Dienst <Informatik>
Quellcode
Physikalisches System
Information
Quick-Sort
Hinterlegungsverfahren <Kryptologie>
Auswahlverfahren
Computeranimation
Richtung
Übergang
Design by Contract
Texteditor
Dienst <Informatik>
Loop
Endogene Variable
Basisvektor
Wort <Informatik>
Normalvektor
Natürliche Zahl
Selbstrepräsentation
Inverse
Gruppenkeim
Baumechanik
Bitrate
Term
Whiteboard
Computeranimation
Homepage
Entscheidungstheorie
Komplexe Ebene
Sphäre
Rechter Winkel
Endogene Variable
Hypermedia
Datentyp
COM
Schnittstelle
Resultante
Vektorpotenzial
Gewichtete Summe
Gemeinsamer Speicher
Zahlenbereich
Information
Term
Gesetz <Physik>
Division
Computeranimation
Richtung
Internetworking
PROM
Endogene Variable
Inhalt <Mathematik>
Einfach zusammenhängender Raum
Algorithmus
Videospiel
Sichtenkonzept
Quellcode
Rechter Winkel
Mereologie
Hypermedia
Hill-Differentialgleichung
Exakte Sequenz
Perpetuum mobile
Neuronales Netz
Subtraktion
Facebook
Prozess <Physik>
Selbst organisierendes System
Gruppenkeim
Content <Internet>
Information
Computeranimation
Übergang
Gradient
Sechs
Open Source
Vier
Reelle Zahl
RFID
Datentyp
Inhalt <Mathematik>
Fünf
Internetworking
Kraftfahrzeugmechatroniker
Automatische Differentiation
Medianwert
Hoax
Rechenschieber
Menge
Rechter Winkel
Mereologie
Hypermedia
Suchmaschine
Kugel
ATM
Parametersystem
Punkt
Sphäre
Ideal <Mathematik>
Sprachsynthese
Schlussregel
Soziale Software
Physikalische Theorie
Computeranimation
Endogene Variable
Rechenschieber
Font
Forcing
Gruppentheorie
Rechter Winkel
Rationale Zahl
Hypermedia
Endogene Variable
Äußere Algebra eines Moduls
Dateiformat
Information
Regulator <Mathematik>
Randverteilung
Bit
Open Source
Ideal <Mathematik>
Digitalfilter
Bitrate
Computeranimation
Überlagerung <Mathematik>
Rechenschieber
Algorithmus
Webforum
Rechter Winkel
Hypermedia
Endogene Variable
Datentyp
Wort <Informatik>
Stabilitätstheorie <Logik>
Sphäre
Freeware
Relativitätstheorie
Digitalfilter
Kontextbezogenes System
Punktspektrum
Hinterlegungsverfahren <Kryptologie>
Computeranimation
Rechenschieber
Energiedichte
Informationsmodellierung
Rechter Winkel
Rationale Zahl
Hypermedia
Mereologie
Figurierte Zahl
Regulator <Mathematik>
Verschiebungsoperator
Randverteilung
Einfügungsdämpfung
Sensitivitätsanalyse
Gewichtete Summe
Freeware
Sphäre
Gruppenkeim
Systemplattform
Imaginäre Zahl
Physikalisches System
Sichtenkonzept
Quick-Sort
Computeranimation
Endogene Variable
Bildschirmmaske
Arithmetischer Ausdruck
Verbandstheorie
Datentyp
Extreme programming
Regulator <Mathematik>
Arbeit <Physik>
Web Site
Rechter Winkel
Besprechung/Interview
Information
Physikalische Theorie
Computeranimation
Autorisierung
Soundverarbeitung
Prozess <Physik>
Sphäre
Selbst organisierendes System
Gruppenkeim
EDV-Beratung
Selbstbezüglichkeit
Quick-Sort
Teilbarkeit
Bildschirmmaske
Mereologie
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Wort <Informatik>
Information
Prozess <Physik>
Selbst organisierendes System
Besprechung/Interview
Gruppenkeim
Kartesische Koordinaten
Baumechanik
Physikalisches System
Frequenz
Erneuerungstheorie
Datensatz
Zirkulation <Strömungsmechanik>
Flächeninhalt
Mereologie
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Aggregatzustand
Algorithmus
Prozess <Physik>
Sphäre
Vorzeichen <Mathematik>
Rechter Winkel
Nichtunterscheidbarkeit
Gruppenoperation
Besprechung/Interview
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Code
Entscheidungstheorie
Standardabweichung
Aggregatzustand
Ortsoperator
Rechter Winkel
Open Source
Mereologie
Besprechung/Interview
Familie <Mathematik>
Softwareentwickler
Verschiebungsoperator
Telekommunikation
Punkt
Term
Punktspektrum
Raum-Zeit
Hinterlegungsverfahren <Kryptologie>
Rechenschieber
Informationsmodellierung
Rechter Winkel
Offene Menge
Hypermedia
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Speicherabzug
Bildgebendes Verfahren
Gerade
Verschiebungsoperator
Zentrische Streckung
Subtraktion
Sichtenkonzept
Besprechung/Interview
Fokalpunkt
Übergang
Demoszene <Programmierung>
Informationsmodellierung
Algorithmus
Druckertreiber
Mereologie
Datentyp
Maschinelles Sehen
Schlüsselverwaltung
Message-Passing
Umwandlungsenthalpie
Dienst <Informatik>
Arithmetischer Ausdruck
Freeware
Sphäre
Endogene Variable
Besprechung/Interview
Mathematisierung
Verzerrungstensor
Euler-Winkel
Ordnung <Mathematik>
Fokalpunkt
Algorithmische Programmiersprache
Gerade
Instantiierung
Bit
Subtraktion
Punkt
Prozess <Physik>
Computersicherheit
Besprechung/Interview
Gesetz <Physik>
Algorithmische Programmiersprache
Entscheidungstheorie
Modallogik
Algorithmus
Software
Hypermedia
Mereologie
Serviceorientierte Architektur
Konstruktor <Informatik>
Ortsoperator
Besprechung/Interview
Systemzusammenbruch
Zahlenbereich
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Extreme programming
Kontextbezogenes System
Resultante
Große Vereinheitlichung
Systemidentifikation
Physikalisches System
Inzidenzalgebra
Roboter
Algorithmus
Flächeninhalt
Digitale Photographie
Prozess <Informatik>
Mereologie
Datentyp
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Normalvektor
Leistung <Physik>
Vektorpotenzial
Bit
Prozess <Physik>
Symmetriebrechung
Quader
Freeware
Besprechung/Interview
Gruppenkeim
t-Test
Ungerichteter Graph
Gesetz <Physik>
Internetworking
Spieltheorie
Endogene Variable
Minimum
Datentyp
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Wurzel <Mathematik>
Datenstruktur
Default
Maschinelles Sehen
Regulator <Mathematik>
Leistung <Physik>
Parametersystem
Matching <Graphentheorie>
Datennetz
Systemverwaltung
Schlussregel
Kontextbezogenes System
Algorithmische Programmiersprache
Quick-Sort
Entscheidungstheorie
Mereologie
GRASS <Programm>
Information
Ordnung <Mathematik>
Güte der Anpassung
Besprechung/Interview
Gruppenkeim
Baumechanik
Kontextbezogenes System
Gesetz <Physik>
Quick-Sort
Eins
Informationsmodellierung
Bildschirmmaske
Differential
Zirkulation <Strömungsmechanik>
Rechter Winkel
Datentyp
Hypermedia
Authentifikation
Datenstruktur
Verkehrsinformation
Besprechung/Interview

Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel The Automated Public Sphere
Serientitel re:publica 2017
Teil 153
Anzahl der Teile 235
Autor Pasquale, Frank
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 3.0 Deutschland:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen und das Werk bzw. diesen Inhalt auch in veränderter Form nur unter den Bedingungen dieser Lizenz weitergeben.
DOI 10.5446/33041
Herausgeber re:publica
Erscheinungsjahr 2017
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Informatik
Abstract Can consumer protection and competition authorities stop the worst effects of our increasingly automated public sphere? Or is a deeper cultural change in the way we relate to and consume media necessary?

Ähnliche Filme

Loading...