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Beyond Smart Cities

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the idea thing of about water around if you if you take me he was called the and
the types it would object the yeah the thank you very much for the introduction of
the I'm happy to be here at people because
it's a quite different audience the more mixed audience as I'm used to more in the scientific area but I tried to provide you with some thoughts and ideas and concepts about the future of our cities and as you see already from the title uh I'm talking about 1 beyond smart cities because I think that this uhm consideration of smartness is not a goal in itself but it should be humane city sociable city and the cooperative city which is cooperative tops as citizens so this is the approach so I will briefly explain some of the concepts based in the that round having an arbitrary age I was then come up with the goals and objectives for a humane sociable and cooperative smart hybrid city and then I would have
a critical view because as you see redefining the smart everything paradigm which is prominent and dominant all over as we already heard also in the previous session about autonomous driving messy dispenser saying yeah we can't do everything and so forth and another important aspect of my talk is privacy and I think that we should have privacy by design as a first-class objective so that we're not doing some privacy consideration after we have designed kind of technology systems and then I will talk about some
conclusions so the issues and challenges we have faced with in the urban age that they have been and would increasingly become the central hops in the 21st century and this results from a number of aspects that like in influx from people coming from the the rural areas have a dream of a better life etc. and the result is that we have different kinds of so called megacities a on the 1 hand say you have very technology driven hi comfort in environment like Tokyo or on the other hand you have things like move by uh where you have all the problems of these large cities so we're talking about urban life management from citizens perspective but also from uh administration as a perspective so I will warn you that the smart cities on not um solution for the problems of mega cities and the urban age but they might contribute some aspects of it that is important it's 1 perspective
so when you talk about the city of the future and you will you will find these bright scenarios or dark scenarios so
the question is is this our future we will want to live and you see the flying cars which were mentioned also in the session before uh but sometimes it's
useful to go back into the past to see like this is in the 19 twenties how people were thinking about how things could be in the future and I especially like this guy uh of floating around on the so far with a cigar and a glass of champagne between the skyscrapers
also in terms of transportation you've all kinds of ideas already in the past which have not come true so I think there's a certain skepticism also for other and provocative ideas about the future the then what is the present
you have different types of cities like this is a not so familiar view of
Venice you have like residential houses in Copenhagen this kind of configurations all you have
floating villages in the Philippines l you have time you
marry and so it yeah but this pump Pumyra island in Dubai
or for example this would tell the sky Park in Singapore a 200 meter high and the infinity pool and I had the pleasure to stand there and this infinity pool into the skyline of Singapore anyway so what we're talking
about is different notions and concepts so there was a digital
virtual city maybe some people will view or a little bit older remember 2nd life uh something like this all ubiquitous cities like especially the
technology-driven developments in Korea also smartness with respect to ecological environment aspects or the standard definition of a smart city deployment of ICT I proposed another term which is very true to my heart which is hybrid city because we have a real city and a virtual city and so we have to look at the connection balance and interactions of this hybrid to D and then you can employ these kind of of smart environments on top of
it so smartness of a city can also be defined as how much the city knows was about itself and how this can be used by administrative people but also by the citizens and how you can communicate this knowledge so the whole discussion about Open Data for example is a good example here um the providing awareness and experience for example in trends in spaces in public spaces uh and I would like to give you an
example for example here in town in Switzerland they have the what they call it the low battle only 10 and so the idea is that they the tracking the number of bicycles passing by and you get then also some statistics how many bicycles were going down this lane and this kind of gives you information not only for the planning for the urban administration but also for the people maybe they might be triggered to right more the bicycle in the city of another
interesting example about self awareness of a city is uh work by a former student of mine who is now professor at the University of Tokyo Shinichi Konomi and he had the idea how can we measure the congestion in the Tokyo subway and of course as you can imagine it would be very difficult to trigger uh to to count all the people these lights are kind of a little bit disturbing I don't see you at only the 1st 2 rows here anyway so the idea is it's difficult to trigger the people in their 2 to account sorry counts of people in the train but so he had the idea the more people the more C tool is being accumulated and so he had C O 2 was sensors in the train and so we use was measuring the amount of C O 2 in the train compartment and then of course he had to do when mapping so at some point he had to talented people and then he had a mapping and he could infer was people just wearing this you to measuring device the congestion in the trains another aspect
is for example in in Africa in Abidjan uh they couldn't behind the bus routes with is the mobile phone data and they found out that the people after they had left the bus they had to walk quite a while to get to their final destination and so what they were doing comparing the best food in the mobile phone data they could define new routes for the busses and also a different kind of uh uh services to provide the another good example of
smartness of a city could be uh to have what's called solar waterways so it's a combination of smartness in energy and so what they have these you and Scott brucei say they had a crowdfunding campaign and so what they did the idea is that you cover all the streets and freeways etc. with the solar panels and that would solve the whole energy problem of the world basically if you cover all of these surfaces but in addition you have sensors and are kind of additional information and parameters and you can also kind of project or it was underneath uh energies you can have dynamic uh information on the streets to warn for something or to have different domains that all the 3 lanes going one-directional 1 label dynamically so these are
some examples of what could be done in a smart city but the problem is what other goals what other long-term uh objectives of this kind of development and so already some time ago I said that we envisioned for the urban age humane cities reconsign in humans and technology and I think this is the point technology is not a value in itself but only if it's reconciling humans
and technologies so the idea is having the smart city and then as a cooperative city that is it's cooperative talks the users so it helps them to get around to provide services etc. and this is what I call a humane and sociable city reconciling humans and the technology the and the idea is that the core operative city can also be considered city as a service so there are a number of special points I don't have the time to go into detail for these but I would like to know that as uh address some of them is better especially in establishing a common technology which is
in the background providing ambient intelligence and I will make a distinction between ambient intelligence and artificial intelligence what's also important is to keep the human in the loop in order to respect the individual and social life so that it's not a complete automated system also as you have it was autonomous driving respecting the rights of citizens uh especially in terms of privacy you in the city and its to the citizens as mutual cooperation partners etc. but also to motivate citizens to get involved in being part of the European community so the issue is what kind of smart world do we want to live in so the plant abundance of automating everything in seeking solutions in AI Artificial Intelligence environments only operated by reasons that should be a warning sign especially to the wide range of feasibility problems we are expecting so the idea is 1st to identify the problems and then find the smart everything smart everywhere every time paradigm the and also to develop determinative some arise in the proposal keeps a human in the loop so 1 of the problems so this might everything paradigm can be briefly are considered as a combination of IUT Internet of Things or as Cisco says Internet of Everything Our and artificial intelligent at the ubiquitous scale we have smart devices and algorithms controlling processes services its centroid you know this and the human some on Wall removed and not any more in control so the 1st problem set is inappropriate insufficient and wrong behavior of these everything paradigm algorithms the capabilities of AI but she would be overstated and this is of course due to a lot of venture capital which is currently invested in all these kind of activities you have to look at the history of AI started in 1956 was a famous . most a conference where the term AI more less was also defined and so some prominent people at that time said 10 years later Our AI will beat the world chess champions this would have been 1967 but what was the 1st uh when the IBM computer Deep Blue I were beating gary kasparov this was in 1997 so it was 30 years after the prediction and 40 years after the start of a i and it took another 20 years that the they i program and have fun go from at school of uh were beating the Korean go master right so I think these are and the the dimensions we have to think in and also natural language processing there was a time when in the US the government said we don't believe it it anymore and they stopped funding natural language processing research for 20 years between 1960 and 19 in and 80 for example yeah then autonomous driving is far from being realized you probably heard about the deadly accident was a tesla out a pilot and this was a confusion of the senses that they considered a passing truck whiz and sign which was believed to be all over the roadway right so I think that a lot of problems so but very
simple pattern recognition like identifying the speed limit signs and not possible at this moment in at a sufficiently reliable way for example they don't recognize at the moment the car I have was the speed limit information from the premium manufacturer in Germany L is not recognizing this sign here and in the use and so you have all these legal implications also because if the car says Mr. strides you're only allowed to go 30 although I'm driving at lunch time and I'm allowed to drive at 50 so there is a discrepancy of 20 kilometers the system states and so what happens if they sent this to the car insurance company to the police etc. but currently nothing is happening but it won't be long that these data will be exchanged at different platforms the a lot so all human driver can mentally correct wrong information about the AI the algorithms are being in a bad position you then there's a new rule aspect also in terms of hacking traffic signs this might sound a little bit strange but it's something what's called a scam stickers where you have small modifications of the traffic sign which are not visible to the human eye but they are visible to the cameras and the senses of the so-called smart cards intelligent cars and then they see something completely different in their algorithm results now and so sometimes it doesn't even matter that the AI is malfunctioning or it's picked up by the scam stickers for example the problem set B is assuming
that the AI solutions are working correctly and there's a big issue with missing transparency
uh we really don't know what is the basis of these algorithms because they are neither transparent nor comprehensible and they showing untraceable AI behavior
and because they usually not reproducible results because every time these algorithms they learning etc. but there than providing different kind of solutions as the best example currently is
high-frequency trading it cannot be retraced on track theory and acted that they can actually follow what were the decisions by the algorithms to
buy this kind of stock of this kind of stock and sofas on the other hand you have still existing rigidity I think everybody who has tried to call it a call center and there was not a human operator knows what I'm talking about you can say sometimes of course you have to say certain keyword and
then it might be understood but then if you deviate a little bit from the predefined passed there the system is lost and you don't get to what you want sometimes of course we still have this number about we can press to say we want to be connected to a human operator but in the future there won't be this choice anymore right and so I'm very much and skeptical here customers are losing control the approval deprived from getting
appropiate individual services
because their interventions are not intended to or not accept so you see we're getting in very dangerous and stormy waters so what I'm saying is that smartness away I should not be a 1st class citizen like an object-oriented design 1st class objects and and 1 click question and we have to do with now this complete automation and being subject to all victims of these kind of an agarose make appropriate uh approaches so there's inappropriate behavior but there's also privacy was not authorized unintuitive
unobtrusive collection of personal data was of consent and making provisions of
data Public Attorney although even not task-related you on no there's that when you install in at the at wants to have the right to access this and this and this and this although they don't actually needed for functioning like the best example is the flashlight on your some smartphone this for the flashlight air wants to exist or kind
of contact data etc. and and what does the flashlight meet these data for operating as efficient and so I think 1 has to be really careful and look at what kind of a permissions your providing to these kind of services I know a lot of people uh providing a lot of data themselves up but then they're still in control of it right so when people post things on Facebook etc. then of course it's their
own decision to make this so the argument which often comes other people are giving their data in it voluntarily to all these kind of providers but they're still OK that's another question if this is a good or a wrong decision but they're still in control of what I'm arguing for is that the humans and the people the citizens should be in control and to decide if they want to share their data on so um I distinguish between what I call a system-oriented importunate smartness this is complete automation versus what I call people citizen oriented empowering
smart that is the human is still in the loop and can take and make more informed immature actions based on additional information so it's not that I'm saying the sensors should not be there that should be sensors but I should be in control and I should then make the decision based on this additional information and therefore my claim is smart spaces make people smarter right so there shouldn't be if you to have this kind of smart environments if they are used in the way I'm proposing that is the human is in the loop is in control of the East but of course there's no free lunch how much feedback do you want to know how much feedback can be processed so whenever you have these kind of dichotomy is that you have to have a combination because you don't want to involved at a very low level uh of these 2 sensor and aggregation so at some point you will work on some set of aggregated data but still you in control so there's a tricky trade-off between smartness and privacy because of the system can provide more services to you and smarter services you more information you more data it has about you OK and so we have to see what is a trade of how much data I'm willing to provide in order to get a certain set of services of smart services and of course people are providing a lot of data already now like payback cards loyalty cards all monitoring the sport activities with their fitness bands and because most of these apps they don't keep their fitness health data on your device they're going to a server and nobody knows what's happening this so what we have to do is a people citizen-centred design approach keeping the human in the loop it has been very interdisciplinary technical components of social sciences in design and architecture
etc. so privacy is a legal and moral right uh used to be that 1 has to say it's a socially negotiated feature often is becoming a commodity and you pay for and trade and therefore privacy becomes privilege so I found this very nice could tool the tool pigs uh talking about the free model is and also isn't it great to have
everything paid for on the bond yeah and even the food is free and Facebook 0 you name it and you will if you're not paying for it you're not a customer you're the product being sold and I also that
because we had a discussion yesterday in 1 of secession called . in Chaps vessels in shorts where the person from the industry representative was always saying yeah but the services they have to be free and this had can only be done was advertisement and people have to be tracked and traced to get individual advertisement etc. and I sit then in the discussion section I said if the content is really good for the people also willing to pay for it you should offer this as an option because I think this free model of the Internet comes from a time when I was devising and working on the Internet and the Web etc. The even before the web but I think now it has become a commercial enterprise and I think the attitude the customers there has to change so the number of privacy issues in the smart city because there's already privacy issues in the virtual world but they will become even more prominent and dominant in the real world because in the virtual work you can still work with fake identities or uh an anomalous so but when the new real word and there's a camera taking a picture then they know you have been at this location right and so all the objects will be checked you driving was your car your bicycle it so you can't avoid it so good example is there's
already surveillance by visible CCTV cameras but these intelligent autonomous driving cars with the huge number of sensors and
cameras etc. when they're parked in the street nobody knows what's happening to the sensors and the cameras and the engine turns of it doesn't mean that the sensors and the cameras are turned off to who was collecting the data they are looking at the passengers and pedestrians walking by looking into houses in the windows etc. all the smart street lamps with so so opposed to be identifying smart parking and capabilities and to see where a spot free the smart streetlights also monitoring the streets etc. so the principal problem is when you have a CCT camera you seeing this and you often want here this is a video controlled environment but often in these other cases you're not aware of it you have no idea that the car in the street at a curbside is monitoring your behavior so privacy by Design has to be done as a competitive advantage also I'm often talking also to people from the industry and manufacturers and they said how we have this disadvantage in the industry and because the US companies they have much more freedom was it to work with the data it's and I said will you just have to turn it around to say privacy by design as a competitive advantage as you was P food European all German companies the number of regulations that was also talked about yesterday and so I'm saying that we need not artificial intelligence but ambient intelligence which is a human-centered social and cooperative and intelligence instead of a technology-driven automating artificial intelligence because we would like to reconsign humans and technology and so there's 6 claims for the future and I'm coming to the end that fear OK so the more the computer disappears and becomes invisible the more it will determine our lives it's all there in the environment the world around us the city is the interface and there is indeed as I pointed out to redefine the smart everything paradigm we have to have a people-oriented design people empowering smartness with keeping the human in the loop smart spaces make people smarter and privacy will become a commodity and thus the privilege unless we do something about it against this development and this is my final slide thank you very much to the
kind of thing hanging anymore
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Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Beyond Smart Cities
Untertitel Towards Humane, Sociable and Cooperative Hy
Serientitel re:publica 2017
Anzahl der Teile 234
Autor Streitz, Norbert
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 3.0 Deutschland:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen und das Werk bzw. diesen Inhalt auch in veränderter Form nur unter den Bedingungen dieser Lizenz weitergeben.
DOI 10.5446/33034
Herausgeber re:publica
Erscheinungsjahr 2017
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Informatik
Abstract A critical reflection of the "Smart City" and more general "Smart Everything" paradigm is necessary. Thus, I present a citizen-centered design approach for smart hybrid cities, which allows transforming them into Humane, Sociable and Cooperative Cities. This design approach aims at reconciling humans and technology and keeping the human in the loop and in control. Privacy issues are a major focus as they become more important now with cities developing into smart, hybrid cities.

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