Voice-Sensitive Regions in the Dog and Human Brain Are Revealed by Comparative fMRI

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Voice-Sensitive Regions in the Dog and Human Brain Are Revealed by Comparative fMRI
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Molnár, Attila Dávid
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During the approximately 18–32 thousand years of domestication [1], dogs and humans have shared a similar social environment [2]. Dog and human vocalizations are thus familiar and relevant to both species [3], although they belong to evolutionarily distant taxa, as their lineages split approximately 90–100 million years ago [4]. In this first comparative neuroimaging study of a nonprimate and a primate species, we made use of this special combination of shared environment and evolutionary distance. We presented dogs and humans with the same set of vocal and nonvocal stimuli to search for functionally analogous voice-sensitive cortical regions. We demonstrate that voice areas exist in dogs and that they show a similar pattern to anterior temporal voice areas in humans. Our findings also reveal that sensitivity to vocal emotional valence cues engages similarly located nonprimary auditory regions in dogs and humans. Although parallel evolution cannot be excluded, our findings suggest that voice areas may have a more ancient evolutionary origin than previously known. Genetic tagging, the unique identification of individuals by their DNA profile, has proven to be an effective method for research on several animal species. In this study we apply non-invasive genetic tagging from feather samples to reveal the genetic structure and estimate local population size of red-and-green macaws (Ara chloropterus) without the need to capture these animals. The study was centered in the Tambopata region of the Peruvian Amazon. Here macaws frequently visit clay licks and their naturally molted feathers provide a unique source of non-invasively sampled DNA. We analyzed 249 feathers using nine microsatellite loci and identified 221 unique genotypes. The remainder revealed 21 individuals which were ‘recaptured’ one or more times. Using a capture-mark-recapture model the average number of different individuals visiting clay licks within one breeding season was estimated to fall between 84 and 316 individuals per clay lick. Analysis of population genetic structure revealed only small genetic differences among regions and clay licks, suggesting a single red-and-green macaw genetic population. Our study confirms the utility of non-invasive genetic tagging in harsh tropical environment to obtain crucial population parameters about an abundant parrot species that is very difficult to capture in the wild.
Keywords dog brain fmri voice recognititon

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