Video in TIB AV-Portal: r2m2

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Reversing a binary using a rare CPU architecture requires to write a lot of code, such as disassembler, assembler, or block splitting logic. Once implemented, there is still a need for a graphical interface dedicated to reverse. Sooner or later, more needs might also arise: symbolic execution, emulation, jit, debugging, … miasm2 is a powerful reverse engineering framework written in Python. It greatly simplifies the definition of new CPU architectures, and allows to assemble, disassemble and jit code. This talk will present r2m2, a radare2 plugin that aims at easing reversing new architectures by leveraging radare2 and miasm2 features. Its goal is to be as architecture independent as possible. r2m2 bridges the radare2 and miasm2 communities: radare2 being the graphical interface of miasm2, and miasm2 simplifying the implementation of new architectures. Currently, r2m2 is able to assemble, disassemble, split blocs, using miasm2, and convert internal miasm2 expressions to radare2 ESIL.
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User interface Web page Point (geometry) Curve Addition Dynamical system Implementation Assembly language Open source Keyboard shortcut Binary code Projective plane Expression Water vapor Software maintenance Mereology Mikroarchitektur Element (mathematics) Graphical user interface Computer animation String (computer science) Reverse engineering Computer architecture
User interface Functional (mathematics) Constraint (mathematics) Computer animation Cellular automaton Flash memory Binary code Entropie <Informationstheorie> Summierbarkeit Function (mathematics) Computer architecture
Flock (web browser) Group action Touchscreen Graph (mathematics) Expression Letterpress printing Virtual machine Machine code Mereology Distance Semantics (computer science) Tablet computer Type theory Computer animation Personal digital assistant Different (Kate Ryan album) Natural number Core dump Electronic visual display Right angle Hydraulic jump Computer architecture Spacetime
Polar coordinate system Slide rule Dataflow Group action Functional (mathematics) Computer file Code View (database) Multiplication sign Virtual machine Parameter (computer programming) Mereology Protein Distance Semantics (computer science) Twitter Attribute grammar Web 2.0 Intermediate language Medical imaging Goodness of fit Internetworking Atomic number Different (Kate Ryan album) String (computer science) Core dump Representation (politics) Software framework Error message Form (programming) Computer architecture Touchscreen Theory of relativity Assembly language Block (periodic table) Bit System call Arithmetic mean Computer animation Ring (mathematics) Personal digital assistant Order (biology) Website Object (grammar) Procedural programming Family Resultant Probability density function
State of matter Source code 1 (number) Set (mathematics) Parameter (computer programming) Semantics (computer science) Food energy Optical disc drive Semiconductor memory Different (Kate Ryan album) Core dump Cuboid Error message Descriptive statistics Scripting language Constraint (mathematics) Touchscreen Mapping Block (periodic table) Binary code Constructor (object-oriented programming) Electronic mailing list Sound effect Bit Wave Binary tree Message passing Ring (mathematics) Order (biology) Website Ranking Resultant Reverse engineering Point (geometry) Slide rule Functional (mathematics) Statistics Computer file Virtual machine Control flow Surgery Event horizon Automatic differentiation Goodness of fit Latent heat Causality Lecture/Conference Bridging (networking) String (computer science) Dispersion (chemistry) Integer Codierung <Programmierung> Initial value problem Address space Computer architecture Fingerprint Addition Standard deviation Information Expression Machine code Computer animation Friction Software Logic Personal digital assistant Blog Object (grammar)
Computer animation String (computer science) Multiplication sign Real number Order (biology) Letterpress printing Data storage device Flow separation Address space Neuroinformatik
Dynamical system Multiplication sign View (database) Source code 1 (number) Function (mathematics) Inverse element Parameter (computer programming) Data dictionary Mereology Semantics (computer science) Neuroinformatik Wiki Estimator Sign (mathematics) Bit rate Semiconductor memory Computer configuration Different (Kate Ryan album) Core dump Data conversion Extension (kinesiology) Physical system Scripting language Boss Corporation Mapping File format Binary code Keyboard shortcut Shared memory Bit Instance (computer science) Demoscene Orbit Type theory Data management Arithmetic mean Process (computing) Ring (mathematics) Buffer solution Order (biology) Self-organization output Right angle Summierbarkeit Quicksort Reading (process) Laptop Functional (mathematics) Implementation Beat (acoustics) Pay television Computer file Link (knot theory) Virtual machine Branch (computer science) Student's t-test Latent heat Term (mathematics) String (computer science) Operator (mathematics) Authorization Integer Data structure Codierung <Programmierung> Traffic reporting Metropolitan area network Hydraulic jump Address space Computer architecture User interface Addition Graph (mathematics) Assembly language Inheritance (object-oriented programming) Information Cellular automaton Mathematical analysis Content (media) Machine code System call Word Computer animation Friction Software Personal digital assistant Interpreter (computing) Object (grammar) Library (computing)
Group action Functional (mathematics) Computer animation Core dump Set (mathematics) Address space
Service (economics) State of matter Software developer Binary code Planning Student's t-test Semantics (computer science) Wave packet Computer animation String (computer science) Electronic visual display Data conversion Arithmetic progression Address space Metropolitan area network
Functional (mathematics) Programmschleife Computer animation String (computer science) Multiplication sign Order (biology) Electronic visual display Reading (process)
Laptop Proof theory Computer animation Personal digital assistant Self-organization Reading (process)
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disorder other SPF flash and ambient so again we got to bite a big binary so we tried again did more constraints and other tools and we didn't find anything the 1 morning and as a friend can cannot was a 14 from a strange uh if you have a close look it could be something you you will use in yourself when to a dental where the cell values so of course what we do next uh we ask again and were told as it's too has to show
that so what they the city to the next was to implement this architecture that should neatly into myosin and sorry no this something out before and that back then to the kids to 715 sorry um this architecture was only implemented in the uterus so for example that's an output of objdump uh well we can see here that is a sum of a victim of ICT altered by was germs and for example their weapon as a function like lecturers a window binary being with us that point of and then I decided to implement in them uh because was much we use were to actually read reveals the binary so let's try the fuzzy rule at
will be will fail it's too small I guess groups is a big enough yes OK so if you want to use out into the 1st inning to define is a viable in adopted telling which actually want to to using a up to so who's out when to arch in this case that's map any penal it in general then you need to those are to any space by the architecture so usually architecture in out to you specify executes 6 or it's in this case and the name of the printing to and then that's usually an artist of use this as a binary then can try to December 10 instruction that's again we get our part to commands and the Union magical trick is that's a and B I out increase coding by some codes is going I may say no that's true December and the architecture and we can convince you that is we have the same output as in understand the germs and then move 0 hour 0 which are uh notes in any peace I said before I got to and about to translate between the expression in the niacin into uh out to is an expression so we can take that's you can the space very valuable reserve flock to this 1 will enable you display so we can just abandon instruction and there we can see that's myosin with a provides the semantics of destruction and 2 out of so we know that if we execute distance obscenity is jump would jump to address rendered something we can do also is a type a it means analyzing out to and then this physical graph but that's not nice so screen could 0 from black and white so what you of the other the core that's it let's you codes as the 1 I should published and except that it's much nicer to use we can like go everywhere we
need in Caesar the Brooks OK so if we go back to the the the faster the produce display and I said before my Acehnese vegetal slate expressions so we can also emulate in part 2 so we find that the IPC and not to rely on nature is so different machine initializer until a PC and we can try to step on instructions so obviously I win but prettier Ottawa gen to West 100 that's what he did beginning December 5 5 instructions see In case right could which the the the the people i wanna drink OK so P 5 so
PCs here integrated in what I want to do next is Due to more steps in order to of 40 hours a rich 28 into a register 9 so right now Our 9 is equal to 0
groups OK 2 more steps online is equal to 28 and we can check that this you moved to this instruction
so that's form that's it for the this festival and when to remember that everything is done dynamically they couldn't bison and converting it into the mice and expression if you are to so for me it was a nice way of improving a what I had wizard of atoms and stuff reversing the binary so what I want to do in the next part of the talk groups I want to make a 4 screens right OK well in the next part of the talk I will want to introduce the miacin and mice and futurists by giving you examples I will also show you or you can implement your on the part to proteins and finally I will conclude his utterance designs if you want you can go to these websites and so just and treats and you can never get the names from the tweets on this website would find the slides uh and in achieving PDF and also fighting text file when you can't just copy and paste or as exemplars and or walking and medical image of so my sense is a quick tutorial that's by some basic readers and the framework with with William a lot of cool features we can assemble December of course you can express uh this assumption semantics in order to emulate and and also informed that the most interesting feature you can reuse implements a new architecture on their website on the blog and on the object of accounts of mice and you can find accurate and let's say more concrete example because today reveal a short introduction result CDM binaries just to give you an idea of what you can do is nice and so the pitch and the brother of already cost of the and so 1st you had big enough to get so 1st what you can do with my son is assembled in order to do that you need to create the machine Mason machine and then you need to get them them any book object so mn object is used to assemble in December so that created and then you can call the from string function in order to get from this motivates 1 string into the internal uh mice instructions and then you can call ACM in order to get a binary representation of this restriction it In this case of more of X 1 view of you know if a success such attributes for difference by the expression so I didn't know that before doing this example assuming that the other way around so that's a bit by sending sorry could only Python so here we iterate over all of the fall and procedures and just use in order to assemble distance is this instructions so I'm a good cook gain revolutionaries results uh when we estimate of these orders for instructions more X 1 and 4 times next thing we can do we can play with intermittent which so going it always starts a Mesa machine will be on in the we December when inscription and I don't know what is the meaning of this assumption to what they can do next is like did his name was the name its father and get this its arguments and this get Web 3 agreements no and the fact is that expression ideas and it's myosemin expression for gist also it's up to update and as you then we can get another objects it's code intermediate representation architecture that have been making bigger and the named and long then just to say that would be able to get the internet representation and later on immigrants those then I can use get by our function in order to get this kind of flow representation of instruction semantic again it's using internal myosin expression so what is despite is doing is adding by 8 sorry are 0 and returning the values from the ring of truth the given that so 1 must that 2 worlds in relation to so what we can do next user and civic institution so 1st we this instruction added to a Baroque wizard ad this instruction function and then we can display the Cranbrook by iterating over all of the elements so that that 1 broke and the block started at was 0 it only has 1 instruction in this weird stuff and that I our destination so the internal myosin PC so we don't really care about that an error that's much nicer than the previous so representation out to adjust the core to update please press uh 0 the a next
step we can try to imitate that's so 1st we get the same Greek execution objects we initiated and then we imitate 1 broke was in you I a block and we can use for example the idea In order to get to modify were just tells you can also use government in order to to get a list of the memory addresses it will fights so in this example of this distinction uh additions it out to um register with court the court to the initial value of 0 press initial value of the update we can do 1 more step here we can specify a value for uh 0 it would be 0 it again display as so just as an OWL 2 will be equal to the initial value of fights and the rest state here I we say my bells day surgery 28 to update it relates then so and the final value of as you'll be my best OK that's nice but some that a lot of what like remembering the machines including descriptions and them to blogs and so on so my son is providing some boxes in order to do a lot of the work for you so there will be the same answer exemplary order to of binary tree relates and antisocially an example we just created at function that that 2 integer OS and return and the results so if I can compile and tried to introduce this free that's again it's city yeah on the amazing site what we can do we can do is disassembled so we can and the PS Buades creates a weekend starts um creating a sandbox objects so for it's Mabel operates when we ask amazing to pass arguments and we creates this assemblage objects and my son is a virtue of past EDF PE files so amusing fish exist at European in order to get that was of what you slide by accessing the information in a of then because it's a and it's 66 inner-city to bits and we push argument of this text understand sorry so it would add and these 2 integers and the step between that's really uh especially to myosin and we pushed this break points which is a reasonable so the function and finally I will emulates the binary by according run the the and then display the find the value the finding that so I'm including on the on discrete and they we specified um the binary and Mason we display all of these constructions Sweden that's the most relate all of them and again with the that such as the example just to show you that function in a binary you can read it it's really easy to was myosin something there's many most things you can do again against the broke you can attach a g there you can attach it to D B to a to a sandbox uh which again do also called for can solve constraints and using ancestry so you can get this semantics of instructions and then uh soft constraints so in this slide you like complete exemplars again simpler ones that that you can play with them it on thank you and then I want to show you will you can implements a new architecture optimized sensor was that's exactly what I did for any p and n to do so you need to take a 3 different steps of and not that complicated it so the 1st thing to do you need to specify on that's implemented registers in the ranks at the wave file indeed I will describe that today because many strings unifies isn't really stressed interesting then you need to defy of goods in the other file and finally the semantics innocent that the way so arch um in this example I would want to odds a an instruction to my and its ads at immediate needs so which we can start to do is check the specification of this disinfection and the specification say that's 1st with 6 bits there was no one's also 1 then 5 it's that think the source for this 5 will that encode the target with the registers and finally the mediator and 16 bits and in ISM or you need to do is called the other function did the name of the instruction and then define something called a bit strange it's indeed done the stuff but some objects so the 1st this this string with be easier was a ones yours 1 then we giving a viable core are s and as on RT and finally you need in a we find that in the next slides and because for this specific instruction the wages and good it is not the way to the state we can play with less least know that we built out in our as OK so and you need to define the arguments of this instruction and again there will be this string so this is the source which is so we this ring of friends 5 and here we are updating my standards must be decoded without any and such a to achieve the rank objects and we do himself for the target for the largest on the same stuff for the immediate and of the same it's subject to objects or whatever let's say a map objects need to implement including the codes in order to return to NY Mason expressions and nice and we take of errors that gets exam bits from the binary and putting them on this this method so that's when things really express events we to add a new a new architecture so it is a simplified example of the immediate uh it's almost but you will find in the a and source codes so this uh objects it as a decodes function and adequate function would take a value and from the binary and return the miacin expression In this case integer and goats until was aware around sticking their internal amazing expression and returning here and the value that we be included in the binary code of an expression OK and then you can add a new 0 good and send the PY so the idea is to implement the logic so what you can do with uh the 1st solutions to gold it save other way and rewrites full and completes uh Mason expression so IA-DSA X B F 2 effects of 2 specify add and so that's a bit long an obviously in order to implement but that's too much so what you can do instead is the the daisy like me and implements and the semantic using something the core of the same breed energy and what you need to do and curious things you need to do in order to implement this idea solution is defining a by some function as specifying and its arguments in and that indeed there is friction parameters and just right this initial the source pristine it it's it's really really really cool and simple and finally if you go back to the and previous slides if you remember we use the get I are from a function in order to get the internal medicine an expression and we can do the same and here we can see that if and the included an institution was at a 0 a 1 2 we have the following um niacin expression that's really nice and then Mason is taking care again of everything we by using symbolic season so so do it you
this 1 uh into a bridges is this graphical so what I want to do in this example I want to execute and the bison books under NEP target so it's more OK I want to emulate a function and that is being was it called its course and this stage in this function that we send you back the bundled attended by knowing you connect to the and dispersive device and for into reverse so the goal of this script is to launch the full binary which from be 16 divides and go to a specific address atlas of this and message function in the function and the set such function is doing more cause for example to mind a CNN uh printed in abuses abuses sense and what they did in this by scripts as my to put breakpoints on the functions I know 2 emitted in a different way so for example for SLN as still Mason to put a breakpoint in so son was that the sandbox and call that statistical backing bison backing bison would access resource values from bites and for example in that if we use an L 1 in order to get jet was of the the string do the men's competition when there was spice and and and said the value of the Register Weezer bison again so which we have a screen when we present present so we have all of the all of the strips sticks it is to transfer that are emitted by myosin in red you would get all of the function of that indeed it couldn't by some yeah and we knew we have the strings that is usually sense of the network but to dates displayed on was on the screen OK good what so the answer but the key yeah who the so aren't up at the start of the function a select some instruction thing with a speed and then
he on SLN we see that there is a
value that's a strange and string address which is a set into all L 1 and then a Mason we break on the SLN in each computers
remain storage and uh 0 and uh frowzy depression so he's doing that for as John and several times putting money out again it's a real treat three-minute manikin by 7 course print as printed in order to build define and then finally instead of sending to the natural creatures display them the banner OK that's a really silly
example but as is before my main the my main job is to network so from time to time and even know knew reversing serine it will a cost so the other a use case could be a and you ever wields metropolitical to reverse its and implemented instead he of course and then you want to play with it so what you can do you can embed by my assent set you implementation is complete in and once it's complete you can like send a packet to the with targets seen this and was shot in the visual orbits can give you like some idea of what you can do with nice and OK next thing so as to claim let's say 6 months we implement the architecture in in a nice and not because was difficult because because no time to do it an agenda could only emit binary as somebody's estimates with so it was not better than others don't so brain wizard internal mice into words for example the forward PY scripts for a the a you give even the binary here it is somebody's and give you wouldn't find so is that exactly the same graph formats as the ones that were discussed during the 1st the an agenda can get something like that which is of course graph it so don't this an output at the when actually in out to doing the fell due to the function from other is 0 2 of us so it's nice the core of combined to observe is better but still is too difficult to do some real job done so what I do next I decided to have a look at how to produce and many out to begin by since the goal of the organs to call by some from the FIL so you can do it and that's really simple and you can use are 2 PM out again that's also but manager and you can use it and then by Sun and binding and that's it if you want to refer to write to procure you have under out 2 into source code this example so if you want to write a 1st and a rate up again the to implements assembly function the Assembly function with a constrained move x 1 In this case you would use the man made some machine and return on the bytes and artisans friction you can also define a December function December function we take a buffer we again user my machine December 1 instruction reads on its defense ends it's a string that jump it was something then would you need to do that you need to define a specific bison dictionary without such name pocket beats and so on the license and indeed that's the exact same names as the students of the structure used by our 2 and that's it and then you need to initialize a pretty finally if you go to a share again there are too many by the name of your uh Python script which is now in the and how to begin begin initialize the architecture of you can get a binary this is done by that and this and the the summer fight infection that's nice and you can also use PCA to assemble enough so it works or the other is an issue because today's is only assembly disassembly proteins that can be implemented as so it means it's at sends you only get something just 32 bit nice cells and option is a is no way you can get the core of there's no way you can get the instruction semantics by implementing as use this as an inverse of pretty so in order to do that to implement it operating score 84 analysis and is there is there that and out to on expression names I need to do something else and and that report of that's the day he was to go buy some from so another article by some from the uh the best solution is to use this if if I pass some idea because of the end it will take your by substrates put it in dynamic February and a with the price interpreter so what I want to show you next is all you can do that tho again it's the example of what I want to do is to call a bit 64 From bison so 1st you need to define an include file with the best 64 function that function will be exported in the dynamic February and codes from the and finally the and again the example of that because of this 64 function so in that's nice and doesn't know that's indeed uh the basic 64 function we started by Saint operator and caller at price and function the In by Sun you need to defines a new uh your specific by subscripts so that's what I'm doing far out into 1st you need to study objects and then 10 uh this if if I buy some memory uh which function will be exported so it's simple and just opening the include file and during and immediately function and the content of the input and then you need to define what to do so again that's simpler and with creates that this 64 function by some 1st I we call that oversees string into a by someone then I will print the value and finally used encode this 64 and another to which is did this 64 value and return objects on the C-value value OK so now you can compile and the fast you core by single again don't have to get the dynamic library and you can come by the then you can enjoy interested so here whether a string and the best 64 of the corresponding value that was computed during
the using a bias of the 2 big city that's 1 more step towards the end could myosin from from the including miacin from out of next thing ideas West who try to access the artifacts from by bison indeeds it donuts was not the best destroys discloses meaning addition the 1st finding that the city and see if it is a resistive advice about there's much about all of this extension so from time to time and you will be able to to past week advice and you won't be able to call uh together at 2 structures from you on the software and they prayed wizard on many different possibilities you can check the links in interesting but not for this sort of so what they did and used to extract and to produce myself no recent Super Python scripts in order to and the remotest in addition OK and the just that you need to take uh you need to be up to pregnancy uh you consider the wiki up to we because they're really really nice example on this link and I will describe it today because it's a guess too much information in that it has the same as we did in by some like to go but instance for you to define this function as some function any computer the structure and that's it you get an occupancy OK so I've last utterance to how to ensure a disease everything I describe so far to bring I into are to again and it keeps so most of the smart bits into my sense and adds and provides to bring in the first one is called 84 assembly disassembly for the same stuff what you can do in pure bison that's the most important part that's the ATM at 80 pregnant analysis in as if you have up him to install on your laptop device computer you can call it s n minus l and said that's out into actually providing AD AE futures and want to briefly discuss the weather did not to want to so enter to into a view that the easy 1 you just basically around the city see I wrapper around the miacin machine you can use this like the or you can explore the viable and use this the interface you can use for example are essential in order to assembler 1 instruction and so it's in a binary and then you can just somebody's fiction and everything is done with my exam so again that's untrue coding by some coding and amazing look at In that their and outputs unbeaten s so again this nice that's not better than of don't why because if you have germs beyond and we don't know where the go and arteries noted for example to be the call graph this not better than that of the 2 thinking from the changing frigging was indeed a L 2 into in the uh because my son was a I mean I sent to find the branches function calls Brooks and immediate instructions indeed that's not that difficult enough to move from authorities so all of the instructions like move a German court out to you with assign types for example if you remove the worst OK so it's a good ideas are to move of simple gems and so on so the 1st thing that I did not want to West was signs of 2 types and based on the sum mice functions so we have the term in them forever in bison and instruction nice institution I we said call so in this case Mason is telling me that so and this assumption is a goal then we said the 1st argument type if he's an integer now we said that that was the assumption to be a call and I will try to compute the address of course depending on the architecture and it could this could be incorrect on their own otherwise if the type is not an integer I would just say OK that's a cold but that's an unknown caller because we don't know where it goes the most interested pocket it's is example so if we somebody agenda not which is a bit city best I just want to show you that's the whole story compared to what they should be fall in this case are too intrusive at to decide and know where the jump is going we pledge just pointing at the map but again that's 1 of my example OK and the rest scene gambling was out into is to convert to my son expression on the right and the interesting part you like boss amazing expression and is that way to achieve the sensing which is expressing instruction semantics and indeed the automatic conversion placebo sont up here whether into expression there are 2 expression and that's what up to increasing that competence and there is 1 more step out into is doing is providing the definition of 40 cells on the fly by the time to read user rings of you I file ends busy thing that's uh 12 to arch Pia OK so what we have next we can use that to understand binary just not we have a gain and that's here let's say that the germs here with this assumption we go to the north end the men differences here asked to is aware of this option semantic so after the Japanese executives that this value will be changed so that's investors system actually during the 4th general at so do you know it's like putting
everything together so I need to go back to actual groups with so 1st the
and we note some function definition of up to so it s will use a known function set of you may say that the function I showed you before and the 1 which was it is so I can jump to the address analyze groups and get a core and what I
want to show you yeah sure yeah for example for this move is whoops and moved there out to exhibited no because the of the semantics in a great expression progression is evidence address of L 1 and is able to data that's at this whether string and also because I told that services this West is that was of on and you will like display this most of
so by using dynamic features of myself I was about to announce 6 2 out of chose the despair was getting from this man binary OK and assume that states so prone not an upswing whose student of development works fine for my user each of which we walk for you any sense we had to do uh we had to define the putting conversion dynamically and my main goal is to instigating the despair can get know in in out to and the most ago I was on my way back from C C C and I couldn't get in the plane so when from and to Paris by train so a lot of like it's it's an what to spare so the
parking under through uh implement going prevention so e on the display which can see that this time STL air for loops for us young men I hope it's not too small arteries the 2 datasets uh the SNN function we because string so again that's something useful in order to with me I read ing the binary OK To conclude that 1st I would have said to sanction the Mason and read up people so it would be false alarm uh we accept sinkholes what can be in the seventies and also from the article
each year we let's say pancakes it with me and that's in the and and to and to begin so in food
tools in donor that commonly then was we efficient from a use case and noticing like L 2 his more than a proof of concept that only works on my laptop you can get
it on data generated with a doctor and 1 open question like is too good to be true and that's an open question for from me to you because I've said before I don't read also leaving so maybe an assumption that like 2 simple and uh this out incomplete even be there to welcome them did your use case those tanks alerts and follows the recon organizer if of creation commands deals with the optimal so let me know and