Community Health Mapping


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Community Health Mapping
Title of Series
Menke, Kurt
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FOSS4G, Open Source Geospatial Foundation (OSGeo)
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Open Source Geospatial Foundation (OSGeo)
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Portland, Oregon, United States of America

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This talk will cover a FOSS4G case study in which a workflow was implemented in several minority public health organizations in 2013. The three organizations were: 1) the Urban Indian Health Institute (Seattle, WA), 2) Papa Ola Lokahi (Honolulu, HI) and 3) The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii (Honolulu, HI). The end users were not GIS professionals but public health staff. Such community based public health organizations do not typically have dedicated GIS staff or budgets for GIS. However, they have each identified mapping needs. The overarching goals of the project were to demonstrate that FOSS4G tools could be effective in minority public health applications, and that they could be used by non-GIS public health staff. Therefore, a focus was placed on identifying the most intuitive and low cost solution meeting their needs.The workflow started with field data collection and included spatial analysis and online data presentation. Field data collection was performed using smart phones and tablets that the end users already owned. Analysis was done via QGIS and final data presentation was done via GIS Cloud. Training sessions were conducted and support was provided throughout the year. However, each organization was able to use the tools with very little follow up support. Each project produced good results, and each is planning on continuing with additional projects in 2014. The workflow will be introduced and results of the three case studies shared.This work was funded by the National Library of Medicine's Division of Specialized Information Services via their Outreach and Special Populations Branch.
Case study
public health
data collection
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right what on Amontons Kurt minke with bird's eye view GAS located in Albuquerque New Mexico and this can be a talk about on a case study that involved in the last year and a half or so the and so a project of the
National Library of Medicine and if you're not familiar with them they're part of NIH and they have the division of specialize information services focusing on data and within that they actually have an outreach special populations branched and their goal is to improve access to data by constantly minority Public Health organisations
so our project focus was therefore empowering minority populations and working with these minority Public Health organisations so the use of and collect a lot of data and they have very small budgets lobbies organize organizations or nonprofits and they don't typically have like a dedicated GAS that some of the bigger ones may but I'm typically if there's any GIS presence in these organizations is because 1 person happens to know a little bit of GIS from school and a you know the task doing maps for people and things like that and then the 2 billion of using art GIS but these organizations also on coordinate with smaller community groups that they serve and this community groups certainly don't have any budget for GIS so they have mapping needs but they don't have a lot of resources so we're trying to come up with as a scalable effective mapping system for these folks to use so all the limited resources
and did really wanna build the wheel and we didn't have a budget for development so we want to leverage all the existing tools that are out there and see if we could string those together in an intuitive workflow from community collection all the way to data presentation for these groups and then this would empower them because they'd be able to collect and control and manage their own data this so in 2012 we set out
to try to identify the suite of tools that we were going to use for this and so are target audience are public health workers so it's a very non-technical crowd so you know kind 1 of my metrics I was thinking about this was a case could my parents use these were not talking about GIS analysts and things like that word is you people that on Oct have never taken a GIS class before and things like that and so the war think about as mobile apps for data collection desktop GIS on of kind of basic level and then web-based tools for display and for hardware from
we decided to this use smartphones and tablets and for the kind of community data mapping were talking about we don't need survey grade GPS accuracies and the thing about smartphones and tablets as everybody has some already the intuitive they have in a nice interface portable GPS receivers obviously but that is in from 5 that device as it accesses the Glonass Russian consolation and GPS constellation for locations of the camera and you know there's an app for that and so you know us think about this and they're really smart phones are better than the Tri quarters you know that I grew up watching on the old Star Trek notion major so you know
the 1 we get 1 on to do a survey for which mobile apps to use for this and I discovered not too surprisingly there's just a dozens and dozens of apps for data collection and mapping and GPS but we needed them to be really easy to use we need them to be able to set up a custom data collection form from more customer attributes for what they're in a collect ideally free and open source or at the very least low cost and thus we decide on 3 apps through this first one is kind of an outlier because this
is not false in fact it's the most expensive applica purchased by a long shot it's to 199 dollars for the pro version and they did turn out to be a great after so it's basically a lightweight GAS for an iPad and it's it's really good at data collection most the data-collection apps we ran into would the lightest a map of point data but this large you point line and polygon edit the data on the app to incorporate photographs so
here's a and screenshot on the iPad of collecting data on that left-hand readable are the attributes that in this case we set up to enter and in the lower right-hand corner there's even an edit button so you can edit the data on the map the the here's a
shot of digitizing a park boundary mapping a park boundary With the iPad incorporating a photo what yet just walking the perimeter of the iPad and the then if if you lose signal or somewhere and outlying vertice vertex shows up the apparatus that edit tool so you can you clean that up at the end and this is there's 2
licensing levels with this and the real difference between the 2 is how you get the data off the device the GIS progression which we went with a larger export shape piles and the taken photos to find include the photo in the attributed to some hyperlinking afterwards when you pull into a GIS so we want with the GIS pro version so the next
that we are really liked was at the collect this is designed by and by some epidemiologists as the name implies so was for Pirelli for a public health applications it is false it's for from IOS an Android and you basically go to their at the collect . net website you can set up a free account and they have an online form designer and you can you know after a few minutes you can get up to speed to that develop your own custom data collection form which can be dropdowns or notes of all the different kinds of FIL data question might envision then you can sink with the AP on your phone near
the tablets and then go start collecting data so this is what it looks like on an iPhone here with them some data collection fields to enter and once you finished a data
collection with this you can just hit the sync but button 1 year in the Wi-Fi network birth so arrange it sinks and upload your data to the site and you can be either you can look at the map data on the AP on your phone or you can look at it on your account online and the data can be downloaded as this the comma-delimited text while or the XML to bring into a GIS and the 3rd 1 we found
chose was OTK collect let your point about this 1 is my from my favorite this is I'm only available for Android and usually works with this companion website form of and like Eddie collected and go on to form of set a free account and this users and Microsoft Excel to set up your data collection form so that the template excel file you can download it's really super intuitive and easy and um same like at the collect you upload your data collection form to the site and then you can sink that with your decay collect out clicked data and once you're done you can download the data from the form of account in a variety of formats the text files excel or you can download all photographs KML it's a
really nice and this is what it looks like on an Android tablet it's a very streamlined simple Apple just a few buttons 1 for downloading the form that you developed on form of the 2nd button for entering data and then the 3rd for sinking that not putting it back when you're done and this is what the initial data collection screen looks like you basically just start swiping across the screen and and come across each question you need to answer at that site and including photos from the coordinates of the spot and things like that and then you're done it's a very easy use so it has been a
long time and this we can set them up with Q just once the obvious choice from this miserable realize here and so in a lot of people a Mac users really appreciated they could you know install a strictly the max the
and the other top category the work with was what we wanted to set them up with an online site for data sharing so they could build on online maps and share that were inserted into a blog post or something like that but with each other and there's a lot of great web mapping platforms out there like harder DB and mango map in that box but we need to be really intuitive really easy 0 coding no software installs just all point-and-click based so what we ended up going with with GIS Cloud and
has a map pure and the the free account has some data limits but it's and it was workable and if you have to buy and sign for a subscription account is like 15 dollars a month so it was really affordable for these groups and then incomes of the Data Editor and some simple analysis functions the when we were found working last summer this was out but now they developed a data collector at for as well and have an API that you can use with GIS cloud the so if you're using the data collector up any data we collect gets uploaded your cloud account
this is a screenshot of the map viewer they have a lot some all the common base maps you can bring in under the data some good symbology tools and again it's all point click and you must do figures out half an hour broken around which is what we're looking for the on the end you know like
hugest I'm it's fairly intuitive but it has enough tools of people wanted to really take this the next step in there's there's since extra things in here like the editing the come to the poster just database so you can import your data what is uploaded in the post yes and from there that allow a suite of simple geoprocessing tools available on my generating heat maps for interpolating points into a roster on geocoding data by buffering and then most importantly map publishing which is what we're interested in you can give someone a direct URL to your interactive map of if you wanted to you could serve as WMS or the if you have others in your group web GIS Cloud account you can share the map directly with them through that platform the so in
2013 and we set out to identify partner groups that we wanted to test this whole suite of tools and workflow with so they had a working this minority public health arena obviously for us and we wanted groups that had some capacity in some data internally to work with and the we also wanted to have some kind of demo project that they could have implemented so and part of that was probably having a community volunteer pool folks so they could leverage to do the data collection so we trained them up last summer we did that train the trainer method where we would train 1 person in each area and then they were trained community volunteers on how to use the tools and allowed us to implement and test the workflow so this is who we worked
with work urban Indian Health Institute in Seattle they want to do a study noise pollution study and then 2 groups analyzes another also part of this project is the guy pay to get a wider couple times so we work with proper kind which is the Native Hawaiian Health Board and in concert with the university up there and then the Nature Conservancy of life the the the so and the
results were 3 case studies and you we're really more interested in the process then the project outcome for the most part we wanted to get their X your feedback on their experience using all this and see how how it worked about is wanted a good project as well as possible on but that was not the sole focus on the final reviews are generally all positive must what a pretty good experience with this I would say that pure okresie involved in getting these folks even to use free software to the organization's was a bigger role than the actual technology and and in working with Q just so you know these people are GIS specialist so on most of them found a little challenging to work you know to do to be on the basics of Q just I think in term having 1 person from being the data manager working with chitosan GIS cloud and then using the volunteers to do the data collection is probably the best model so going through this
first one and with public kind they wanted to do a community survey of obesity factors in their native wine communities yeah so we had
3 groups and so we and 3 collection out so we wanted to try out we said each group up with a different out we set them up with at collect and they use the iPhone's and then Q just GIS cloud so this is on
they they were pretty progressive that this some of the students at the university were really excited about this so these q just to generate their study area boundaries so they pick 7 native Hawaiian communities in buffer this by a mile on those of the the survey areas shown in purple here yes and this is an
example of 1 of those communities that they surveyed and Kohala and so they were not identified his 75 or so points in here that worked on you could be related to obesity so either on the negative side with fast food restaurant locations or the positive side with GM's and outdoor recreation opportunities the and they generated a
spin-off project and the got pretty excited about this technology and there been of community votes there that had wanted to maps of the ancestral knowledge and so they are and worked over the last year to map the winds in the reigns of the Big Island of Hawaii if and on which if you haven't seen it might sound kind of funny and but they they consulted with their elders the heated to do this and this is the 1st time this sort of information is ever been put into a modern digital format in their super excited about it so this
is the name grains of the Big Island of Hawaii and it's about a hundred different named ranges a huge database a goes on with this with all sorts of characteristics of and related to their spiritual practices behind this the light great divisions on the map of the OpenNLP Paul which of the aboriginal land divisions and on each island so each family group would occupy 1 of those areas and would provide enough resources historically for the community and then the pink areas the purple areas are the current made a point the
and this is named winds of that island and
I'm yet should have labeled them
and the know here's the named range you get kind if you can all either the west coast is the counter coast so a lot of those are the the rain's coming in there and some the winds are related to that but I don't I happen to have the rains and for the winds off
the top of my head but I can get you that if you're interested in with other 3rd project was
about others Nature Conservancy no 1 this was a that it's on we didn't seek out but we have met someone out there about this to be a good person to work with a person is working on native medicinal plants of the islands out there 2 words on gathering Almanac of botanicals and it was kind of ironic because of unity and see the heavy users of our yes they have like 2 thousand are curious licenses for the organization but this particular researcher has been using pencil and paper for years and so this was a good opportunity to get him off of that and using some modern technology so we set
him up with his Android phone and OTK collect and using just and you have brought in a little late into the process
so he's completed is data collection here a couple photos of areas he's been too but is behind schedule on compare other groups in terms of bring and acute and from doing anything else with at this point but he I think like that the modern conveniences this and the 3rd group was urban Indian Health
Institute so they are some are pretty progressive group and they want to look at noise pollution in of American Indian dominated neighborhoods and so there's a lot of studies have shown that noise pollution can cause a lot of long term negative health effects like hypertension heart disease diabetes and so they set out to survey this that you we set them
up with them and I've had many GIS pro on the user noise after the researcher noise out for iPad and came up with 1 worked really well and then Q disingenuous cloud yeah the this is the
noise meter is the 1 that got the highest reviews if you're interested this 1 seems to go on produce really pretty accurate results even against expensive noise meters only cost 3 dollars and 99 cents the that this is the initial mapping
producing Q just showing their noise monitoring points by decibel reading and then so per capita income information underneath that and they did set up a protocol for this so they visited each site multiple times morning afternoon and evening to get an average decibel reading for the spots so
moving forward where I'm looking to provide ongoing support for these projects this everyone's pretty excited about this and has come up with several other ideas that they would like to start working on now that they can have an empowered with this technology and we're also looking for additional partners in this arena minority Public Health so help support everyone were authoring a blog we just stood up this summer called community health maps as the URL here Community Health maps . nl and at NIH that go and in addition to the blog we posted all of our training materials and reports on here so it's all freely available to anyone who would want to use it word is try keep everyone abreast of new developments and new tools they might wanna use new approaches and while some of the groups and posting them blog posts of their experiences as well it right thank
so that I can take any questions of are but is as that you on this raise your hand if you have 1 in the seminal come by with the microphone and so we can hear your question I'm wondering a little bit about confidentiality of health data so it seems like most you examples you using things that are relatively choice a generic and not individually specific and you're using a lot of freely available a cloud-based the repositories for the information so you see that is it seems to me that would be a hang up if you're collecting something that was more of a sensitive a personally identifiable information so is that it's kind of a break in your methodology there of up to a point we can use these things and then after that you have to go to some thing else well yeah that's a good point with with but that the we we definitely there's confidentiality is an issue and so it's really up to these groups how they what they wanted to have their own data and how that gets presented and to comply with but especially so the Privacy Act so so yeah these were you know fairly generic examples that would prove the workflow but not reveal anything like that at the newly internally they're very much aware of that issue and most of these groups and you know that all the time so you you you know like again we don't have any ownership many this were defined tournament technology so they would I make that decision on what what and how they wanted to share information it in your mind could this could this suite of tools and technologies be used for confidential absolutely I mean the sharing of data online is 1 thing but collecting data and then using internally and at and using cutest analyze it I think has no issues in our but how under the training to become a various tools like variable hours yeah it was really on about half a day In most sites and then they would have to spend some time on their own and a boning up on the workflow and training others but it was pretty quick hi than we had we do use in similar projects and 1 of the biggest roadblocks presses been like the distinction between displaying and make new interesting information actually banning analysis on it did you get feedback from any of the partners about wanting to ram more sophisticated analysis by being frustrated with key arson mineable to make that jump yeah absolutely their their imaginations that way bigger than a still set at this point so that is something that you know working moving forward and I'm kind of i've been hired to basically help them if they have things they want you can figure out how to do this point and and some of them are actually enrolling in GIS courses so they can bone up on the skills the excited about it but that is the biggest roadblock is having training so that they can actually do some of those things they envision and terms of and maintaining the data but did each system run off of a different database server however most organizations storing back yet most of these organizations to storing it on 1 computer light on a server minute there 1 day workstation dedicated to tedious and and that's where it is right now so it's pretty simple and you know they do have organizational data on servers and at some point I think you'd like to pull that in and do some analysis so that as you know 1 of the things that they're going to need some help with it so what if you could talk a little bit about your personal opinions on at the collective versus is a form of the incline I thought some other every collect was was OK but I thought it was a little clunky to be honest with you and I thought that the body K collect was much more elegant and simple use more powerful is easier to access the data on OTK collect after the fact in terms of photos at the collective was around the photos can reside on the server not answer can figure out a way to get the photos off who of that the collect you get all the data on but the phones themselves to be stuck on the site is with OTK collected can just download them all as a file thank you and what was it online offline capability for collecting data like in a cell phone service to store collected with yeah with with an iPhone for example on Android phone you don't need to have cellular service to the GPS to work so i'm as long as you're in view of satellites then you can use the GPS function any smartphone or tablet and then you upload the data when your back within range of a network and thank you very much


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