Advances in Civic Co-management Within the Geospatial Ecosystem Applied to Disaster Risk Management

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Advances in Civic Co-management Within the Geospatial Ecosystem Applied to Disaster Risk Management
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The use of mobile devices for identifying risk and coordinating disaster response is well accepted and has been proven as a critical element in disaster risk management [1,2]. As new tools, applications, and software are adopted by municipal governments and NGOs for the identification and management of urban risk, the need for greater integration of the various data they aid in collecting becomes acute. While the challenge of integrated data management is substantial, it is aided by the fact that many new tools have been developed to include an Application Programming Interface (API), which allows the machine-to-machine (i.e. automated) sharing of open data [3]. While some proprietary platforms for the management of urban data are currently available, they are extremely costly and very limited in terms of data inputs; to date there are no open source geospatial software tools for the integrated management of various API sources. A key to improving disaster risk management as an element of risk identification is the development of an integrated open source Decision-Support Risk Matrix that enables: 1) automated integration of multiple geospatial and non-geosapatial API sources into a low cost, user-oriented dashboard; 2) backend database and software design for the Risk Matrix that enables data sources to be parameterized and interrogated; 3) the development of an output API stream that allows additional secondary applications to optimize their evaluations and analyses through open access to critical risk information. Jakarta and its surrounding conurbation (Jabodatabek) has the highest rate of urbanization in the world and comprises the second-largest contiguous settlement on earth. With a greater metropolitan area hosting 13 rivers, 1100 kilometers of canals, and over 28 million residents, Jakarta is a key case study for the development of improved risk management through new tools and open software [4]. Risk information and coordination through open data protocols is critical to support decision-making about disaster response, emergency planning, and community resilience. Furthermore, rich suites of open and accessible geospatial risk data generate activity in NGOs and the private sector, especially for longer term planning tools and economic calculators. The development of application-driven data collection via mobile devices allows for unprecedented data collection capacities, but to be effective, these technologies require coordination through open source software. CogniCity is a GeoSocial Intelligence Framework developed by the SMART Infrastructure Facility, University of Wollongong and the emergency management agency of Jakarta (BPBD DKI). CogniCity is a geographical information system that allows collection and visualization of geospatial data on flood alerts (via Twitter) and the use of spatio-topological network models of hydraulic networks. Through its implementation (Map Jakarta), CogniCity has been proven in an operational manner to improve government response to flooding in Jakarta [4]. This paper presents the next version of CogniCity to support an Application Programming Interface (API)-enabled Decision-Support Matrix. The result is an open source platform capable of transforming real-time data about flooding in the city of Jakarta into open, accessible and actionable information by government agencies, NGOs and the public.
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at I had such a welcome surprise in Fennell said of inequalities
to already a PhD student in the back of the forces and this section and so I guess it have more of a conversation and so if you have any questions that I'm talking or I'm talking to quickly because I am a native english speaker and people often complain I speak too quickly and tell me and I will speak slowly and I wanna to talk to world projects for more than idea that in and of project is approved the 1st trend OK case studies and around the use of an open source GIS to pull together and different information sources and a disaster risk management content and so I should also mention that there's a there's a few of us that work on this project with University warned on an Australian and from the smart infrastructure facilities and so that's up to you at and Matthew and who uh co curly this project with me and so we're working on a project which actually presented the very beginnings of possible 40 last year in Poland and so it's really nice to be able to uh be here again now kind of shows some results of the fruits of our labor and show we've done and so the context and
so on here the their and our focus is on Southeast Asia and are focus on Southeast Asia's because that's where everybody lives or at least half the people the half the world live in this circle by population and the 20 megacities within
that circle and all those megacities 13 and sit on river deltas and so you can kind I guess what I'm going to go we nodes asterisk marginal carried and a few of them have experienced flooding in the past decade and so the IPCC recommender recognizes that that flooding will be 1 of the most significant impacts to many cities in the future as a result of climate change because the sea levels rise and precipitation patterns change our ability to deal with all that water inside a mega city but is is decreasing or is at least at this time units in new ways and so there is a large group of people that live there and we're
focusing this project that that is a constant amount Jakarta projects and on the city of Jakarta Indonesia that Indonesia Archipelago over 16 thousand islands and then this is a city of Jakarta so in this matter is the capital of Indonesia resides the population of Australia in the wider conservation and city itself as librarian will therefore 14 million people and this city is served by 30 minutes that flow from the south to the north to the sea and so that causes
quite a problem and so every year during the monsoon season the rains come and the flow the city this is a see duties this is the rank of uh Indonesia running colonies is all the financial district in the city center on all these uh the economic institutions of being flooded because of the city's inability to to manage the movement of water through the city and it's worth noting that last year the city experienced 50 % more rainfall than the previous year so 50 % increase in water and so what's quite nice about this photos this factor which is part of independence our inference monuments in Indonesia we will start with a affects the fountain looking out on the floor the Indonesian outlook on life to be some which between 2 pieces of water because of the chaos going on in the city and so but this
becomes an annual fact of life and during the monsoon seasons people here and evacuating is their houses are being said it is important to realize that this disaster happens every year so it's it's not we're not signed quake which and you can predict to some extent but may happen any time just this morning there was an earthquake in Chile which is close to knowledge there but and this type of disaster happens every year you know that it's coming we know when it's going to and it happens and because of the
features that are shown on this map of the world people that important people in that the problem so the strategy here is close to the city and the mountains in the south and this is ocean now already something like 4 that is at risk from flooding because is below sea level and the city this . roots are the areas that are sinking the fastest and those areas of thinking those areas of thinking up to the work also related prettier will of quality to the year every year and the is thinking is sinking because you ability of of this thinking because not 1 drop of the letter that comes from the reverse is used for drinking so every house and every building in the city of Jakarta has an map with the left has a has a prompt down to the Macrophone abstraction not ground water for drinking purposes and so the city is slowly sinking into the sea so this the wall of the along here and this serializes chair so you go to this to go to the edge of the sea wall which is about this slide here the school was where this guy stop and the and the fishing fleet is above you because the ocean is now out of the city and so you
have this phenomenon are all and density of urban infrastructure in a megacity environment with this very serious and condition of flooding which happens every year and a a condition which is increasing in severity Europe 1 year because of climate change and because of that the densification densification but this is a really interesting image to 1 of the main can also the main rivers in Jakarta and so this is a locked gate which controls the flow of water through the city this is uh the original Dutch uh Duchamp locate built in the 18 hundreds by the Dutch settlers of the city of the target as it was then to this used to be the edge of the city it's it's not the middle of the city and you soon remain an East West Rail aligned the so this is the main train station here which abuts the locked gate and then you see the main north-south road which goes below the level of the water the so this infrastructure density is also another critical factor in understanding why Jakarta's so severely prone to problems when we have flooding and so this image
and typifies the whole absence of the project that we're working on where we have the 3rd condition and then we have an informal economy which has sprung up around the house to these guys have gone about and garbage collectors they undergo but commonly they'll be collected the garbage and Fairmont House but in this case this guy's paying them to give them a lift across the intersection across the flooded at rest so it's important to realize that in a city of 14 million people because evacuate really you have to is move everyone around the driest it's possible at that time what's really interesting about this image is what this guy's doing here His tweeting out then they could you coming to work on this highway guy here just give them you know just give them a couple of the color dollars and now the across the foot intersection In so when this will however and can we use that Twitter
data a social media activity as an indicator of where flooding is happening in real time so these are all the tweets no uh around feminism that occurred with the word flooding and all bunches Indonesian J. 2002 thousand 48 thousand 13 thousand 14 months what's amazing about this image is the density of coverage so the once them to realize is that more than half the population Jakarta have to firms to build a rehab desktop computers but everyone has a phone and tablet or 2 phones or even 3 firms and so arise using social media perhaps like in the west we originally started using SMS and so there is a vast quantity of social media conversations going on in response to the real-time events taking place in the city in this case and that's really fascinating is he can almost throughout the transportation networks of people on their way like that and stuck in a traffic jam because the road is funded ahead and so students to extreme again and that the food has come it and so 1 must must image to see here this is a nice image of
1 of the canals and down at near near the coast and people actually graffitiing with Twitter handle so it's important to realize that Twitter and social media is the always really poppy life in Jakarta by thing what's interesting to note is that an the well what's going on in the city is that people are having conversations about floating but those conversations relevant to the situation at that time and so in previous projects that we see in some of the work done by for example pollution he uh and that might have OpenStreetMap and Patrick Myers group is where they've possibly taken social media activities great if you like to try infer what's going on try and say well if we have a lot of hassling we can't we can just take that information we can make them now approach is slightly different because if you just take it was information if you just take that with handles and that the conversations we don't know if you're talking about voting now all last year or somewhere else in the city so what we did is we commenced with to allow us to send out a message to everyone in the city when you when they said the workflow to the rise in the fund had a conversation about flooding in Jakarta or with this keyword flow you get a really nice message from the same here they talking about for the a being flooded now can you send us the of the flood of you in the butt and so we created I a ratio video which was sent out to
2 million people in Indonesia in Jakarta this year to ask them to tell us about the flooding in real time and that we would put that information on a map so I show you this video see the sweat question and the reason to live in Jakarta bringing together mobile lacking in local flight information this company fled map available in we're alone you to London passes in real time to help you navigate the city wrong that the solutions that you can't have the best information conditions you are already tweaking each other hoping friends and family avoid hazards around the city passenger car uses this on the ground information to give you a comprehensive of like conditions when he sees fled tweet Bengio appended Jakarta and report will appear on the map alerting the community to the flight remember to turn on your friends geo-location so we can pinpoint the report the more people you can stretch Jakarta the better the model the working together we can help everyone bypass flooded areas saving time and avoiding dangers basic pension cottage word to get started and so this is the point that was the point
I got to the end of last year's fossil G presentation in the US like we have this idea Twitter's on board with send out these videos and I can tell you what happened and tell you the
story of flooding in Jakarta during this year's monsoon season from December to March and so we had these wonderful wonderful messages so this is a timeline of Twitter messages through our automated the process of asking these people to convert to this 1st messages just someone you see a saying and study having his recruiting news company 1 1 years to the 1 used in got talking about the Flynn so then he gets a message from us in an automated manner says the flooded it's so activate the geo-location and send your report to us and then check the matter appendage the all and then he says yes Learning 50 to 60 centimeters his the 1st of what's going on in right this is where is my postcode effectively and I'm in north at North Jakarta Zammis in a message by saying I sneaky check out the reports known map and that will be used for MAP is publicly available so anyone can see what's going
on and so then we see an activity uh graph the hand that is of 5 K flowing events and occurring during the monsoon season when people work 6 thousand people were evacuated and and we see the spikes of Twitter impressions as we send out these messages of automatic saying please tell us please confirm and tell us what the situation is on the ground so what do we do with those of reports only get them from the users well we do 2 things but with 1 map to GIS Conference right the reason mountainous someone so the 1st thing is when you visit Jakarta in the city on your mobile device than just like Google or any other proprietary maps yet the blue up shows you where you are and then you see all the plants that are around you so if you going to work over Jake taking the train to school you can see what's going on and so I have to go this way or this this funding coming larger just check in with my neighbors but then if you load the same up on the desktop device you see in aggregate overview activity of as an indicator of potential flooding across the whole city and
so this the design was conceived in response to the government of Jakarta's need for real-time information the prior to this system it took them 6 hours to compile all the 9 1 1 calls and all default formal information about the foot have to produce a map of where the voting was in the city that an action response to send the boats to create an evacuation shelter to send aid to the different villages within the city different neighborhoods and so am a brief word on the
software which is called committed and that allows us to collect the streets and to put in a database and then put them on a map and its free and open source not gonna go into this too much and
I this is really blowing to see even on a fly but so for the system evolves put in database so the output and c on your phone use it for disaster response and so it is a screenshot of the
desktop and not during flooding in January this year and so got the guys are getting pretty well in northeast you can because it was found in parallel and so you can see know the rivers and you can also see also the pumps and the floodgates that control the flow of water through the city now remember I said that flooding was a composite impact of flooding was compounded because of the infrastructure density in the megacities and so what happened this year is because electrocution is the biggest cause of death during the flooding of people going to the water with the electricity is on incident electrocuted the power company often tend lecture the often neighborhoods to state attend power that we know it's fortunately the turn the power to some of the props and so that it could be kind over the evil and so just starts to fill up with is a big ball and so by trying to tell apart after neighborhood attend about the closing a cascading failure and exponential increase in the amount of water that which then proceed to back up into the CBD it's worth also noting that that many of the other government systems that are available for the government to see the emergency management agency to see where flooding is happening in real time Our offline by this point I guess because of the service got quite well luckily was still operational and so we kind of inadvertently became the 1st uh the 1st line of hazard information for the government to see where flooding this happening so here's an
example of if you take them up and then go down and you want to see a specific neighborhood of specific message I can see 1 of these tweets has been but on the map and as a Lincoln apologize eat you can't read it but it's saying someone said yeah and the profiting flooding in my neighborhood and here's a photo that I've taken to focus on the we show that for is
the same map on the mobile device so this is where uh where we are at this point time and then I can see the tweets are I mean I can also see the infrastructure the about uh to give me some and geographical context to the full information I'm seeing from other citizens
and so is a time series of maps for those same 5 key flood events that are shown on the original BioGraph so we can see that by high levels of activity and in in uh February actually the the monsoon came quite late this year the monsoon patterns changing and so the 3 and 4 and 5 were were quite severe and and require some significant evacuations and so over the
whole monsoon appear which is about 60 days we had a thousand of these confirmed the reports of thousand citizens saying yes I would like to say that it's funding there are about 70 thousand users on the website uh and there were over a hundred thousand of the conversations going on in in the city now this is really important to note based on on on we're trying to achieve is that there a hundred thousand uh 2 weeks with global bond here that there in the cables scraping not data just taking an impossibly looking at my say there's a hundred thousand that events was 100 thousand occurrences of people being flooded but what we showed is actually that's not true because a large proportion of these are people talking I OK the news in the media that Oxford where they are but they're reporting about voting so that sending messages not what we about is a real time filtering process to say was 100 thousand conversations which translate to a thousand confirm reports on the ground of of the foot has I think this is really important because we see a lot of people approaching this kind of challenge uh under the guise of Big Data and saying he took we've got a big dataset 100 thousand tweets we need to try and understand so let's teach a machine to think like a human to understand what the tweets that machine learning the all we do is just ask the people who already recovered and say can you tell us a bit footing and then what we're doing is developing Twitter not about the new ought not developing Twitter for emergencies but just using the existing Twitter communication network that people are using the 100 thousand conversations going anyway without us so then after the process of please tell us in a crowdsourcing manner these confirm the situation on the ground and so the information was
utilized by the Management Agency in the control room to make decisions and so
just simple examples of people standing and sending some great actually sent and I think this
is a really nice an example flowline again of of tweets to summarize and the silica management part of my talk Jeremy touched on yet 1 of the things that we're trying to say is that if the citizens can report to the government and the government can report back to the citizens citizens in real time about the disaster and that's really a process of civic co-management through social intelligence so taking a social media network that exist already and we're putting 2 2 players together you probably don't trust all necessary what to talk to each other the government and citizens believe found a way through twitter so that they can have a conversation in real time about what's going on so who is the governor of Jakarta was commenting about the flooding and saying if there is a flood is reported to aspire to enter the Jakarta using the Pentagon system so that the emergency management agency can see what's going on so that we can responsibly concerned about to be considered an age and his love this responsive In this person's and yet there is something happening maybe maybe we could do with in a clear and this guy who injured in the found some sort of magical plug for his path of and this is probably not down the street many now
in the last few minutes of my presentation I just 1 of them and talk about where we go in the future and work we're trying to do this year so that's great and all these people who
were tweeting and this is a system which we can easily access an API geospatial data we can ask people turn on phone sets itself the in the blood of this guy what do we do about all of the other sources of
information that exist for the government in disaster risk management hunt for both preparing for disasters responding to the in real time and then on management of obviously comes after a disaster has occurred and really kind of want to throw this down as a bit of a challenge to the free and open source geospatial community because I think that free and open source GIS officers an ecosystem within which to bring all these things together and we've seen some great presentations and only should such summits from from maps this morning I heard keynote so how we are an ecosystem or world some of the number of parts and that we can work together now with these very mature and stable open technologies to say what we can take that data in whatever format is whatever format is input into some sort of systems that we can understand it and make it actionable and so here is an example of a paper-based report of an area that's been flooded this still being collected during the monsoon by volunteers on the ground and so there's some geospatial information is an address postcode phone number even but these are still being given names of images management agency so what is the system look like way how both this amazing that tweets going on but that also has all these other ancillary sources of information exist the and they guess want
touch on this is a good example so so the community is the worst affected by the flooding in Jakarta the open Paul and that's because all of the high bits of land aware the rich people and so when you arrive to into 2 moved to Jakarta Munich economic migrant you move from elsewhere in Indonesia you come to the city took in and looking forward to the available area of 1 feature below a home office set up home is typically near the river or near the river and so it didn't problem most frequently affected by flooding considered nearest the waterways but many of these communities are incredibly self resilient to a lot of these processes already and so we see these communities independent of the government or independent of any uh agent after outside of the community developing processes of community resilience and so this is the main street the you can walk this Ministry of this community and now they do is they put this rope kind because the federal becomes really fast and it's dark and the powers been turned off you know if you need to go out and get on the rope line people itself the safety and everyone in the community agrees that if you go that way then it's going to go to a hops to high ground and you again we see now the government
response to flooding is that which is great it's fantastic it's about it's well you need welfare it is very strong material conflict between the proposed on the boat and the red line so when the Government goes to rescue the people in the community that are most affected by the flooding they override the 2 systems clash with each other and the override existing approaches and community resilience because they cut the rope line so what can we do well
can we make a map of where the red lines up before the flood using free and open source you have to then give to the government in advance so they can see in real time they can make the boat drivers they those that are not streetcars as a rope line that you to go around and and so that's what we did we
started to try and do this mapping process but as well as just the the the mapping where the rope lines are we also ask people about how they're impacted by the flooding last year and so
his has enough that this is 1 community which is on the tumor that you can see how it really affected by flooding because they're really in the middle of these 2 big meanders and so that the water comes every year into this red line here is the rope line is the main main street so that you know if you go if you going this way you get a police officer in the on the other hand this corner with the bridge of so we also ask these people
out of time yes if he is now
I want to at the very quick
we also has these people how they were affected by flooding last year and control to people about is after you say hi hi was the flat and when the flood and when the came how you
affected and also try understand those existing process of mapping that already within the community and so many Committee already doing a mapping like is some paper and there is quite a challenge to the you rectify paper maps in the GIS to say well this is the actual representation space you will work on here is in real geographical space
and so here is a map of all that endure rectifies recruit very quick drawing we did in the field and then allows us to see which homes were most affected so that the darkest blue saying this is where the water was hired last year so we can start the planning processes that year and they all this these are the areas that we need to prepare for them
so many and last few so that our proposed system is using open-source GIS so we have a post yes database not building new technologies that they were using what's that we use java script we need you know adjacent to the state how come we all these things together to harness them in 1 way so that the government can see all that information but so can the citizens to make more informed decisions during the flood and so we got different data subsets going on left-hand side and then we've pushing those into the map and then the government can make a decision and then they can push up and new much saying the about some away all of this is where the age of this so this is a prototype of a system that were working on this year and he for the monsoon season in December and the summary of the whole
presentation is that the 1st open source GIS that's going on down here is the true when the technique in the ecosystem that enables citizens and the government to work together and build a process of silicone management for disaster management thank you and in so as to make this 1 of the the the the the power of the union human you so
that the tweet there are other people saying it's footage underground is all about the only national and have you know thank combination well yes so the between individual tweets refreshed every 60 seconds but then aggregates available at 1 hour 6 hours of 12 hour intervals CC even see that rate of the last hour basically anything drill and see what's happened over the last hour their refractories fancy for