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Results of an Evaluation of Augmented Reality Mobile Development Frameworks For Addresses in Augmented Reality

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Results of an Evaluation of Augmented Reality Mobile Development Frameworks For Addresses in Augmented Reality
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Addresses play a key role in facilitating service delivery, such as mail, electricity or waste removal, in both urban and rural areas. Today, preparation of digital geocoded address data in a geographic information system is a reasonably simple task. However, erecting and maintaining address signs in the physical world may take time due to lengthy procurement processes and vandalism or a disaster may cause signs to disappear. Displaying addresses in augmented reality could close the gap between digital address data and the physical world. In augmented reality, a live view of the real world is superimposed with computer-generated information, such as text or images. Augmented reality applications have received significant attention in tourism, gaming, education, planning and design. Points of interest are sometimes displayed, but addresses in augmented reality have not yet been explored. The goal of this article is to present the results of a two-step evaluation of augmented reality mobile development frameworks for address visualization. First, we evaluated eight frameworks. Based on the evaluation, we implemented an application in two of the frameworks. Three use cases informed the evaluation: 1) disaster management, e.g. address signs are destroyed by an earthquake; 2) household surveys, e.g. locating dwellings in informal settlements or rural areas where addresses are not assigned in any specific sequence and signs do not exist; and 3) address data quality management, e.g. validating digital address data against addresses displayed in the physical world. Evaluation criteria included developer environment; distribution options, location-based functionality, standards compliance, offline capabilities, integration with open source products, such as QuantumGIS and PostGIS, and visualization and interaction capabilities. Due to procurement challenges in the use cases, open source licensing and integration with open source products was a strong requirement. Results show that very few open source frameworks exist and those that do exist, seem to be dormant, i.e. the latest versions are not in sync with the latest mobile operating systems. The use cases require offline capabilities (e.g. due to internet downtime after a disaster or lack of connectivity in rural areas), but few frameworks provided such support. The recently published Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Augmented Reality Markup Language (ARML) was implemented in only three of the frameworks. The evaluation results can guide developers in choosing an open source framework best suitable for their specific needs and/or for integration with open source products. In future work, we plan to evaluate the impact of internet connectivity and limitations of sensors in mobile phones on the precision of address visualization in augmented reality in the three use cases.
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OK good morning everyone I and then from the user to no I'm going to present
our findings on the research we did on augmented-reality specifically for mobile devices the focus of the paper was developed at identifying developed an augmented reality framework that could be used to develop a mobile application to solve certain use cases now for those around 2 million with the term Augmented Reality here referred to as superimposing of digital information onto a real-time view of the user surroundings it which is conducted here forms part of a greater research in the that we are doing in geocoded addressing specifically to display in open to predators good for the 1st
cosmic disaster relief in a situation such as this emergency workers would need to get a specific location now street names speak markers or so uh how's that reason be destroyed a situation like this I'm not sure that most likely be destroyed entire blocks of buildings street networks would be making conventional methods of navigation obsolete now in order for their own emergency work to navigate toward location he would axis of sigh data repository and uses information everyday mobile device that obligation would then give him let digital view and allow to navigate toward a specific location without being um from with location
there are certain use case we look at how a sensor-based that we would aid in conducting household specifically in rural or informal areas problems and situations such as this there is no errors infrastructure no official wrote to the official residence connecting from the settlement to another that is quite common so Africa as you can see here we have Alaska Mamelodi which is an informal settlement and you can see the hollow fairly scattered there is no that is more beneficial streets so enumerated could use
an AI winter duality applications such as this signing is the numbers or random numbers to an aerial photograph and updating the data to be augmented reality applications give you a sense of the cognizant the virtual address network or makeshift that is not correct if you will the 3rd
useless we looked at whereas the quality management now this would provide government and is unique method all validating the this data from say a database which had been recently upgraded we updated to physical mark the real world that was his last normally again as you can see these are all valid utterances from some official barracks and addressing very nice to see that there's and this is actually the members and most of researchers spend on duplication and but know so you the application allows us to validate this and this is the you work could go out and specifically assigned a unique assembled the choose 1 of the numbers to be displayed as the official number from the
use cases we identified 4 basic requirements that we selected a framework from 1st of all on the internet access in a disaster situation Internet infrastructure be damaged or most likely damaged or an informal rural areas there would be no internet infrastructures for the application would have to function without the connection it had to be free of charge in emergencies situation emergency workers would and so on would be limited by licensing restrictions that depend on rapid response if they have to work for licensing specific region application would not be as effective as intended last 2 were high precision the framework developed identify between a specific address and adjacent structures now the structures next them and this public in the structures of only I can sit on top of each other and the problem becomes that the application confused intended address with those in it those next the last requirement look that was calculated calculation of distance the user navigation would most likely deployed on foot and having the ability to calculate the between intended address and the user is quite useful tool an example of a problem because
these are favelas just outside of a banner as you can see that they're densely-populated and and they go up an incline making their ability to judge just means and as selecting specific that is quite difficult now the application would have to discern between different buildings and didn't get the distance based on elevation and validation method for selecting
again this frameworks was structured and a phased approach so in the 1st phase we did a brother evaluation and further sensor availability and the activity of the framework that we selected In the 2nd phase did a detailed evaluation of each of the candidate senses and we looked at the general functional and non-functional requirements of each to identify the strengths and weaknesses so in the 1st
phase of the 1st step was to select a node identifier frameworks To do this we 1st looked at an online comparison tool called social
compared from those who have been the 566 possible candidates for phase 1 that the user did or user comments on this website we selected 2 additional framework to be added allowing us or giving of 68 general frameworks force and the rest of phase 1 1st lower than at of the center capabilities so from the 68 the fish original candidates we look at GPS and new senses and eliminate those that did not have the requirements resulting 12 potential viable options for the review of the fragments we look at the website activity of the website and the purpose of the application of the framework now in the situation of and that is quite a broad view override um FIL applications there are many applications for fashion applications and then of course navigation now don't fashion obviously do not need a GPS that is why we eliminated them based on their main focus present us with the final 7 now the 7
move on to phase 2 evaluation which was the date that on debt the evaluation 1st we got a lab and that comes in a modular structure and so we looked at the browser model specifically and toolkit unless there were 2 frameworks included from the user guided comments on social compared the road that the diabetic and Wikitude so made went interface to now I'm just going to discuss some of the results that we found in Phase 2 of the evaluation 1st look at the platform and programming languages these 2 interconnected the former result from that Android and IOS where the main 2 focuses on on the platforms and the limit of of these that was good and these 2 all of the frame of the blood and the the platform supports Android which is only available on Android now the programming languages obviously follow suit with Android being generated and I'll as using Objective C the next objected to the licensing and implement the standards now have heard licensing we found that only 2 of the frameworks for open source a toolkit for I specifically and draw a once you open source options the rest will proprietary offering those forms a freeware I standards I don't know how many of you familiar with multiple it is fairly new standard and is only implemented on 2 of the of the of the frameworks MediaWiki to the rest of the frameworks did not implement the standard I ever specific it open source who were lagging behind in a standard implementation implementations the ability as I mentioned earlier was 1 of the primary focuses we look that's on in areas where we do that do not have an infrastructure or damage inference structures and the ability to access the data offline so here we so that you can do it I was being open source options had the ability to operate access data offline the rest of the frameworks all had capability but required extensive programming in order to alter this seeing as they were preparatory frameworks altering the source code was not a viable option in many cases but it was possible so we have the data sources often the offline availability or the frameworks supplied which the rosary but services as the method of data acquisition no further lambda and we found that and did you all use proprietary methods of acquiring the data the 2nd layer of fat graph and the data was in the native code not independent then in with open source and proprietary frameworks of source was quite easy to implement in this method when entering the good of the provider sister was limited looking at the functional but was that the data displayed the object events and the displacement is of the markers for the metadata display and look that the visual representation of highly edges that would be displayed on the user's view here we so that all of them could alter the display changing the bottles changing the text that with primarily text focus therefore this is bread-and-butter feature for us that it was simplified it's still possible now as you can see the I was 1 of the ones we couldn't alter immediately the problem here is the studies relatively branded specifically provided frameworks they can be altered again but there are problems object events referred to the editing and selecting the data to expand and retrieve more data from the server or from a pre-loaded file if we look at this
example you can see that you with this display radius 1 something to alter the max distance all markers to be displayed this is where the speech again and if the user can change the amount of detail to be shown in this was the radius that can applied to areas of situations the object events and that the display we look at the physical display markers on the screen for instance can detect the change the basic from songs and things like that and the other 1 was selecting marks to expand instead of displaying a house that we wanted to display more such as street address addresses so the I the last of the
functional regular was the visual search function of wild was that was not initially have or descriptor was not selected based on 3 use cases we do derive think that it was useful in applications or it would be useful knowledge of research of visual search refers to using data or edge detection in order to measure the dwellings geometric properties and identifying it based on these properties so here we found the 3 of the frameworks had the capability MediaWiki chewed and airline however that we evaluated the browser and a that is a measure solution so the the the suspension was not possible in the browser margin of going
so so that's a a mistake and the
faster the better it was the functional you look that 1st of all the ease of integration of the church softwares now the idea behind this was to grab capabilities from external softwares and directly into the over into the framework for instance data acquisition would be greatly affected by this if we could use something like those jazz is a primary source of data acquisition unfortunately other the frameworks applied this which was kind of odd as this functionality can be implemented have use the attend implemented the you'll extending the frameworks we looked at the ability to add additional functionality is for instance the distance calculation and if the framework can be altered previous structural would then be nullified or the impact would be less so is anything that research we found that only the to open source options provide this functionality usability and this was the basic installation implementation of a general obligation all the frameworks were easy to use and easy to implement and finally the conditions for functionality now you the this and other harvested divide came into the open source and proprietary networks so the open source was more focused on the user community and the proprietary was more focused on the official had more supply
so the provided we found was between these 2 in the way we are we getting the 2 against each other it's not a versus this is subject to display that open source and proprietary have different strengths and weaknesses we found an open source side air toolkit for I O as used and what which was open source solution and any proprietary networks we look at at the other the other areas at 6 0 and 5 options so here we define that the purpose of open source options had active user communities in could be modified in multiple ways that supply the define availability which was a strong point in their favor with proprietary networks we found that the official support was and was quite extensive but they string across to most of the applications here and the limitations altering the source code counted against the proprietary networks and the preparatory frameworks
so what happened in those we took these frameworks these 2 frameworks specifically we looked at prototyping and University of that is the universe to Pretoria to fragment was selected air toolkit which was for open source options and voted against the fire which was deployed on Android we assess the functionality and actually develop that you applications to display augmented-reality successful or the augmented reality successfully and doing but that this thing we did however find additional problems again an in the community driven projects such as an to get we found that there were deprecated features which require extensive programming to alter and with the dial it became apparent again that altering the method of display was quite an issue also the sensor limitations became apparent which would require further testing future works so for future work what we actually needed was and a new approach to the whole idea of the frameworks 1st of all we we actually need something that also we would ideally need something that can implement the shape file or integrate with an external GIS software such as those just futures and then alter the data now if we have custom libraries and cross-talk cross-platform availability this option would be breaking pretty or the solution be greatly increased 1 of the most important functions that we looked at was the support structure now all the frameworks as you can see there are many augmented reality frameworks but many of them have become outdated and deprecated developers have moved on to bigger things novel Structured support systems something for for instance from GEO would provide augmented reality for future development unique structured legally and organizationally to continue and I'm there thank you very much any questions
the whole if the the the information and this parameter the paper when interest rates in the arm that was so out we'll uracil so homages widely used in the world on years the last of or all 3 on the classes the people the long years the source of form if you or primarily this work was just or more so by reality features in these moving to the right thing so in image which the recognition of the original the last years it's not the the the so the reasons we looked at existing frameworks was because not everyone had a jazz background we specifically look at existing frameworks that uh because there were so many that's 1 of the main reasons on social compare such you can find many solutions to this and not requiring any giant skills or and solutions no programming is this or very little program is needed in most cases so this is 1 of the reasons that we didn't look at Jack as a solution directly we looked at when it is up there instead of creating a whole new and approach to the solution of integral at all 1 of the very 1st thing and they are the yes part of hi disorder recap the the advantages for an emergency responder on the ground to use augmented reality of retrieving not seems seems to be quite complex environments and I wondered if the
spoken to any of them raise respondents in and that like to us serious in the grounding of any cases people equally in in the real world again we didn't speak to any emergency responders directly we did I just look at some of the simple features are more similar obstacles that we have in our company said that to be an advantage in the future self while taking under and things like that so 1 of the reasons well for the business population was specifically because we struggle to navigate toward specific structure in an organized environment and we just work back to something that would be fair and organize environment and the same with the high precision these were just extrapolated from Argentina since all that happened in the field and we applied it to sell to fields such as the emergency workers what is the use of time with the house when in and I have something to their arms family does not want to discuss in the here the project was to that at the I send it in this instance you now looking at of standards with this thing faces not only onto the the environment and this effect the guys from you I something like this the and the like is that also to that 1 of the things that's
um specific limited situations to map that we looked at intermission methods and geisha might be you might be altered for instance the Derain and this is where the augmented reality would also give strength to or conservative institution to the American situation it for an entire network of streets and buildings have been shifted due to something like a tsunami a convention that would not necessarily provide at the solution although could still be used and the user of the map obviously uses an initiative to navigate would situation this would just provide speed to the solution a payment plan just Vermont-based him minimum question so these stays nobody else so weak that won't waste and the other but it is a k desert and then the question is serving here as soon needed didn't have for the name of these hot remember now that I know what part of the it was the same I was like government cautionary tale and not why we use proprietary software right is we have all these developers so far higher we show down there often more support at the start of a research this will we started the research just before the attack was enveloped apple so just as well as the classes of about is uh we don't know for most of the research for this framework we found that it was fairly useful there were limitations obviously and then have through our research before publishing before finishing the paper well this is this friend that when the