Licensing Models and Building an Open Source Community
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Licensing Models and Building an Open Source Community

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CC Attribution 2.0 Belgium:
You are free to use, adapt and copy, distribute and transmit the work or content in adapted or unchanged form for any legal purpose as long as the work is attributed to the author in the manner specified by the author or licensor. 
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2014

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English

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Abstract 
Do you need a copyleft license to build a community? Answering this ten years ago, the answer may have been yes, primarily driven by the contractual obligation to contribute back to the project. However, looking at the question now, open source has grown such that a vibrant, active community may be built with a permissive licensing model. Come hear some thoughts about how licensing models affect building an open source community and how their use has evolved over time

00:00
Area
Open source
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Computer programming
Pole (complex analysis)
Theory
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01:35
Computer animation
Open source
Term (mathematics)
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01:57
Point (geometry)
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Presentation of a group
Building
Open source
Java applet
Multiplication sign
Decision theory
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Computer programming
Sign (mathematics)
Office suite
Rotation
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Horizon
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Selforganization
output
Quicksort
03:33
Computer animation
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Term (mathematics)
Gender
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output
Quicksort
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Perspective (visual)
04:13
Computer animation
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Connectivity (graph theory)
Electronic mailing list
Energy level
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04:39
Open source
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Mathematical model
05:19
Point (geometry)
Copula (linguistics)
Open source
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07:10
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07:57
Open source
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08:54
Shift operator
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10:10
Statistics
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11:21
Open source
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14:20
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21:04
Point (geometry)
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Cycle (graph theory)
00:01
the other thing that is the of and in the really close to the poles of the the of the of the of the people commonly used in this area and fear and yeah that that was also discussed in the the large so I am going to introduce our next speaker of my friend Eileen utterances of president and of the general counsel of HewlettPackard charges of the source and just before she said that that she was but that's not immediately to work but for many years to set up some of the systems where she had a lot of experience and so on and so on involvement in open source software and she's going to talk about like licensing models and those of you thank you richard which is so in my book and the Chinese will be unique in the sense that by the year opensource program of of our theory of our all speakers OK think carefully at it indeed if you have a right around the object of the and that's what OSI clutter OK so my knowledge the is a pretty unique in the sense that I lead are open source program office of which
01:36
entails like high science and our external outreach in and community engagement as well as leading legal support opensource matters and so we will support for cloud and but in terms of opensource my role is it unique
01:48
from within the company and before i and then Li opensource now at each week for a couple of years and
01:54
I believe him for 3 years and about 6
01:57
months after coming to HP I had an opportunity to transfer into the business and business wall for 6 months and that will present itself in the cloud organization and it was at that point in time when each was deciding to go with on OpenStack as its Cloud offerings I had the opportunity to participate in the decision making process and then transfer over to the business to do a sixmonth rotation to the business to really help drive the community engagement and drive our participation OpenStack
02:28
infamy it was a great learning experience because prior to that might my role at son was in the legal department and so I had to really looked at open source before that primarily from a legal lines on indictment sign for nearly 12 years and that and you know great experience they're working with all kinds of open source projects from Java to OpenOffice to the OpenSolaris of of prosody and alive might well it was a great experience but it was sort of looked at things from a legal license so from a transfer into the business I think you need a new perspective on time and that would broaden my horizons for the way that I look for the solution of a page with communities so for me as great learning experience and and helped to prepare me anything for the wall when I had the opportunity to take over and lead the opensource program office so the the topic today I'm going to discuss really is around the licensing models in building communities so it's it's kind of tying those 2 areas have my experience together and I'm gonna try to keep the presentation per freely sure can actually do wanna solicit input from you guys so heads up so from a
03:34
gender perspective on talk through sort of what I think it a very simplistic level what you need to build a vibrant successful open source community that
03:43
and then talk about you the opensource license and what role that plays out in building a community and then I want to kind of look at the lines of a landscape analysis of the of about earlier ways of looking at the permissive license and how we're starting to see more projects as permissively licensed projects and see what impact that has and how that she the out and also I wanted solicit input about the what your thoughts are in terms of this sort of why that's happening as well as the potential impact of that longer term so it
04:15
varies with the level I believe there's 3
04:18
critical components to build a successful vibrant open source community of 1st and foremost I think you be a great technology and I also believe you need sound governance structure as an the list of glycogen all the governance piece of it and the and I believe that the license also plays a role in that year license that is perceived fair and received favorable within the community as well may and
04:42
I recognize that these 3 are not created equal I mean clearly and technology is the 1 that that is key in the most critical component here but because without a great technology the governance model and licensing model are essentially relevant the but I think that I do you think that the open source license plays a
05:00
role in helping to build a community that plays a role in adoption I think it has been interesting well within that whole ecosystem that I wanna talk about can't and so for the purposes of this discussion and it out and I realize I'm to grossly oversimplify licensing models and and then that
05:19
grossly oversimplified and to all opensource licenses are either copyleft or permissive and by copula thank you have a contractual obligation to contribute by Fisher's back to the community and in promises you don't have a contractual obligations site I really gross oversimplification which is with me as we as we talking is that you want to get some some good feedback out of this so that being said can a
05:45
permissively met permissive license be used to build an open source community the interesting thing is I was I was grappling with this question about 10 years ago when I was was that some assistance and I had the opportunity to help lead our efforts in open opensourcing Solaris on Solaris wise sounds operating system you know was that there really key and critical piece of technology foresight and at the time it was grappling with this everyone in the business things that we want to accomplish there's we want to build an open source community around that was only the objective of outsourcing it was to build this community so that we don't recognize that the licensing model would play a role in that and at the time I was really struggling with this question and I I spoke the number of open source luminaries as before the war where I looked at what's happening in the community and I came to conclusion about what time 10 years ago that you could not use a permissive license to build a community and maybe it'll never recognize I had practicing law and that was the point my clear so maybe we'll look at things more of a black and white perspective but that's I believe at that point in time I believe that you really want to build that strong vibrant community copy left and so I came to it from that vantage point so in the actin struggling with this question recently and thinking is the same thing you know if I look at this question today do I believe the same thing to I believe today that
07:11
commercial license can be used to build on a vibrant research community I think it already is that necessary that you that you will have to help you navigate this answer this question and so I started speaking up OK thank you speak water sewage and we help answer that question I want to look at sort of what was happening in the licensing model the system in general and then also what was happening in terms of vendor engagement with those open projects and thirdly what was happening in terms of contributions to open source projects so some looking all those in order to help the understanding better answer this question so in terms of what's happening and within the licensing landscape
07:53
ecosystem in general when I saw was a start looking at the various services to spend a
07:58
lot of possible and Google code and 1 follows pretty interesting even know those 3 survey sources all used in a different out this statistical samples what have you been also need either showing in demonstrating or supporting the same general trend that I thought was happening within the ecosystem which was there was an increase permissively licensed projects so again at where we started to switch here through antidotal started see was sort of time it was supported by the evidence as far as the this survey sources as well know I recognize that this is not to say the GPL is going away anytime soon could still in terms of absolute numbers is by far the clear winner however I did find an interesting
08:44
trend and so I thought we did a little bit deeper and find out you know what else I can easily from US in order to try to help answer these kinds of questions so in terms of how this was an the Williamson and
08:57
show this every reason it's an event in I comes interesting well because you get on and again have of where these these parties and again it's it's sort of demonstrating that we're having more and more permissive licenses out there and that's the sort of this increase in part because of this but it doesn't matter to the end of the year
09:18
and the next thing I started looking at was vendor engagement and from with these open source projects because again is this statistical samples are great but I was looking at 451 driven trying to just do it again graphs of better what's happening in this in this in this ecosystem and what I saw was you know there's is gradual shift in a strong popular in terms of vendor occasionally these projects gradualist is shipped up until around 2006 to that 6 2007 we start to see a pretty sharp decline in the hard copy what licenses in terms of vendor engagement and around the same time period this 2006 2007 time period we start to see a more significant increase in terms of permissive licences integers the vendor engagement with these projects it was that it was died argument is this on a
10:10
number of vendors and as the years so a small or policy organized by the that injured about this preferences in terms of the participating codecs yes exactly so the 1 of vendors prefer to engage with what kind of projects yeah they give you a small small parts of back of and then the 3rd thing looked at was
10:31
contributions contributions in terms of How are developers and can be an companies contributing to these projects and for the contribution piece of a very small sample I was looking at time get create look at some of these similarly situated projects that a new open source projects and so when I looked at in this case was 3 cloud projects in which we have projects all open source collegiate OpenStack cloud in eucalyptus so the 2nd CloudStack will permissively licensed eucalyptus a carrier footnote is is call stack actually changes licensing model in 2012 from a copula model to a permissive model and so as I was spending around I also found some interesting statistics around that which were that the number of contributions in the number of contributors
11:22
particularly the number of contributors was property significant increase in in that year half period after they made the licensing model change which can was contrary to what I and as expected on so it's interesting from that time period they went from 50 approximately 50 contributors to 250 so significant increase and then with respect to eucalyptus it's kind of what I would expect it to 10 years ago and expected now which is basically that comes when you have a couple of project you do have contributors can you do have that sense of the building that that cooperation you're having a contributions back into witnessed by the number of events that with Apache on the Apache 2 . 0 for OpenStack this is all I found really interesting because of that in the involved with open I was 1 of them got involved that stack really on an HP and and I had the opportunity to help set up the exact Foundation and and I participate in as a director of the definition for as well so this time I'm pretty familiar with the technology that that for me it was interesting to look at this from the contributor perspective in the sense that I was quite frankly just some somewhat amazed by the number of contributors to the number of commits and was code contributed here so that's not what I expected instead because if I looked at this from where I was looking at the 1 that I had 10 years ago I would have expected value so that the number to be much slower than that 1 of the things that you know what I was quite frankly an at sign and we were open source of flares of woman concerns I was concerned that you we you know put the code out there a permissive license that we would build the community we wouldn't get the contributions that within this sort of shows that it can indeed how this thing can communicate with you know it again this is the reverse implication divide the conclusion here but I think I will open up for dialog and written feedback on us I'm from
13:20
that so again looking at the question I asked him years ago today I think I'll into the question differently and it's it's that he also set as 1 single example recognizes there's no many many open source projects out there but for me and looking at it through this lens and trying to to make sense of it all and I think again going back to the original 1 of these components that are needed you always great technology on which open stack is physically technology using need sound governance structure which I think that the project the took battery seriously and created in various sound governance structure and it was a sound governance structure on before to a foundation to to be honest I think graphs faced a number of things right in creating project policy board and then you know in creating that Tech of meritocracy you around the project but nonetheless I think under the foundation innocent sound governance structure with the foundation you also have a technical committee that really does run the technical piece the project and in the licensing model I think helped drive that adoption and but nonetheless I think I think permissive licensing lessons can be
14:22
used to build those kinds of projects and into to try that to and that this is my last slide
14:28
but I do want it and go back to a prior slide that when I open for questions that you question 1st
14:34
and for sure project I was asking about
14:37
the slide the cumulative you and about how we use counting books music can with books and you can predict what the CIA was it was I think it was doing the top level of the the other thing that I remember that from that series loaded up with that is that there is a lot of the object and get my machine is usually what license along so they didn't try to compile and the culture center because they took a survey sample of them and then we introduce the highest level lies but it doesn't account for that so now so there's there's probably that he said and then we would you retire of compatibility of the licensing pieces that there's I think there's multiples of those rejected the common I think that was taken from apparently there was no like that that was the data using orthology yesterday someone out in the same question yeah about whether this Council of works and I do all the rest of world is it is it is the sort of but it was so OK so you right hand like again for me and he knew anything it's getting interesting the the the shift landing money here on top of the normal newton was I think I think that you talk sounds to me almost like a sense of destiny that you as licenses which I think is a factor in the hands of these are so so I only at the continues again yeah yeah yeah you know I I think I would like to be I think of the of the communities that constitutional isomers the original form of governance I see it that the progress of license like miracles iteration cited US but this occurred federation which was evidence that it was abandoned by the United States in early days and the US Constitution much more the stronger binding for the fact that the money that was the versions to lose the the point it is allows allowed states to do whatever they wanted some times that of the whole interested and that is placed based on his or her research during have said that although it was you know he we got a project and for knowledge or the use of many of the size of the prior to by the where they write about is the practice of the right in practice people and you don't know what it is that of the cell and you have a lot of Americans have actually has really at way to what I want my question to cause that I was thinking of driving along yeah so is the technical that is the but on the other side the of the normal everyday when when when things are not doing the going well and not with all of functionally the yield the only the only difference actually happens when you were held an is the difference in and then all you want you can actually see a new so in the light of the fact that that does make sense and and it isn't only what do you think of a big piece of this then is because about technical that because in the end we just makes it easier to contribute back in the gas is the basis for the development but that this sort of observations in the area of the observation of the companies that have you always you know if I happen to have a new you know what by the use of it in the course of that is that the on so this I don't think that you might find that some of you in the past that was published by and so on until we the group of cells of the incoming all because of the narrative but also because it would be a useful way yes yes yes you can think you know I've asked my myself if you could do this comparison mean if if there is a member of the rest of money and and who's going to be to use all of the constraint going to benefit from it so that they are of course and putting a lot of money in building up a very good project structure the and this is also very attractive for want of a lot of anything the most robust on really thinking of the facts of the license for and they they're thinking more about the technology and stock and everyone has a different motivation and I think when when when the when figure of that's a project with a of licenses rising yen it's more of and related so to say that the money which are which are found when they are putting forced that's a good point to so I think you can the the the case of the the because of the use of new the maybe it was the right of the the so as well I don't the value of this the list to the what is the the the the kind of a the size of the of the of the on the other end of the I the 1 the yes so you can find out you know right on the the great thank you
21:13
so you know this the name of 1 of you and that's it thank curious about that as well as the there the of going to the end the the other thing about that and power that's interesting OK good OK is that well this that's sort of well thought of it in the that the common understanding do you think in the developer community that's that's the thing that I'm using of the use In this work and the apartment didn't so I was very the the the and yet the thought it was also used in the do you want to play in the do the OK think you it's very interesting thinking the codebook concerned with that I have a friend of mine on in this there's a chance In the thing and I was going to this means that the life cycle of a project in the late compared to the that so here's the thing that they see how how it is I think that's a really good point you're not something I thought about as well it held because I recognize a great now using OpenStack as as a single example right now it's a very popular project it's doing quite well in the community it was getting along right what happens is that it somehow it's important to do that's no longer the case it's like then I started thinking OK how would you how plays out because it's under Apache versus if they had licensed under different licensing models how would that that long term and not something that the and of you know very interested to can of see how this all plays out but we get it I kind of look at the perspective of you know I exist 20 20 I wonder what we're going to see you 5 10 years down the road is a really great point that thought about that event that you can come about going out and also because of that and found that some of your created so that now we have not been the the weight of the countries that explain I think when you're talking about war I would love to form cation when I think there is not much difference because of what you hear about the following 2 rebates yet most solvers is the states have some way of putting patterns of some sort that are part of the world like and that is something like that and that's were popular for its value because that's all the different communities so you have the form in which events that as part of that national and so forth but I know that you have models so right and that what I would expect this is pure speculation that community will slowly be a slightly different and you you 1 mostly a proprietor of where's the omens that gpls those around we have to also so while you're thinking in the core community they think that along the way the indefinitely the blogging community may become a proprietary that my thinking on the things in life will be to keep those and select the right in the biology of life you know for all right what you know that the I don't know but I've seen it fail and other forms of that but I don't know specifically about it is that think and the idea of and you can do both at once that you can be developed if you haven't separation in the eyes think the offering writers want any part of the core of the and it will be on the kind of like everybody many of these are doing so and here so as early as you ask look truly instead to that what was actually before my time but i've but it's a history of think of another time for you to know what the 2 of the the the the question was what drove OpenStack to choose a permissive licensing model but it was before my time before I got involved in the project because they actually open source in July 2010 and it was a joint project between grasp the of access and NASA government and they actually chose the reason they chose patch is because they want to drive adoption and they believed by choosing a permissive license model and it would enhance and drive adoption the an increase that that was the primary reason at least that's what I've been told that so that was another reason and there's a lot of criticism conclude this time we are from getting that sort of the size of our last year you pull the switch Adam outside eucalyptus had to get a free univariate models of control by 1 company monitor had the predecessor CloudStack was very similar used you know need usually and I think stagnant distinguish himself from these companies that have business models are being heavily criticized times of the calls of courses so I think that was part of the death migration right yes partial reaction but most of this not wasn't political and it haven't aggressive because these users and uses of GP on by mutual is that 1 the that corporate wondering about 1 single letters that normal there engaging in response to the eucalyptus was not a multiple multiple and the time that was financed parts of the juridical I 1 company many Rackspace had that world and and we don't have that it was the following words more than time and I think that was the goal and so I have a slightly less work talk so do something like this could have a