Geospatial-Semantic Knowledge Management and Linked Data for Humanitarian Assistance

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Geospatial-Semantic Knowledge Management and Linked Data for Humanitarian Assistance
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The challenges to sharing knowledge during humanitarian events are well documented. Of these, the lack of effective and meaningful communication between all actors in an event is the root cause of many of the inefficiencies that hinder the ultimate goal of relieving suffering and rebuilding societies. This presentation outlines an approach for applying semantic knowledge management, ontological rules, and Linked Data approaches to address these issues. We introduce semLayer, a geospatially-enabled Semantic MediaWiki prototype application with mobile and wiki-based collection components, built using open source constituent technologies. We will discuss specifically the integration of PostGIS as a data store, and how this approach compares to open source triples stores/frameworks (e.g. Apache Jena) that perform geospatial operations using the GeoSPARQL specification. We will then move into considerations of integrating micro-, domain-, and upper-ontologies and vocabularies, and defining rules that govern relationships between data and entities, including geospatial attributes. We will close with a discussion of contributing to a disaster response use case with a Linked Data approach.
Keywords semantic annotation geospatial data PostGIS semantic reasoning mobile application scalable web deployment ontology humanitarian assistance
Area Point (geometry) Suite (music) Meta element Information management Information Computer file Civil engineering Interface (computing) Execution unit Plastikkarte Coordinate system Shape (magazine) Incidence algebra Cartesian coordinate system Semantics (computer science) Data management Personal digital assistant Military operation Physical system Spacetime
Building Presentation of a group Context awareness Serial port Multiplication sign 1 (number) Perspective (visual) Fluid statics Mathematics Lattice (group) Ontology Software framework Series (mathematics) Descriptive statistics Physical system Identity management Oracle Mapping File format Relational database Data storage device Sound effect Bit Web application Data management Arithmetic mean Data model Summierbarkeit Cycle (graph theory) Spacetime Divisor Link (knot theory) Civil engineering Data recovery Virtual machine Event horizon Field (computer science) Latent heat Term (mathematics) Form (programming) Linked data Domain name Standard deviation Dependent and independent variables Matching (graph theory) Information Cartesian coordinate system Semantic Web Human migration Software Personal digital assistant Predicate (grammar) Object (grammar)
Discrete group Web page State observer Mobile app Open source State of matter Connectivity (graph theory) Multiplication sign Open set Web browser Mereology Semantics (computer science) Perspective (visual) Element (mathematics) Wiki Revision control Mathematics Different (Kate Ryan album) Operator (mathematics) Representation (politics) Extension (kinesiology) Computing platform Software development kit Form (programming) Mobile Web Dependent and independent variables Information Knowledge base Content (media) Evolute Category of being Integrated development environment Object (grammar) Freeware Spacetime
Web page Laptop Game controller Building View (database) Multiplication sign Set (mathematics) Semantics (computer science) Wiki Revision control Videoconferencing Energy level Data structure Extension (kinesiology) Information security Physical system Form (programming) Authentication Dependent and independent variables Information Weight Shared memory Data storage device Division (mathematics) Tablet computer Category of being Data management Process (computing) Integrated development environment Personal digital assistant Library (computing)
Point (geometry) Web page Purchasing Complex (psychology) Group action Sequel Multiplication sign Decision theory Semantics (computer science) Dimensional analysis Attribute grammar Wiki Operator (mathematics) String (computer science) Touch typing Cuboid Extension (kinesiology) Physical system Area Addition Electric generator Mapping Inheritance (object-oriented programming) Bit Instance (computer science) Category of being Query language Predicate (grammar) Resultant Geometry
Web page Context awareness Link (knot theory) State of matter Canonical ensemble Semantics (computer science) Wiki Web 2.0 Different (Kate Ryan album) Representation (politics) Extension (kinesiology) Physical system Linked data Namespace Content (media) Shared memory Instance (computer science) Cartesian coordinate system Equivalence relation Category of being Arithmetic mean Order (biology) Self-organization Right angle Finite-state machine
Web page Group action Building Open source Function (mathematics) Mereology Semantics (computer science) Formal language Attribute grammar Wiki Bit rate Different (Kate Ryan album) Extension (kinesiology) Associative property Mapping File format Interface (computing) Cartesian coordinate system Semantic Web Category of being Arithmetic mean Data management Personal digital assistant Query language Order (biology) output Resultant Spacetime Library (computing)
Point (geometry) Greatest element Knowledge base Open source Electronic mailing list Virtual machine Archaeological field survey Canonical ensemble Perspective (visual) Revision control Type theory Arithmetic mean Different (Kate Ryan album) Personal digital assistant Operator (mathematics) Representation (politics) Pattern language Finite-state machine Resolvent formalism Probability density function
Point (geometry) Group action Sequel Mereology Latent heat Bridging (networking) Operator (mathematics) Touch typing Cuboid Extension (kinesiology) Shift operator Graph (mathematics) Information Relational database File format Data storage device Database Cartesian coordinate system Semantic Web Graph theory Type theory Word Arithmetic mean Personal digital assistant Chain Statement (computer science) Geometry
Context awareness Presentation of a group Group action Multiplication sign Open set Mereology Semantics (computer science) Food energy Different (Kate Ryan album) Data conversion Extension (kinesiology) Physical system Enterprise architecture Email Mapping Shared memory Data storage device Sound effect Category of being Type theory Data management Self-organization Right angle Quicksort Figurate number Reading (process) Web page Point (geometry) Purchasing Trail Mobile app Game controller Connectivity (graph theory) Rule of inference Field (computer science) 2 (number) Representation (politics) Energy level Form (programming) User interface Authentication Dependent and independent variables Interface (computing) Content (media) Database Calculus Cartesian coordinate system Semantic Web Integrated development environment Personal digital assistant Query language Resolvent formalism
area M I talk to you today about geospatial semantic knowledge management with the
humanitarian assistance use case so the work that I might die but today has been done on in coordination with the Office of Naval Research at large presentee effort and specifically we when working with the United States Marine Corps civil affairs units so the guys rescinding David ask of shape files in the middle the nite that was the guys we work with directly now and specifically what we've been doing with them is to help build an information management systems I where they didn't have 1 before so typically the way that these guys who were the suit the Civil Military Operations interface is people who run interface populations way they're managing their information up to this point was typically through PowerPoint e-mail all those 2 ways it is not good so where trying to help them out with that and along the way build them and smart applications Inc it's some of the problems of dealing with the but meta incidents systems space so so why a semantic knowledge
management applications a lot of applications that are static data collection work really well in this use case if you have specific forms you could put those into relational data store networks find I'm very few here is a little bit larger because they don't just respond to disasters with specific forms and there are often involved with the mitigation efforts to take place so if you look at the disaster management cycle emergency management cycle others mitigation efforts preparedness then there's the response efforts and then also recovery mory's actually respond there participating all these efforts so they necessarily respond to collect against as static forms as we might think and so the ultimate goal is to be able to traverse something of a knowledge a lot of these entities that they're out there evaluating BA buildings are when they're talking to building owners are 1 there evaluating an IDP camp or something to that effect these entities that are related 2 other entities related space the related time in their related semantically as well so there are tributes they are shared across these entities so of is not going to snow or to figure out a and to represent how but that they are linked but how the links can potentially widely and that's something we can actively working toward and the ultimate goal is to promote not just data sharing the also understand so it's 1 thing at a match a map which is is useful in some context but some that understanding is some that meaning behind the data doesn't always come across fully and that's where these applications can be supported so we're definitely standing on the shoulders of giants in terms of what's available for us to use in terms of tools and there are a lot of really well supported formats and standards that really lend themselves to a Semantic Web application unlikely the building for the marines so Resource Description Framework is kind of the the the factor data model for oracle triples so really flexible ways of storing information identities it takes the form of a sentence the other subject you have a predicate which describes comic over and then there's some value that is relating the subject to the object and so there are a lot of standards that support these sum the lattice serializations that support these as well and this is where we can build up and as web application and using summaries is RDF-XML series nations and some emerging ones actually really promising so you'll hear a lot about Jason in G adjacent of this particular event but their movement afoot to you add Linked Data contextual knowledge to those you adjacent to realizations which is really exciting because you can use really efficient formats you can also keep the context and the meaning of something like an ontology and so again all goal is to facilitate not only human understanding but also machine understanding which conveys to him so the 2 ways to view the world and definitely to is in the Mediterranean world 1 is articles role assumption this typically works well if you had a relational database system because anything that's not in your schema doesn't need to be there it doesn't really exist as far as your application is concerned and but the humanitarian world and the civil affairs world is is pretty different all of these forms that have been developed the might change and we don't have to have a schema migration every time we we do a form change so and ultimately the the Marines and and their partners are learning better questions asked when they go out and do these field assessments so we wanna keep is flexible as we can support that workflow so new knowledge can be right in the as its learns in both in terms of how the information collected and then I manually or automatically added to the their assets a so
little bit about what we've done so far in this domain from a technical perspective and then as we go further along we'll talk about how the Marines found what they're actually doing with this and then and how I would support a couple the use cases so this is an open-source conference and
we use a whole lot of open source components from a caveat that because and I'll show you in just a 2nd what but we use MediaWiki as of are based platform for managing information and an extension that I called Semantic MediaWiki so if you've ever worked with Wikipedia that's MediaWiki yeah sunny wiki but that's of MediaWiki Foundation uses a platform the semantic pieces allows you to add discrete data elements to pages so here about the ban on Wikipedia you'll see that you can add content to a page for that content tends to be in free text in free text is not searchable free text is that's not that's not search was not very easily searchable so Semantic MediaWiki Extension was the response to that I we use so oppose Chris pushes back ends for reasons we didn't and 2nd and then on some call the Open Data Kit for Mobile the mobile application we've rapidly diverged from that base so if any of you decay offense evolved the
so why wiki I wikis in general are really good for the kind of situations that's humanitarian operators face so they're designed for distributed data collection where there are a lot of users all collaborating about 1 or more elements so this takes the form of wiki page 4 people are talking about something an initial collection of place meant a place where they you described for the 1st time now that's something that can be discussed this is flexible it supports are open world assumption so you can add new pages as you want you can add new properties to the pages as you discover them and it's traceable and you can maintain history in this is really important this is worth something like GOTA is that a valuable contribution to the spaces that you know you have different people in different versions of your observations of states in a change over time the things themselves might change over time see 1 you will to track that and understand the evolution of a particular object in your environment time debate in discussions become part of the knowledge base and this is something that you do if you do get a Wikipedia I find that often the discussion pages of the talk pages are almost as interesting as the actual content pages themselves because that's how you actually see the evolution of the discussion representation on the Wiki pages have like that the maybe final verdict about what that thing is all about but this session we get there can be equally important and then I'm just from a practical perspective I'm using is accessible for web browsers can access from a mobile browser and you can read mobile so we
had a lot of on wiki-like features because this is a department defense capability on we added and access control managers so we went through a process called icaps which if any of you've gone through it and I commend you but basically we needed to do is have a way to keep wiki pages on this all to some people may are visible to other people so at the page level this isn't too big of a problem but as you get down to the property levels this is where becomes a lot more difficult so we added support for that and use case for that is is that so the Marines will share their information some people but they're not in a share with just everybody and I wanna share everything so there are certain cases where an NGO might have access to this in my view we get some information but not all the information because finding relevant and so we built an Android app that as as a before is 80 OTK variants and we had a lot of support for the 2 columns fully hiding the the data on the device which caters as new and then some authentication measures so we had its some some security features to this particular occasion so the mole their collection piece
is supports the workflow by having mobile devices the tablets mobile phones merely give data into the system so this is a a common situation when responders go out is they may or may not have a divisive video device they need to be able to collect globally unitary laptop we've currently built this on the Android OS and it conforms to some cement what's an extension semantic media wiki called semantic forms so weighted structure information and template out into forms that can then be rendered on Wiki pages in a in a fairly controlled manner and this also as you download form library library that's and k I've activity where you have a a set of forms and the Marines have a set of forms that they used to go out and do things like a building assessment her to do things at the school is a structured forms of exists and if they do change and they can go in and download it the newest version of that form there is a form library that's manage from central I was does support connected and disconnected collection that's kind of just a no-brainer throughout in a disaster environment you're probably not can become connected real go collects and over the course of time and be able to submit once to get back to the and so
being here's conference 0 talk a little bit about how we extended the the geospatial features of Semantic MediaWiki because you know representing something in on a wiki page on a map there were extensions to support that we need a little bit more because those tended to support point features but not more complex geometries In addition actually querying against those data was pretty difficult because if any of you actually work was cement in the Semantic MediaWiki are the only way to really build a query is through wiki text which is of difficult enough for super users but it's not something we would ever ask your regular use it to to do edges just would be very well application and so we built and supports and for those seeking action and generate queries across multiple 2 dimensions you can do your typical semantic queries which your attribute queries I and then you can add Due spatial and temporal dimensions to that and so there was a design decision because Semantic MediaWiki and the wiki ships was my sequel but bicycles so was last time I checked which was probably not very recently the the geospatial support for my skills not very robust so we need something more than bounding boxes urge we knew actual geometries to be to be used during the search and so what this means is you can represent the geometries as wiki page properties so the the pages that are describing something can have a geometry and that's accessible as a property on page and so again this is so with the WKT string and they then gets processed using posters on the back and using the common posters operators so another benefit of this is that for your wiki pages you can also have dynamically calculat calculated properties so things like within things like intersects you can calculate those and those become properties endorsement of Newark instance so this
this manifests itself and use spatial filter so we built in support because purchase who was very difficult to build and all of that the D 9 I am spatial predicates both of those when but things like with touches on disjoint is a widely used 1 is now available so when users a constructing queries about data that are inside the system they can say will show me everything that's within this area but not within this area and you get to the correct result I the so wanted to
talker really briefly about some of the other built-ins supports not just necessarily the geospatial workflow but it's more of the the sharing across the web workflow and this is where the the link data piece of this talk on starts to formulate so Semantic MediaWiki supports a special properties and 1 the special properties is supported is the equivalent URI property so if you add this to a page and then you have a value for this property and if you were to do something here if you order X for the page content as an RDF at for which is something that's available in the Semantic MediaWiki and the tag on an RDF and conforms to the OWL same as so what that means is if you have an application that's is able to reason against the data that were actually producing and exporting and that tag is something that it will recognize it's gonna know that what you're talking about is the same as in and some other guy so where this comes in is and if you have a wiki page this talking about a place maybe you're managing the page internally we're talking about a place internally we do want to state that this is something you know the this is something that's defined elsewhere in that elsewhere is where the canonical representations thing exists so GeoNames would be a good example the and if you wanted to add and acquittal your rights to a June thing you be able to do that added your wiki page I 1 the other features is being held import vocabulary so this is where the the meaning that understanding because within this system something like name might mean something but in another system name might mean something else so we need to be able to disambiguate and resolve those differences xactly incredibly easy this isn't even an extension in the Semantic MediaWiki are using the MediaWiki namespace if you create a page with that as a new imports and then the had the you 1 use on that page you can basically puts a reference to external vocabulary using your and any property that you annotate I with that link is going to the next which do that artifacts for again it's going to have that tag and the namespace represented with so example of that is you know I have a
page where it's talking about me and I have some properties associated with that page I have has name which is something that is a property that I'm engine within my my MediaWiki instance file-server property called is member of organizations so outside of this context it doesn't mean a lot because I have described as yet but there are other vocabularies that have described things like organization what that actually means things like name and what that means and if the if I'm talking about the same thing I wanna be able to convey that this so this is an
RDF output of that same page whereas here we're talking about me on the subject of this i and then the properties associated with that our of a friend of a friend if anybody you if any of you familiar with the vocabulary and that's a really common weighted say what name is so this is just a so and then the the 2nd in space here is of something edrophonium answer an exchange language which realizes is evolving in what as anybody here part of that effort that but so this is a win evolving efforts to try to come up with a vocabulary for humanitarian work at any rate they have a definition of what order and our innovation is and I'm using that definition to describe the property that I'm using within my wiki page so this this is a way for us to communicate using the same contextual without a lot of so where we're going
on in the near future for a Semantic Web capabilities anatomy which he doesn't do a whole lot of the Semantic Web the things you we think you should do so adding a lot of support for transitivity and reciprocity of wiki triples so if you say a knows b b c should be able to then infer that be a no as well that doesn't really work all that well cemented me which is ready for it is said a a knows b you should necessarily have to add a separate triple that says as been Jose ready reciprocity in there as well How long proving a geospatial a reading some geospatial extensions because a lot of what exists on the open source community today it's related to semantic result formats this's an extension exists for these it's primarily outlets that you construct a query and you're out the queries in a shop on a map that's all well and good but we're also we have some inputs we want able to query against these interfaces directly instead of of constructing queries in different and so 1 more thing we're doing is we're a building external the manager capabilities so what this is is being able to say from the Pacific Disaster Center they have a whole host of user available to us I wanna be able to manage a library of those your on and understanding the attribution of those now so will to map those attributes the president of the to the properties that exist in my application so we can use the shared meaning so it's kind of a round about way getting a shared vocabulary and the other part of what being able to do this is we want a bill to describe this feeds within our applications and contextual knowledge so notable described doesn't categories are application understands so if I add a category category called disaster that I manage my wiki I want the old associate specific feeds with disasters so on my interface if I want to search for things that are related to disasters on negative feedback that are related to so this is a way to filter down this find bring everything in all once for every which and can be inefficient only data cases really kind of the
something that we want to get to and or not very close yet so where this comes in is being able to disambiguate meaning and specifically referring to things so and this is this comes up a lot when you're now in operation situation somebody starts talking about a hospital a mustache talking that an IDP camps and somebody else's will which when he talking about because name the same thing and so we model the resolve that the machine to be able to have a canonical representations of things that are agreed upon and so that we can actually bring into our knowledge base inviable the query against and so I wrote specifically canonical is not the only 1 because they're different perspectives and those matter and 3 year I URI aliasing that tends to come across but we want to access those hands and leverage a lot of the billing data sources that out there so this is to growing provide a list DB pdf freebase geonames OpenStreetMap the Ordnance Survey so those are some of the early adopters of these types of representations of things and at only mandated he metadata exchange I think that's kind of evolved into something a little bit different but I'm hoping that there will be somewhat of a source for this community at some point and so really 1 quick
example is full Washington aligning I can have a a pattern recognizer don't go look for Washington but if I don't have any knowledge about what that is I'm I get a lot of different things back in mind of the what I'm looking for so what I'm referring to in this case is can be found at the URL so that the top 1 is a human representation of uh the GeoNames for her GeoNames entry for the district and then the bottom 1 is a machine readable version so I should be able to leverage both and true
triple stores in graph databases so Semantic MediaWiki is not supported by a triple store out of the box so it was a shift of my sequel we added PostgreSQL PostGIS it's still not a true triple store so the problem with that we store things as triples in in a relational database the problem there is a candy reasoning and so this is really 1 of the key parts of a Semantic Web application is you wanna be able to reason that's you know this triple and this triple a related to any 1 of you will traverse a path that's present in the data to be able to get to that point and so right now relying on external reasoners which is not a terribly fish way the way words were looking to kind of bridge that gap is to use on graph datastores so I'm traversing the graph is what we are doing to get from this statement this statement I'm using some the graph theory the principles that really well established we should be able to to get to those points I We when evaluating you for j on there's spatial extension and really when it comes down to it a lot of the spatial operators even if it's a and they capability the that enough for use cases we need to build a see do within touches overlaps things like that so and chain together and we should be able to do that with an eye Griptester and if so
again we're trying to get us to build the reason this is a specific use case so if I want to the find information about Tyson ion interval format i've information about its geometry and information about a province that has also geometry I've information about the province that has information about a population we know that the population is vulnerable role independently there's not a lot of meaning and and actionable knowledge there but if we infer the relationships between those so in this case using transitivity and geospatial intersection using with them that's the siphon is gonna affect this formal populations so really easy reasoning example hand the goal is to be able to apply this across a wide web of humanitarian the lot people publishing the data in means these formats we can do this this type of research the and so I promised you disaster use
case my abstract so on uh go quickly through 1 that's actually happened before not a disaster context but in an operational context with with the Marine Corps so 0 1 more collectors is on the field the collecting using their mobile app you can actually collects and by entering into the website itself the forms that is well using the semantic form extension uh 1 or more people submit and therefore and aggregation inquiry takes place on the the web interface and and then a conversation begins so you know you've done a hospital assessments and you've named it something well argued at a camp assessment and then you name something will you know that's the same name as something else so we need to talk about that a resolve the difference so the conversation piece takes place in that the discussion tab a that that Talk tab we've actually added support for e-mail notifications for this so if you see a little at Simon from a user name and you know it's automatically triggered so you can actually start the conversation in a fairly disconnected way and ultimately leeway trying to get used to be able to confirm the subject of that age and I wanna confirm that this camp that I'm talking about is this 1 this is actually referred to somewhere else there's a there's an a representation that's may be maintained by the United Nations or something to that effect where is that 1 because we know 1 manager so as a deaf enough when we had to page we use that clearly or I property all the other content that the Marines were whomever are collecting about that page is still relevant or relating it back to something that's relevant in a different context and ideally after the update will reduce the and share that knowledge so that other entity that's managing the representer the the canonical representation of that thing should be able to benefit from the knowledge has been added to the we keep age and that's the ultimate goal of what we're trying to get to with with this type of application so that's my
presentation I think you're much FIL the the I think you thank you the group the for all the the so the so the question and then the question is who has access to what I think and you know what governs the access to and specifically in this case because as a department defense capability that's it tends to be operational context this thing is actually being an approved for fielding like this week so as this becomes a more mature capability their stated goal in the requirements of the says look we're out in in the field inward were working with these NGOs were working with 1st responders or working with people who were not in the military we need to be able to share with them and and be able to build up their capability so it's really the whole point behind having 2 sexes controls it's the 1st layer of Figure white it's distributed to specific users the world and what the the the we that what to share so the the question was about the of the rules that and the technical rules actually governor of thing and getting a right so right now we can grant access at the page level so the page for Washington 1 of those Washington's might be restricted another Washington might not be restricted so the you can do that at the page level it can also be done at the property level so certain users might have read access to properties in mind I write access to properties so some organization is is only asking for read access to things related to IDP camps they would be granted access to anything within the category of IDP camp anything problem property related to that category so it's really pretty granary can grant you can state specific pages there access control there you can go all the way to the category of problem the religious time depends on the users preferences an interface to support it's not easy and the the no I didn't mention it so the question was about you sparkle in my sidestepping during my presentation in Ireland track so do sparkles 1 of the Semantic Web query capabilities that could be used in this case and so pocket uses the region connection calculus of the same type of relationships you we do we find within posters we haven't found a lot of cars to move toward this and that's ultimately where we are is if there's not a lot a cousin away from purchase we don't need to do so I think where my make sense there is to be able to produce a SPARQL endpoint energy of SPARQL compliant and point so somebody does have a Semantic Web application wants to query the system we would be able to support that and ultimately reduced 1 the the moving away market custom application so we were we were open roster compliant at the very beginning of the problem comes in with authentication and that part of the compliance and really do a lot of things to basically like the Stanford a former defense environment so some of the features and were not up to up to snuff were also adding a geospatial maps that you're with the application they can do come back to server queries as well so it's not something that 32 supports this the nobody can hide a lot of e-mails from the enterprise DVD folks hands the talk a lot about unstructured data and it's potentially using triple stores in context had not seen anybody doing it's on all I apologize so the question was is anybody been uh I heard of anybody instantiating a triple store within Postgres and the answer is no the you by said that you know we're we're storing sort of triples within posters database here but it's not a real scenario we create the RDF John 45 seconds


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