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Cartography from code...?

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OK everybody you can hear me like this for speak up like this and have to lean over to good morning thank you for dragging yourself out of the bed after excellent brisket and the year of yesterday my name is land given I work at an international school called ITC which nowadays is part of the University of Toronto which is in the Netherlands actually if you didn't hear that from my day English actions and then I'm going to talk to you about the Carter review from code and it's a bit of a personal story or a novel in called philosophy but that but it's a it's a bit about what got me thinking about how I as a cartographer I am a couch firm not afraid to say that um what I want I uh how my life has changed uh with 2 at the expense of all these tools that you can make you that you can make mapping out of course programming actually so you could also do that for those of you who still are
old enough for spoken strains of our learned to stop worrying and love coding impact the so uh what it all comes down to is that there has been a
big change in personally from for me when I was a student uh and I got talks cartography uh these were my tools I don't know if you if you recognize into the upper left at this roving bands the little ink pens that you could use to make very nice um and even lines so I could actually do that very well my might even lines were never that even know broke thing and other tools like uh let us that you could revolve and stuff like that so purely analog tools but of course uh I was doing this in half of the eighties and the 1st computers were brought into the department tomatoes nowadays quite quite a bit different if I if I do cartography basically I mostly of
make tools with with this which is actually have a scripted in Web storm um but there has been a profound change in the tools that I use and what you what I started wondering uh the last few months years is also is actually made a change to what I make to the that the type of maps I may get a possibilities
well computers were nice 1st at 1st they were certainly not a good alternative if you wanted to get good to print I will recognize this where this has been made with you're at the same or within this is actually made from something Simon which was 1 of the 1st computers programs in the in the sixties it was used uh what was could create cartography actually line-printer sisters big print so this was OK it was nice you could do all kinds of things on the computer would have this it was of a viable alternative of course but nowadays I can do other
things like and it has been proven quite a lot and I can do math like these this by electricity making for a and a magazine Journal of geography and it's actually quite interesting that if you look at it uh it's also quite a complicated man for that is about it's it's interesting interesting about this story that they asked me job 1st year geography students uh to rank uh from the top of the head the distance to the to nearby capitals of Europe and they all perceive them to be um the farther away than they were or closer than they were and that the ranking wrong and this actually was experiment which was done during the seventies and eighties and consistency in the use European count capitals were thought of as being much further away than they actually were and URI then what about this is because as I could turn these people never traveled any think of it as being far away but interesting enough it was repeated once in the year 2013 after the fall of the of the iron curtain and still be instant capitals were perceived as much further away than X you that is method you can make for a magazine and you can make a digitally in it and it looks groups are what I was rather pleased with how it looked but it still wasn't ideal then that is made digitally that is made this the by but basically this is the drawing it actually I did this and illustrate so by the time I also helps at started using the 3 1 of these station nifty libraries tissue they use nowadays so I thought I should actually try
to see what what more you can do if you if you program this instead of drawers and I came up with this thing um which is basically the same
information you still see the answer them in the middle and all the the capital aid actually see because of the nice projection uh possibilities of of the free as my boss work very nicely show them in making notes um so that you can actually see a circle you can draw the circle you can see are fine I really are and they can say well that's the factual distances not see how they were perceived in these in these early experiment by students and you can see this is shifting you could see that order changes your actually missing a little party you could and you can also see how a change from the perception in 2013 so small changes but still uh the main uh let's say that trend this to say and you conceded still those students perceive uh the capital of the Czech Republic Proc much further than via now while in reality it's the other way around so they're still listed as this is nice because this gave me this interactivity it gave a projection possibilities it gave me animation and that these are things that uh the digital tools of now the programming tools could give me that's a real extra for music but trauma of so there was a change in my world uh and
now using sulfur and both of these were used uh making the over made using software the 1 was using Illustrator Inkscape for which 1 I actually used for different uh and the other 1 was go temporal but especially in my in the in the in the let's say the people who draw maps were living small cartographic bureaus people who live in the work and designed uh departments of of of journals and so on uh this is a big difference did is this is what they know drawing the gestures addition to deal with this is really different and this act on program I I'm sure that if probe if if I let a programmer do it it will never be as nice as as it should be etc. so the question
you can actually ask yourself as a cartographer at is that actually possible to to create good got all of you think of the real cartography as we as I would like to make an or is it an
oxymoron it is actually 1 that photograph 2 weeks ago then which actually does ground-based aerial photographic images and and and OK
so the question is can go coders program we got offers a good bottle of should or should gotta refused become coding that this this the question you could ask as an interesting question because it it tells it it lets you look at the tools and what they actually can do for you and also let me think that reflect a little bit on on what I actually think I am if I say I'm a part of
so if you look at trends in cartography you always seen every book handbook about uh mapping cartography you'll that technology and cartography art are very closely and that has been so for for ages actually the technology always influences has influence cartography and away got maps are made the way the data from matches collected etc. but I wanna stressed that I have a you think and if you read the same books you also see that part of it is not the same as the technologies that of is not just a technology that is at least my stance on as the technology does influence cartography or at least very decent certainly influence its tools and that that's very clear but it's not the same we do see that if you if you look at the at the trends in the past that that these cartography uh a it just this influence of technology has always been there in a quite a long time ago when you made a map you made a man was called a manuscript met and if you if guy came in so that's a nice by 1 well and that you had to draw on on because printing was not intended but was invented of also my German bloke and and a you could make 1 that and if it if people like that you could build another 1 and another 1 and another that fake good dissemination of your match became easier right and nowadays you can that's digitally you can just go to somewhere all all put it on the CD are nowadays of course from the web and that this change weighted that we that we reach our customers uh structural forces are quite profound but also the making of the actual matters of course there's always been changed by the technology used to draw things by hand uh maybe later rampant printing game you have to engrave it 1st in Inwood blocks and then uh you use etching on a copper plate and then later on somewhere to what's in like the late eighties you were drawn with these roving bands are so in the in the in begin showed in the beginning and nowadays you construct them digitally or you draw them bitches both are of course in sequence in time to digital drawing with Illustrator and FreeHand loss was there before we could actually go to that's although with a with a bit of the article that you could also even call that sign that meant the thing the digitally coded met because it was actually coded only the Scots the the the prince gotten you had put it in machine and then the line printer maker horrible that nanotechnology therefore clearly influences cartography it's it's really clear that it's schools are always changing and and as a cartographer uh there's not much choice in in in following years that's what what you have to look at actually becomes bigger and bigger because that's another thing that you should note that these new techniques not necessarily mean that your techniques become obsolete that should certainly not to your your your palate of possibilities are actually and became bigger and bigger 48 so if you wanna think about photography and and not being the technology that's for sure for certain tools might be informed by the cut you wanna start or freedom well cartography in my mind and it's it's also because I was trained as a character or for that way is about visualizing spatial data it's a process you might say it's and visualizing spatial data and it's visualizing especially with a certain intent you want to bring across a message I was taught cartography uh in the in the job of the department include that um by Professor and
there it was always set cartography is a communication processing you had all kinds of it is interesting that was the age when when there are all these communication models going about and perception of psychology was an important part of my training of doping down due to a cycle basically off where you had to reality you wanted to show something from this reality a limited part to choose that and and maybe simplify at and and as a cartographer or in your cut off really means maker you have to make choices you have to select things you have to create the actual map and and then you actually gave it to a map using only cell in the map using the same system that create or uh but the map user then of course reason that makes all kinds of assumptions as a trip and frame of mind there for all kinds of the errors creep in uh and uh also of course I forgot to say that the cartographer can make errors or or mistakes or not so wise choices so in the end you end up with a with an image of reality which hopefully uh matches the reality as you wanted to bring it across the the start of it there were all kinds of things that you could learn about psychology perception Cora uh that that you could learn and and get into your skill sets to better or to make this process better but basically it was totally it is totally independent of the tools that you use this study but independent of what do or a couple of phrase and it is of course of independent of what kind of tools and the user uses the CCD map on the screen it also influences the process but it doesn't fundamentally changed and what you actually have to
think of them off of your tool set is not choosing it has to be days it has to be coding it has to be a chef to choose the right tool for the job and that can still because my my my new range of possibilities have gone bigger range from of a sketch manuscript something that just actually draw uh or it could be a website that is fully code so this is
an example I don't know if anybody recognize this map over a small map a neighborhood Osama in suburban America out of a guy then this would actually difficulties that that got went out at nite at halloween and sketch that the the shapes of these Halloween pumpkins and the excitement of them is in in in his name and this is part of a and that last at the
school everything and it's called a narrative less and if you get a chance to to to to look at that as I would certainly advise you to and this guy at last through I think 2004 often just that small neighborhood in very inventive and strange and and and and and very personal weights he wanted to just give a personal impression of what the subproperty lifted a finger was life of what this what what is it's it's all it what it is and for that's certainly the best uh way was doing these very simple with inventive and of often in my idea anyway beautiful hand-drawn maps and yes they were printed later and put in a book I would argue this doesn't need any interactive features this indeed any additional means offer optional but only on and if you have something like this most
people if you will have seen this this the the wind map order the Globex you've come around the carrier of uh this was totally constructed if you go we I want to go have that much sense I want all of demonstrate that there's plenty of possibilities and it can actually I will show that the original is is animated so you can see the wind
patterns moving you can actually uh uh turn the globe around uh and then see and it's
actually a life or cost of model I think the last 6 hours forecast put together and this is for this particular tool of sorry a communique single a much better tool than a hand-drawn that because it gives you the possibility to see the different layers of the of the of the wind so you can actually go in and change all kinds of things like use ownership temperature wind and you wanna see that at the stratospheric level or at the ground level cetera et you can even change again thanks for this nice the 3 projection system you can actually change the way that projected all zoomable and
bendable and set up this is a great tool for this kind of I would argue because it brings
across the story that piece of reality want to show so can go to the cut at thank that
people who program be a cartographer yeah sure of course uh and engraver somebody you could illustrate good an engraving on a copperplate could also be a part but because of the in my ideas just as it's a state of mind is a way of thinking about what you're doing and what you're trying to bring across and the other way around
therefore if I think well as a cartography if I if I'm not I'm and teach cartography as should I look teach my students how to program how to code that and then again the answer should be yes sure uh just as some of the of the uh cartographers of the old and they could agree very well uh at or or use these rotting bands they could use that tool to to express their cultural the and I wasn't very good at it so I personally was very glad to and computer coding a major part of the course is just another 2 compute encoding in this case just that this however mean that in some cases in some process is the creation of maps and that's always creation process which in many cases is not just you as a 1 person doing that with the whole team of people whole uh Journal of uh the sure uh uh do you or whatever you wanna call it uh they the over there that might get a sort of a new role that the cut over now provides tools that implements the cartographic intense you wanna be across the message and you you provided tools to do that you you you create the met either by drawing or coding or attorneys you provide a cartographic knowledge for the schools so you could also become uh have a role as a cutoff in the tool making process and that is something when this thing that neo cartography came about in cartographic circles in in in our uh workshops and our and our conferences people were really getting worried these Unio cartographers they don't know anything about the color of the and they are going to look a lot of and of course uh the more level-headed people size wrote we've always had this is always been people who are not officially got offers uh who do cartography and they might make better bet maps at that if they if we want to avoid that we shouldn't say you can't do that you shouldn't do that we should teach them how to do it properly or and that this with this this coding thing is possible we should provide the cartographic knowledge to the guys who make the schools uh 1 of the things that that this has been so she shown here and we try to also my my students is part be just an example of a tool which anybody could use by pointing and clicking and making quite good maps and the reason the Mets are quite good is because the people who created the tools that use cartographic knowledge or ask cartographer sudden obligated with it it ends up that creating quite nifty quite nice maps even with the default things and even if you just point and click the simplest type of OK or intend so um what you provide as it as a cut or is it should be called actually things like that for your code implementa cartographic knowledge skills what you call now I always go 1 step further because for a total of 4 uh Matisse nice with an atlas is even nicer and the reason why I started thinking and and and philosophizing a bit about all of this is that we wanted to create a digital atlas at 1 station in research project and we actually want to go to things I can have less and less is a step higher than just the map and that this
is actually uh uh so this was the project area for image and that this is actually a
a collection of maps that together scholar story and National Atlas for example tells the story about the Netherlands or you're and here the exit Evans was it it had to be programmed that have to be coded we couldn't just draw maps because it had to be part of the thing we did that is called a spatial data infrastructure for life in the Netherlands like most countries we are creating the spatial data infrastructures geodata infrastructures uh where all the data out of the government and another and connected to is is made available in all these these these guys web services and if you want to use the the output of that in the cartographic manner made maps you should be able to combine the world of of traditional publishers with this traditional with this um quite of computer science oriented to spatial data and the way we set about it this is creating actually something and I won't go
to an old all the details the slides are there is to to work to change a little bit the concept in which traditionally in the spatial data infrastructures maps from a you have these spatial data infrastructure nodes where maybe this this debate and maybe there's there's health data and then that these organizations often have map services like a WMS or whatever or cool they use Google for a background and then if you try to combine those and that is the Mets themselves separately might be for fine-grained maps with a combination of that is always a bit and force because the 2 separate notes I didn't know that this data was actually going to be combined so 1 1 conceptual chains that you should need of such a system is that you have
a short so some kind of a data integration of the region mapping component as it's called here you use actually the mapping is still there so you use no longer than the match services out of these nodes which use the data of services which are almost always also provide and you you do your integration there which your cartographic knowledge that we tried this out in
this sort of a pilot project I want to it into all the details but you can see there's a sort of a middleware layer where where in the made at the time the base maps of the actual categories of knowledge is that has been put a by me and my colleagues and you you you will come June the data from
this from this uh this data layers and we actually do that using at the BFS and the and and tried to get geo Jason out of that if not there's middleware service that
actually uh that actually changes that as a proxy so that those services that only provides you know can be a proxy and and get a G adjacent converted generation there some other services with which I won't go into and the mapping engine then all this data
integration and mapping engine is actually a fully on the client in this case also the there's a d 3 uh basically the free apogee the gold and actually creates the maps and the looks a little bit like this
as so as this a very simple example of the the Netherlands for those who don't go no-go do think of this as a country about 250 formant kilometers retrieved small but you can actually that user subjects like for example uh I want the I don't know the population density per municipality or I wanted something more absolute and I want to the number of inhabitants uh uh as as a natural number and of course you get all these these these typical things like 0 or popups it's tell you how much it actually is so you can do it with with other data also show you can't aggregated data into a provincial level there's also some other types of data this is basically idea and this takes place this is decoded by aversive basically in this getting the JHU huge that's the basic idea of such a thing so that axioms my
story uh because uh what we what did was the reason why some think about was wasn't that we we created the species this this thing you can actually look at at picture group
attributes this and if you were to look at it some of the papers about it and some background information at the national of love in and this is what made me into a decoder as a of i think still think of myself as a cartographer I'm afraid good at coding how was I'm a little bit better at it than I was a drawing with roving bands that uh and I can get by but what of course you can do is such a thing is if you need it at the coder who do this more more than the interesting things more or has to make better coach detection other people could use i can hire coder I can work together with the code and put my cartographic knowledge in there anyway because the codes because the cartographic tool and uh you can actually make it set up and do the things you you want to it's but the figure and distance to go microphone and suicide with the Giants flow chart makes it look like technology is moving back in the
driver's seat and I'm wondering what I'm you get to the big
forgot that I'm I'm
wondering what you're doing is a cartographer push back on all of the complexity that's being introduced there to be able to recreate the the really the the the generating cartography with yeah well what what what what you should uh and think about but if you look at such a thing as a zygote architecture of uh how would cartography lives within the NCI and so this is this is as the I this is type type of thing we teach our students if they have to learn how to make a spatial data infrastructure the actual cartography I would say is actually in in in in this bits the the other scripts this little bit and it's in here because there ain't in the way we said this was actually uh spatial database uh uh database which has all the metainformation of of OK out somebody wants to make this particular matter uh or you you want to give the user the opportunity to make this map I decided as a couple that map was 1 of the useful possibility 40 Adler for is editorship and they're still and I then set uh and outputs somewhere in that the database if the user wants to make that man has to actually uh click the button and what happens is that the data should be governed life on this particular service uh create using this particular service call and all that kind of thing that's totally that's not the cartographic part but can't get partisan and if you match it it should be met because this type of data that should be met in this call arrangements size symbols or with call cholera the ramp or whatever those kind of decisions are made in you download made automatically at this stage the content of the knowledge just has been in their statically for is the they die this services change I have to change the the the the the set so it's very actively putting it is like an editor who compiled this data and a locally and and and set it to his drove draftsman now draw this map but this time it's formed from so the cartographic knows is actually really in the in here and in the the actual uh you have a script that creates a that the the action of war I was going to
ask you to turn back to that was page that everyone probably remembers that I I just have a challenge for everyone in the audience I have
tried to implement leaflet style plus and minus buttons indeed 3 so I pulled out all the mark I pulled out all the CSS and for the life of me I couldn't figure out how to implement a plus and minus buttons that look like leaflet inside the 3 and since my applications need needed that light back out of the great is of anyone's able to implement I would be happy and Roswell on get might have to digital be free and it's a tool that actually we actually quite nicely combines with other tools judges use leaflet and the 3 for the things you need the free for you life not are examples of that around a contract that you and I think I had some projection issues of projective you let let's be honest moving cuttlefish can do is talk about projections I
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Titel Cartography from code...?
Serientitel FOSS4G 2014 Portland
Autor Köbben, Barend
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung 3.0 Deutschland:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
DOI 10.5446/31745
Herausgeber FOSS4G, Open Source Geospatial Foundation (OSGeo)
Erscheinungsjahr 2014
Sprache Englisch
Produzent FOSS4G
Open Source Geospatial Foundation (OSGeo)
Produktionsjahr 2014
Produktionsort Portland, Oregon, United States of America

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Informatik
Abstract Nowadays we see, specifically on the Web, maps that are interactive, creative, as well as beautiful and effective. And more and more these maps are no longer "drawn", by hand or computer, but "coded". Programmed. In this talk we show that with modern programming tools, such as the popular D3 API, the results can be as good or better, even to the most discerning cartographer. And we discuss the question "can programmers be cartographers, or should cartographers become programmers...?"
Schlagwörter coding
cartography
mapping API

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