Clang: Re-inventing the Compiler

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Clang: Re-inventing the Compiler
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The LLVM clang C++ compiler has exceeded all expectations the last year, gaining unprecedented new features that let you explore, rewrite, and rediscover your source code. This is a talk about the human story of a compiler: What can we achieve going beyond compilation? Why are we compelled to invent a better wheel? How can we make everyday life better for coders, and could the compiler itself become an instrument for wider social change? Developed by an eclectic team of academics, supercomputer hobbyists and vendors including Apple and Google, the LLVM project has proven itself as a hotbed of innovation leading the renaissance in C-family programming languages, recently receiving the coveted ACM Software System Award. Whether you're a kernel hacker, app developer or front-end designer, clang is different to other compilers, it's coming to a machine near you in 2014 and may well impact your work: Here's what you need to know.
Sparse matrix Debugger Bit Line (geometry) Mereology Mathematical optimization Front and back ends Attribute grammar
Vapor barrier Open source Patch (Unix) Range (statistics) Mathematics Component-based software engineering Computer configuration Compiler Flag Task (computing) Boss Corporation Software developer Debugger Projective plane Moment (mathematics) Planning Bit Machine code Cartesian coordinate system Compiler Exterior algebra Software Video game Website Right angle Quicksort Asynchronous Transfer Mode Library (computing)
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5 so is up to the I work on the line from that and I'm going to talk a bit about some of what we do what we do it and some things we might be going soon so the talk is in 2 parts 1st on going through the topic and sparse that's we're going to look at so the current topics that we only sold in the front end so we're going to look at things like
optimization attribution passing things the back end of a few topics of interest in recent years so on if but
and the questions I was asking and of most of these questions I'm not actually component of it in all the money to buy this because I need to solve a problem and the right software right where grounds and that's what you want to know where to
browse range and you had a lot of source we need to compile a huge projects and we need to know about me to refactor the money to do stuff with code and we were getting annotations with them you see with the SEC all the things that we were using to build work it's it was becoming a barrier for day-to-day work so as you do in a source of these sites and they look at alternatives options and the high and the flag is the and the bench doesn't and it extraction even as was from the real task of fixing browns and we look at what's up with that we sort of the house and we moved toward of streaming so that the moments where of streaming modes with missing patches back into working with the and I'm hoping maintaining the boss of kind that work which going on compilation as as is much more than just the compiler itself the thing is what libraries in its and these are the things that make plans special you can actually use it to build their own tools tools that refactoring and why is this happened this some politics involved about in some sense many other compilers should have the so here is that in around longer but that didn't happen so I want to look at that once what other things for you to make our life easier for developers so are right now we have a compiler we have a library the best for you but the main thing we can solve we already know about expressive diagnostics I think I'm not going to go into the phones because everyone's spoke about that's and we know that already there's other stuff to be here so on the money and look at so social change idea is to compiler this tools happen that possibly creates a social change well in so far as everything goes through the combined it has some significance and this is saying that struck me when I solids working as was on the front end and you realize that when you fix 1 issue here a 100 more thousand more projects where this such a long tail of projects that you can support in dealing with on this we wouldn't what is going and you will see more sports more applications that involve you see that it's actually happening so it is built up quite recently in the last so few years it's it's a fresh started provide retains even faster so it suffers the composite of the thank you a bit of and background
models what's inside just so you know what's a on we have something all literary you know the islands people with the people of what is
the becomes a lot of times that at the period of 1 percentage in the other parties and that puts us at the top of of the graph so that I think see the
bust objects the object of the class PPLR very very language standards but the goes in right you can is a component that is PC-compatible it's it takes the same virus it's a very immediate effect except that it extends up at the cost of a partnership with the another product is the sum of money in the end there is and the up until the year that's in the act that much of it but you to compact form so we've got to go and he's calling from this slide made from is at the very front
it's it's the the last time that front-end is right it doesn't cost us it's impossible the American and this you know the stuff that you would consider combine that the
secure phones and that's me of and that's In the blurring down to has cycle cojones CIO generation and that creates your your media integer sentation popular mode in LBM formats and then the driver might go and the object file out with positive link and it's true that might you can also 2 of basically binaries you link you can write in the excuse that 1 of the things we know of this the compartment so the combination actually most various processes it it's not so 1 at it calls itself tho they called encodes the call the things because the centers sometimes it's it's a kind of closed
box they decides when it wanted itself when fall out into 2 so if we dig into the front end this is the problem or
approximation and is more there going on everything is always percolating downwards so that walls up and see again the source code goes in and of itself UX you cause your semantic analysis that's means turning the characters into a stream of token level isation passing the thinking tokens turning them into something of an AST throughout inclined status comes 1st of France build the abstract syntax tree Abstract syntax trees tree of your also and there's also the satellites which also gets cold and sometimes time and analysis to provide more expressive warnings diagnostic so 2 . 1
unit of again the coach the origin and you've got moral Wallace the to binary up to be help in the back which for me love this is a few talks today about some character in back in the all Americans and effects on the front these are the actual for the model so you can see is there's things that they map to the concepts that we're interested this is the cause of
this is the exciting the client ID in the notes to you and they all did kind of say what was the topic of some of the use each other these facilities for using compiler internals to to call some of so this tooling the tooling which show that the role what you can actually
with a 6 slides goats was you can actually write a small program you're a function that the you right to collide takes in Kuala arguments and theories of the this time which is stable CAT art which only use CDs and that you this that's you I go through
your honesty that's you we're going to be representation is sailing yacht so obviously that the ideas and use that it's it's it's maintained separately so sometimes you need to
catch up with the core internals it for go language constructs yeah it's sometimes the if you up again to be stable that's that's pretty cool and a lot of application and user also language bindings use the time 2 sports access to the the and indexing from line jointly so the from that result
appliance findings that use the full internals of type of they're also kind of the they don't always work and there's less faith in the intestines of week so when from allowed to use that knowledge cause it's it's depends on internal representation the developmental only PI applied so he was also on the list which ones use have all these options generally tooling all the time of the Bible options for what patients and that the class who now so
why do all this size because we want access to these internals we want to be able to see inside of code we want to make this all code formant is compiled software then no uh sure is the story parts of that really doesn't
something on the scale in open source of there were few variables in that order various tasks like refactoring or individual problems that the and you put it all together so it makes sense to take the combined with the and also write access to external applications and so very few systems so the price in
Klein nobody knows quite what I call this some good reasons why and so
logically pushing for that you would most of Visual C + + in it's kind of events in the you get into it and then I can you feel
this rush wow what a book in
right this this is funny maybe customization full time of the year of I have this thing it crosses stands up far as a super power the suspensions on the actual was the 1st and some other senses things like has them we have a GPU about specializations such to see like languages that's where the name comes from so it's
so the right back and there there's is something missing the missing in the corner and that's the long tail of martial Visual C + + applications so what we really and he but it is building a real software out there a huge amount of projects that said that on proposals to units so that's 1 advantage 1 thing that we get out of it and the 2nd benefit is the other way around we get about windows only gets to and you know his own native by form their experience i'm because these are you like so holding we all thing to units and we get to know help the especially for the yes so work to many so 2 forms constraints the so it's it's it's that should be very things found in in much of the use of sparse so it's equally for the it's moving in the Sports it's not just supporting vitamins I saw comments on a form somewhere sigh why isn't a sports immediately if you hold fast to access
of no compiler that it's doing something different it's not really Windows supports its MSE feasible and we the more they're out Ms. right and the changes the differences are all through is that from passing and his various things that are in the past is the ADI is different when a generating our there's all kinds of other things and semantic analysis of the computed so In work and it's a major
impact on the source of code base but if you don't the and it's very close now to bootstrapping self-hosting so it would be of use in March headers on windows which quite exciting it means that you drop in replacing point for a marxist sybsystem part so that's primary focus and then it has a 2nd
driver that exists even better enables the the this is inspiration the drop inspiration the the CEO is a model and possible driver that so you must salience the
same the same arguments as you they have to the same thing for inputs outputs matches you the 1st part so the the problem with that so you
can face up to its and the thing that is we try to be like them I suppose the that's the only way to defeat so I would say to overcome these challenges happened at
the so how do Foster that's the
probably most interested it's it's hundreds of this is this is on the show you that I so that I've also I said the meeting of why why is this it's huge handwritten parser and we used to have many possible projects we we write some descriptions of the grammar in fact and we let the tool
generates our pass unary the usually so so why is so and go and but most of the stuff but 4 years later on it makes perfect sense it's really nice it's so it's kind of like passes like thus the gem you know it's it's beautiful inside what's you use of until you run that of it's it's scary but so it really works and it that's that's the things that use when you have to do it you got passing of but we generated positive is not 1 that's so mainstream that's out there so so it makes little sense of lets you it's not something you can generate diagnostics you can turn that it's very easy to get started and just starts editing code the passing as takes a lot of it's very accessible as unified that's something else that would be hard with the theory that actually use the same nostrils the fast always see like forgot the symbols of the city and these other extensions although through the same pasturage and it's used to be completely decoupled from semantic analysis and they now it's still fairly isolated so it surpasses in that sense that it passes staff and this whole act into different layer so it's still clean it still as still work friend pottages are purists a separation and 1 and
some of the answers so as the of those that a lot and and into a fully constructed as the kind is the is constructed so it it so it contains the result for the semantic analysis within some other types of
syntax trees under syntax trees and then you have to have separate analysis in being this happens while building is the is quite handy that he with the languages the communities conferences as you pass in order so it's it's ever going to just build up your tree as you go so there's a few things there and it's very it's another the genome that so you need to polish by there is a lot of the what is it that problem based on he was the people they have a need the need for a new language features and what they do have at this you which of the part of the station does this and the interesting thing about based on the the system is really expect user reviews of Areas looked at the 1 thing is really difficult to catch when so somebody a patch is actually because the sum so this tends to get this and as a result you get these on thank you all patterns in the past of being in the house and in the past so these and these are the only annoying little quirks which is good because of what's with the generated so airspeed and and you get fundamental problems when you're actually generating your answer from a description and you have told problems so the fact that the alliances with the also with semantic analysis of In the thing that is so small annoyances is pretty good news that we're happy with so what we have we happy with structure it's basically OK so the question is the 1st so we know we have list that we have we have it working its his
office in for a long time it's going work developed in this use research of the
interesting things that we can do this Ali competing something else or is it just for it onto itself so the few things these are more based on HP's things
that might work on I need to ask us goes back and eyes reviews questions but and it's amazing things really get right now just see if we can take shorter because we there is that so few
things running out of process would be rapists very recent not a big deal but maybe we can just share a lot of it more I actually running a and normal compilation in 1 process this matters has more on Windows where process invocations runs so so this kind the is somewhere in my mind that you could actually kill your entire projects with 1 component Alaskan these some some way off it may not be clear exactly how close together with some yet it's beginning with is that we want the not invoke the the the font and from the driver suffered its there is a binary us so we can we can just sort of and think that and you notice that get 10 Vietnamese so while it is the micro optimizing the pulsar all of fact-finding huge institutions and processes we forget that actually the drivers the betting operations I was very few lines of code so it's an interesting thing that we need to measure we need to get the numbers that so it is just 1 theory right now that we've chosen sometimes you the the models is a big 1 the modules are basically the combination of our freedom of it is that they are the same AST the same entitles that you get up when you're out of your program you're running at times but they persist through mutations to the serialization format that actually when you compile and when you turn it into an instance of the analyzed results leverage cash that to follow and there is more to models and models also embody things like headers includes this a lot of work on models that said studies come together in a big way I think knackwursts ships merits had some models and in so the system of the other and that's very big speed up because it means you have to pass it means that you have different goes for the love that is and the means you can just send more time find your and that is that a much so it's only problem because of the changes rebuilt the modules the catch somewhere another interesting 1 is actually just catching something votes that's I follow axis through occasions once we have things in that's in 1 of the process that we can start looking at the world will mean a reuse between each file that we compile because we don't results it means that possibilities so this can achieve and share the view of 2nd look for a few the seconds of of compilation and the last 1 is is more a little crazy idea the that we can actually go through this to be like the evaluation at the moment we have a great jeez engine and that so long using in the back and they can uh in do also things that we don't use it we can actually use it ourselves of being the 1st as far as I'm aware for it was the competition pipeline so it increases quality loss when you use your Angele's but you get used to it working with and you through the API you fix bugs so some excuse to use the jets In France and I think would be really cool so this is this is an idea right now we're not really manifested in anything but if we can find somewhere to use that and that we really the the the little tricks that we a lot Due to the non eventually get some fast and power another thing that I think if you can see the problem discussed this is the you hmm that's actually
problem so 1 thing we're not doing that we have the His Excellency the and look for a study of relative to point job talks yesterday people actually a working that the resources into absolutely API st case ways to access to the this documents with the properties or whether it's so this browser we expose the dome of everything we try to expose these in way that people can see
if if if if they think that have provision you then have maybe difficulty interacting with the machine and the facilities available to them I plant is an application it is an end user tool and there lots of possibilities assesment T is something that's very natural to represent the trees and so that we have a tree is already in some way that searches in the activity using talk it's like you know about this summer or 80 K if you into the cave of genes this all these possibilities to give people more access to that code so that you can lead to lot does not just the ACT in the tree that the the prohibition would also make it easier to answer your boat and it will be and is a great code completion engine insight line so about the tools and their diagnostics unit that book tokens in the names in them if you tried through as uh speech system right now can do much with them if the learned annotation that go along with so that sort of thing that would be cool if we if we get married just status ahead we do actually I should something people use and users use and I'm he's use as well we shouldn't that I used to go use by editors we should expect them to do it this however I think this is 1 thing we can do this mark when 1 person you miss because found from other projects where we spent a lot of time on the review so that's 1 thing that did not fall at some point it's not right there yet this is something that's some for lots
of links go the that's basically of providing now in but with time and not much external helps to this is a long time coming from the early in the process have to talk about and let me talk about it right the there's a big effort to load of testing and infrastructure so there a real push support for the besieged compile linux-kernel with class and this is being going on all in for a few years now so this is the the new thing but it's just reached some kind of his version and some interesting patches happens recently so died there were lots of and all right he's got involved the is means
users begins come in and they start contributing as this is happening with the few projects is 1 of the visible cases where people had a need they to that support for something and they can get out of which GCC URIs they couldn't get points when they came to find time was different time welcome them they find welcome the QoS provided the necessary review even though not many people need is not in a 16 bit code gender nobody set this is not what we do know he said that we do not want this that with the use case that's cool and that most of the 16 16 work with the earlier tied it is in the title but as a use case is through the front end so what they're user-replaceable of hundreds and 60 minutes so root starter gardens present even in scene which is nice later the
other thing that's components it's close to passing all the year Assembly so using interests and look at the end year thing goes through a time trial and the it's it's worth mentioning that's the that's the way it looks to end users it goes through time and we those things so that the it's basically able to build there are a few other past things future z the features that were necessary but it's going to I think and from the effects of those there is 1 of the features that also with the tools will get to the monsters testing to more various things that they couldn't do before because there's partial view of the of the you so a get there's a few more minutes dimensions and then we look at some of the mouth is in the midst of trying to be done of this type system the but it's so we been aiming for that encodes the standards and what they describe so so until refactorings make it match up to a common terminology and I think when the channels of provide actually represent the specification that's really good because the it's immediately accessible to read the code and you know what it means so in the US so I'm talking about the working from but they actually thought for reasons of its make the codes you read and you see sequences so the the and monitor is there going on to that type of thing that influences but plans
also offending software freedom and this in a few complaints have recently has these are just by client is all about the the that's not people use free software we're going to be able to answer I think that qualifies as a lot of definition for free software in in the traditional sense of what you have different motivations working on the project this is actually the end results that we've got people the using of any then I using that they're getting moral community that they're joining and doing things knowing that companies that had proprietary tool James
what are switching to an open source compiler I mean how is this this is defending of of freedom and this is the 1st freedom the freedom to do
what's right you want with the code and that option has always been available the parties for there's a license fees or whether it's some other
restriction or just the attitude of that team of other components haven't met you do this decreasing stuff with your provider so I think there's some amount of time this freedom number 1 which is to do what you want with the go take it and run with it and it's good then that's good in get taken that we assignments the GCC you can get that the patches you can get companies that they might code dumps them undercoat drops but however is actually get integrated back out and be interesting to see I how the proprietary rights happened all other compilers and how much of that comes back and we see companies sending patches because they love the actions they want to work for with the community so it seems what really was and it's an implicit copy that by suppose you you meant to say about patterns that you met to work with community it's not enforced so people that have sent back excretions to the project but span of the anyway because they want to were closer to that of what we do so perfected the we already get software freedom and there's also a slightly stronger interpretation of so the real stream number 2 and so this 1
is I suppose but I can tell me what I can do with my about front end and you know we won refactor that's great if we
want to find that's great so wanna make basic level so we need to do this if we can move forward technology as a whole we need to be able to manipulate the color because and the code everything is source-code these this we need this basic freedom and we buy flats we need to that 1 we know get that with other projects of movements of this is that we have mn institute 1 is free
where we are now we're we're getting a nice kind of um environments with getting new countries is in the rebuilding of the put very successful and and the introspective questions we need to ask the user things that happened day-to-day us was the that challenges space and I'm sure there's more use of ones of recently so when this trouble when so when you post something special to this so have you respond the other can response you have to say
something all the signal do you get angry with there is no real clarity on that because of the demands oxy everyone codes and their trusted and they reply to computers so it's only informal like that and Backman occasion backfire because can they can give a harsh 1st version to people running patches these things we need to keep in check we need to make sure it doesn't turn into a vicious the projects were we don't so welcome people who is trying to countries so this is a nightmare so it's the right thing to do to welcome people to work and then
see see what what country on the variance so the other thing this copies is sometimes you have people you want to write documentation all they want to do something else in the code and we're
very tuned for reviewing patches to the combined but so we not used to dealing with people who want to get something else whether that's from ressources hardware time or some other cities so in terms of community that we have such time and that they could needed to have a framework for dealing with some of these things and like documentation so was rising rates of inflation recently of that there wasn't really any 1 who was able to give direction on those patches and we ended up without the intention is the it didn't work out the condition was that right so we miss out on very important things In the toolchain of course with some folks example with about us we sometimes we don't even know how to bring these even folds the thank you a then you're going to the position that we don't really have that and of that and after got so that is something we can do so the since crying to be
basis a bit uncomfortably in places it's it's the nature of something that's handwritten the nature of the does so much with there is a call of many 38 40 accident was all kind of room and this is less than 1
month houses is a January analysis so we can the 60 it could very the 1 . 5 million as approach that's a lot of growth but so low that these tests so some it's not choices caring reality is been a pattern having the which which I'm hopeful is the case this will be great if we keep things I think this point and it keeps going earning is bigger but maybe we can that it out there move on to verify the commits 1 to commit so each 1 is usually a significant commits a feature or effects of some kind so that once patch distributed if this landed that was wasn't to work of and there's slightly more the
questions which of these these are the questions that of our but we thank the thank of your time and we discuss with each other some people might be better than others but there's no questions but what if something goes wrong what that this some kind of patents something of someone says something they shouldn't hands-on gets kicked out of what you
do and that's good this is a weakness beings cells here unfair find potential things that the we we might have trouble with and at the moment there's a projects this community but we don't have an absolutely clear the idea of what happened so our transparency is good this this very good on part of could be more transparent always I believe in Sherry explaining how things work and that's not always that with something so it would be useful a bit more clarity so
1 of the things that's been discussed a lot is is there some way maybe provide a separate entity that can actually deal with these whether it's it's menial tasks like infrastructure that providing the funding for certain providing essential sports events that as of right now some of you care and but in time the could that be formalized that's 1 of the questions and then could there be some kind of Our supported these 2
reviews this for with a legal point of view these and other questions and somebody do have Foundation never successful the others don't and they're also the well so it is unnecessary and 1 thing we could do this as a physical thing and Scott few times is the sum of elegant foundation it would also
be useful for those interested in trying to learn some discussions and then we also read and see if the compulsory 1 is ECC see from the sensor the current backronym works with the nodes in my past my idea Python lists some point I think scientists get be useful
at some point we made it and it's better to be difficult the questions take kind of In discussed but it would be better if everyone got involved and that it transparently rather than having such thing done unilaterally by a single organization or group of organizations so help me somebody did something that your that
community has also been growing in other ways that be so we've got a without meeting which is very it also covers all kinds of fun and enjoy it fly with my reading users answers community feeling that yeah as things around here is so that community
feeling is really coming along realizing up and this looks like a bank of which is long I you didn't think C + + C and finally get all the planets and the mail to that kind of our own and we get about the idea the the interests read more about so what this is doing on plan and this is already a nice story there's only 4 were of something that's it's it's fun story tells the story of a a it tells us on people who do what they do and the external world so I teach you got off to the employing it would be great so I maybe have your thing that and the rules of pretty that's the you know you don't have to be a committee you don't have to so that accelerates are also welcome subgroups also welcome if you do something triangulated all of that place and because we're looking
at so possibly few things that come out of recently there's been a lot of interest in providing of attitudes and promised to communicate the data to back and so this is something that's the request for a while and we haven't been able to read the title list for whatever reason it always gets delayed so that's something I'm going to call of the amount of 4 in the 2nd millions of these options without so it's gonna pop pop that in here in the few minutes we have the so yeah
be put off
by the yes aware that government questions so I get to the class and if you can just read the rest of the the level of the
you and the people who use all possible with all of the the and set contemplation was the dream was the idea of the front-end hasn't quite got the driver they have theoretical cosmopolitan of the that society 1 binary that then it's every mile every target is in fact not materialize standard data there's a need to fix it because that's the way it should figure I think is 1 of the things that's actually that you know what it is that you know the the the the canvas in trying to write headers in libraries that is reached that point where you don't want inside the nice begins upstream or similar to that of the stages that was heard of because the force now because have would this 1 and the 1 that was and but the fact that some of the things that I use and that the where the of the I think and that of the president of the question is up to the generalized foundation the incident energy and that it should be something not only on this side time of the building such a general theory of the tools and like community interesting there are some things like lot the power was found with very used to having all of you for example that the entries of the research was going on this trip on that topic so the more it is such a thing would be endangered impact on the right the following the general just being thrown all the scientists in the very good people talking about area and this is the idea of I think about this later on it and we and this so we the write it on the what rejects but it's great you actually have been going up to the they're using the annotations primers to some possible addition to that in the cases of power consumption they want to take a more efficient with our resources and so it's kind of optimization problem again I will get is we had is making this they have something that we use in terms of our language it's changing right from but at the time the that the fact the other thing that in I'll let you know that the real the from all of the in and of itself but society so that the intention of the the haplorhines by spicy of I don't think we have like so much of a but you know what we have in the and we actually have an abstract and to use the product that essentially all of the of the of the of the issue of the community and the unloaded and it was a really really is and again you know that in the future the that and on
the right side of the tree and then what we're going to do throughout the whole of the resource of this and much more and so than were part of the 1 right you I that but this is a viable on the planet and yet there's something and you have the conversations saying and this that's the requirement should hold the whole problem significantly lower than that and also we used to specified and what the Croatian and you can't do that a lot of foundation for any kind of and also called the probabilistic approaches to use their own and the branches so you can say you can all that should case of branch the also you can for functional form of this this for example
that you want to say I want this class that they belong to and you get currently universal similarity between and some energy models combined them
and then a we're gonna have a presentation later failed energy and that life in some you sort of the regions in we take that generalize that it to the same problems that others solve a lot of you will not see this you always will see that's great I really like that you know it wasn't any so if the women it's well upon what Western so the
parliament and the and the thing about I
is very possible to compile drivers Windows rabbits so I'm getting a sign that the the 1st it's I can answer because it's already happening in
this country too much of notes we've got so much of the capacity of a lot of extensions of the branch compiling windows the drivers on units so using this to so Windows drivers to
previous data there's that's pretty cool the question is this work the other way around I've spoken with some people from the reactor lost practice you of very close to the building some drivers they
need 1 more positive feature the nested functions also but basically what will need they said the needs of the owner who has had
an an idea it seemed very low so I think it happens all natural and you all the time some API part of book but this is no major
areas of the and the the ones that have the same sanitarium so the pressure is also you have the feeling that man and the introduction of group
or yes so we have 1 minute left so that kind of very last question and but usually the caller with the 2 part of
the people use that I some would say that we have and as we could do that it is plagiarism section we have something useful because life as the 2nd or even if you will find nothing of is that is
that we need to get people to do if we work assume you know the user will find patterns and so American people from the from the gossip and there have is the and the about
that it would