MapJakarta - Enabling civic co-management through GeoSocial Intelligence

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Title
MapJakarta - Enabling civic co-management through GeoSocial Intelligence
Title of Series
Author
Holderness, Tomas
License
CC Attribution 3.0 Germany:
You are free to use, adapt and copy, distribute and transmit the work or content in adapted or unchanged form for any legal purpose as long as the work is attributed to the author in the manner specified by the author or licensor.
Identifiers
Publisher
FOSS4G, Open Source Geospatial Foundation (OSGeo)
Release Date
2014
Language
English
Producer
FOSS4G
Open Source Geospatial Foundation (OSGeo)
Production Year
2014
Production Place
Portland, Oregon, United States of America

Content Metadata

Subject Area
Abstract
Mapping urban infrastructure systems is a key requirement to advance our capacity to understand and promote the resilience of cities to both extreme weather events as a result of climate change and to long-term infrastructure transformation as a process of climate adaptation. Yet, while developing nations will bear the brunt of the interwoven, climatic, economic and social challenges of the 21st century, many of these countries lack the sensor networks required to monitor and model the response of the urban system to change. The nexus of people and place embedded in social media communication which is widespread and ubiquitous in many developing nations offers one potential solution. In this context, location-based social media often in the form of big-data, can be used to map emerging spatio-temporal trends to support situational management. Critically, however, the collection and application of such data raises significant questions around privacy, trust and security of the information gathered. The MapJakarta.org project will be presented as a demonstration of the capabilities of free and open source geospatial technology to employ real-time social media data in a secure and anonymous manner for the purpose of decision support.MapJakarta.org is a pioneering web-based platform that harnesses the power of social media by gathering, sorting and displaying information about flooding for Jakarta residents and governmental agencies in real time. The project, in partnership with the Flood Management Office in Jakarta (BPBD DKI) will radically change real-time data collection and feedback for flood monitoring in the most densely populated city in Southeast Asia. The platform runs on the open source software known as CogniCity Ð a GeoSocial Intelligence framework developed by the SMART Infrastructure Facility, University of Wollongong Ð which allows situational information to be collected and disseminated by community members through their location enabled mobile devices via social media networks. Furthermore, the framework also enables governmental actors to perform rapid infrastructure surveys and asset management for pre and post-flood assessment using the same networks. CogniCity is built on the NodeJS platform, and utilizes the PostGIS spatial database for storage, and the LeafletJS map library for visualisation.In this presentation we will explain how these open source components are combined to form a geographical information system within the existing flood management framework, enabling the collection and analysis of social media for flood response and civic co-management in the megacity of Jakarta.
Keywords
Twitter
Map
Flood
Social media
Jakarta
Open Source
Geospatial
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research like this but good to provide a bit of context and by is home to 27 million people of the population of Australia in 1 city experiences seasonal flooding the result of the monsoon season so we have to view
of a background this map shows the location of Jakarta on the island of Java in the archipelago of 13 thousand islands of makes of country of Indonesia the fourth-largest largest country in the world just to the north and of Australia's largest by population at least so to
understand the concept of flooding in Jakarta we need to go back through the original settlement the development of Batavia in the 17 hundreds so what's the other colonial powers we I hope we say the past this low-lying marshy area on on this tropical island the Dutch spotted this is a potential area to employ the methods of drainage and clearing using a canal on a pump to provide a city which is ideally located for trade so what has always been at the
heart of the situation of the city of Jakarta there are 13 rivers that flow through the city from mountains in the south to the sea in the north and the land is at sea level
so too but on and the context of 27 million people and put on the context of Frankfurt inventory jakarta is the world's most urbanizing rapidly urbanizing place and these are hostages show that change the whole almost exponential growth of population and also Monday strange and so what was potentially a sustainable system that the Indonesians inherited from the Dutch after independent 45 uh is coming out increasing unsustainable because there's too much water and the system and the management of the and the structure results in severe so the infrastructure comics like this sea
of 13 overs flip upside 30 members of
live the flows through 27 and million people and so all that water has the power over the seawall all went through a series of canal locks and dates and so if we
see comes here the pump on conversational and this 1 exploded during the 2007 floods it was working at 30 % faster you need to be working 120 % capacity to cope with the deluge of water we
see rapid urbanization buildings like this which and because the ground water abstraction uh resulting in a subsidence rate of a quarter of a meter per year so when we look at the pumping of
all that water from the 13 rivers over the sea wall into the ocean you'll notice that these new pipes attended to the concrete block which is being subsided by the ground obstruction of the
nearby urbanization moving on to the
prospect of climate change within Jakarta the guy on the right hand side eating his lunch there you see that he sat on a bridge that's the 2007 flood mark above his head so in 2007 there was a large-scale floods for up to 40 % of the city over the monsoon season was flooded at the government swung into action move people out the flood receded and the woman's back to clean up and restore their hopes photo on the left was taken by 1 of my colleagues at the end of the monsoon season this year you see the flood mark above the guy who's cleaning outside his house because of climate change there was 58 sentinel water in city of Jakarta this year and so this flowing purpose 6 times this guy had to move his family out thank you can save go back clean tidy up restored about to look again and then 2 weeks later he was on the move again because the city cannot cope with the response of water as result of
cottage so thinking about urban infrastructure resilience and in particular a geospatial context what is not look like and how do people in charge of the structure both during the dry season and during the was the so the
government response can looks like this and have an open geostatic nominee using Quantum GIS to produce static maps over 6 hour period like this 1 which form the response of the Government to flooding so which of these neighborhoods of flat at any 1 time dictates where resources needs to go so clearly when you're thinking about flooding over that's scale and of people and area 6 hour time period and a 6 hour time window is quite a long time to be able to formulate all quite a long time to formulate your response so anything we can do to read decrease at time to speed up the response to gather more information will be of benefit 1 of the interesting things
about Indonesia is the highest the highest density and of the smartphone and cell phone and use of anywhere in the world 160 % penetration of of so more than 50 % population to but the highest number of Twitter users and wealth in Jakarta Twitter's open an office this month because they I realized that is of interest and 2 in this area so this question all those people on the ground the big data source but what we did is not big data we need smart data so can you argue that people with smart phones which adjudicated by GPs are the potentially smarter sense that you have to tell you about the situation on the ground I can you harvest that information in some meaningful way to then tell you about the response of the city to an event just before I show very short
video explain more about the project this great shows an informal economy in Jakarta of 60 % of economies informal these guys who garbage collectors have swung into action and making a quick book by transporting this guy across this foot in the section of road while she is simultaneously tweeting out the location of a crossing point all all of his friends and that's how you can get to work so we have developed a system that collects tweets but Stewart streets puts them on a map of a public information service and also abrogates updates we build Data API for the government to use as well so they can try to improve the response times this video is or what we
plan To twee out to all the people in Jakarta talk about voting this year when you have a conversation with your friends on Twitter you mentions 1 of the key words like the word flat what boundary but has Indonesian will get a tweet from us automatically with a link to this video there is a new tool in Jakarta bringing together mobile mapping and local flight information this community fled practice available anywhere alluding to water in passes in real time to help you navigate the city we know that the person said Jakarta have the best information flooding conditions you are already Tweedy chair helping friends and family quite hazards around the city can Jakarta
uses this on the ground information to give you comprehend snap quot conditions when you see a flood Creekbend
year at the Jakarta and your report will appear on the map alerting the community to the flood remember to turn on your friends geolocation so we can point the report the the more people
use standard occurred the better the map will be working together we can help everyone bypass flooded areas saving time and teacher is appended to kernels that worked against so what we're gonna talk more about the technology and couple time what we do is we connect to the Twitter API we listen for those keywords we communicate back to the communities and intervals asking them to confirm the report floating similar to the issue he molecules mention the last presentation and confirmed and unconfirmed report structure and so then we produce and not just a 2nd of tweets across the city in real time relevance of fully when we tested
this this year In 1 24 hour period had over 150 thousand tweets that all about flood of which about the plant would you located and so this a lot more innovative and what we did is we thought we'd embedded
this amazing system that you know about floating we send you like the least creatures message you have imagined hey like we heard from a guy who's my friend the maybe flooding was applied as opposed to watching you have with the CIA or other and US applying and so we can we decided insane or like we had it like confirm it tell such we address put your and sends what we demanded that was spam and so within that 24 hour period there's a limit which Twitter imposes on you on how many spam messages sent to steer debate if the and we attempt to send 75 thousand original users message in 60 seconds no all of sudden I was reading server logs 7 just stop my across the table free in Jakarta when I just going off on Twitter and so it was an interesting experience now we're working with wood to make that process and enable and follow guidelines and for them to help us and with that the public information
system for the individuals in Jakarta looks a little bit like this this is actually a bit outdated screenshot from our previous vision so when you in the city on your smart phone and and you have geolocation enabled you get zoomed in the where you are on the map to show you the reports both confirmed and unconfirmed around and the hydrological infrastructure network as well so that's the public information differences I help yells help not crowdsources going on it's a good example of that this was
captured this year I walk down the street in the morning and it was dry there was heavy rainfall over lunch time period and it with rain and this woman treated and she's tried that the bus station which is a concrete bridge you can see the distance just got adjudication on so if you then look at the
map with a device in this case my you can see that all the judicator pinpointed on map
that's pretty cool because what gives this for public invasion system where people can crowdsource situation reports many people in Jakarta already talk about food easing SMS chains and Twitter to inform each other of what's happening in new of the official and let's service from the government so then the question becomes is can we simultaneously provide us system because we also provide a geographical information system for the government for them to make more informed decisions about response of infrastructure flooding because remember that the flooding is traditional inundation flooding occurs because the canals of full and part of the infrastructure fails because it cannot cope with the pump explodes the gate gets left open the wall collapses resulting in inundation of the city and so the response of flooding is an infrastructure challenge as opposed to uh minimizing the amount of water so managing the infrastructure working our way to maintain the infrastructure is of prime importance 1 of the things you've been very successful within this project is our application to the Twitter
data grants program and so we now have access to historical archive of tweets test some of these ideas so if we see here the monsoon season from 2012 2013 the spatial distribution or the power outage fusion haven't yet run a clustering of our algorithm on this appears to be phenomenal across the city 1 of the things we see in the western world as many examples of people looking at Twitter and then looking at the device people use to tweak for example in New York where that would iPhones where the people of alliances and they showed there was a correlation between that differential and social cannot status 1 of the interesting things about Jakarta in developing nation is that we don't see that we see enormous even spread of tweets across the city from both poor and rich the so then if we go to look a time
series of can use all those tweets in a big that context as a trigger metric to say flooding is happening at this location at this point in time so this map shows that the 2013 thousand 14 months to the data found during 2014 the blue bars represent the total area of a low number of neighborhoods flooded at any 1 time in the city the green line represents the Twitter activity in the relevant to fully so would appear that there is a relationship between Twitter activity caring and thought events occurring in the city so what we're
doing and that same not the sort of on the same website when you zoom out of all those individual tweets began report like this the the same spatial scale as the worker so this year moving forward we have a joint pilot study with the flood management team in Jakarta and I have to maps on their screens in the ballroom Ahobala not showing Twitter activity nor have them up from their traditional formal sources of flood information and they'll be able to compare and contrast to see what the potential benefits of using some of these are can they identify flood sooner and quicker and earlier all other problems with using this kind of data the other thing that we've been doing which is quite a novel in this context is gathering a full suite of spatial topological suite of the hydrological infrastructure system so rather than just having all of the spatial data about where the rivers in the pumps in the canals are the building a spatial topological moles so you can say what is that pump connected to and then infer how many people will be affected if the from broke or downstream was affected of that particular link so there's quite some interesting development that in terms of how we use process at the back end and how we represent topology and a series of nodes and edges node ID is now a diaries within a 1st year scheme so kind of
summarize what I said already this will happens when you give an architecture diagram which is quite simple also I will to a designer graphic designers and saying to be lifted this kind of to London to kind of looking up with me but very simply about reports and you see the work 2 of them we're all going here you got some field survey data coming in here the hospital information we have some custom and no JS code that we're into 2 collection all that they can push it into a purchase database didn't pump that back out to our server to produce both of public information system by the Jakarta and so do our offline analysis to help the government make better decisions and so that's suite of square which we have collected which is all off shelves the 1st yeah by and no GIS software boffo in G adjacent validated API those all lego blocks of these of the existing jurisprudence geospatial candy which is great which we practice together
and this we call CombNET encode necessary really all about listing the social media so collecting information during the filtering analysis you need to do and I Information and Communication I information both to the key to individuals and communities and to the government and enabling the communication between those 2 strands so that we can move forward and we can use all the spatial data as a process of civic co-management because essentially that's where we're aiming to go is that the people know what the situation is on the ground the government knows what they can do in terms of response out using how do we use force for G to handle that big data problems to connect these 2 groups but it's not as big data
because this 1 of the things that we stumbled across in working with many of the community organizations in Jakarta is that they are already in many ways incredibly resilient to the process of flooding is only really since the 19 seventies the flooding has been turned a disaster so before that time many of the older people in the community remember flooding is a time of plenty because it flooded the water was clean it was pre-industrial fish will just flowing down the road you can scoop them out of the river and everywhere fish for about 3 months but this was great and so and also in the river and they have and so these committees have evolved over time to respond the flowing in the own way so this is linear whose are amazing person on the ground and laughter and you falling onto a rope line which the community in informal settlements putting themselves the dragon cells along during the flood because the water and the the 1st story I'm on the computer knows where the Romans are the community pre organizes the evacuation network of all the elderly people within that slow so all the all people evacuated as the water rises along the rope lines into 1st and 2nd story building now 1 of the problems is when the government response response the flood and this isn't to say that we're we're we're backing the government's response because it's the enormity of the challenges phenomenal when the government responds 1 of things that can happen is that the bow to the universe bond crash into the robot lines and the propeller cuts the rope line which is no longer there is and people you are the underlying cannot access the ropes full cells along stopping cells getting stuck down the drain the
so how come they produce a GIS system using variants software that allows those individuals and communities to match those requirements lines so they communicate information to the government 1 of the really interesting things is that many of these communities are
already produced their own maps the the not geo-spatial maps the diagrams and so a better job than I would be able to tell you really interesting things about not that the width of the street need all the History is for a
while this is the place of the community exists and it will fall people shot to indicate lower people things
so conceptually you will think of the street within their informal on the edge of the river as EU-wide Avenue it's not so many trying to rectify using some control points you have this list horrendously fitted spline and try and make sense of I information in within the rest of the world but he in here is that the case is resilient it got a small that we a small later approach to try and collect fine information a mashup with our existing systems to provide a cohesive understanding of the response to the the so what we
did is to develop a system again you send a tweet but this time we training here in the community to tweet-specific roads to us so that we can do pretty flood and post flood damage assessments so we can understand what things again on the community where the rope lines are what things that doing so get ready for the flame and after the flood what that what was the result so very quickly within 1
day we can train our community leaders to go in to these these villages to understand the response of these informal settlement using included because everyone else is on vector around following see where the data it's the whilst many these can you organizations already did this using the paper system often outdated if 1 and draw and never got digitized but now we took it straight from Twitter we put it on a map so people can see in scenario that was my either the so here's an example not not because
she spatial rapid assessment from 52 5 people in the house this is work 1 . 5 million rupiah loss is the result as the 45 days of school collectively from my children that the days of sickness and total in the house 201 thousand here of damage and flood was a show high known works in meters of the people working on what allows us to do in 1 day with and is a that for the 1st time
the impact on informal settlement in Jakarta of a flood that so as we increase the flow of along the x axis we see this appears to be proportional increase in income lost and damaged by household taking out 1 step
further with in our system we then take this maps which we roughly Jia Jia rectified and I just did this very quickly this 1 afternoon but we can actually which houses were hardest hit on which houses the 1st and 2nd story and where those robots need to be to produce a neighborhood scale
not for the government to the communities
can work with the government the telling and whether it outlines on what they're doing to provide a more organized response so to
summarize the whole thing I guess in 1 slide we have a big data approach but capitalizing on the utility of free and open source geospatial software and services to do big data due analysis and be dated use storage and build off of form who were also integrating small data using very similar tools to the targeted data collection to try and improve and build a basic understanding of the response of the city and how we can improve that response to flooding in the city of cost
1 last slide thanks to thanks to our uh funders who have been very generous and that's it thank you
thanks to the any questions and and and it has a lot of basil essential the the I think and in the part and that the and no no native we training people understand you geocoding on because what are the key to all the open process morning it's really hard to do pairing is really hard the geocoding ways in a different language and so for us maybe we see the lectures you could you increase the tweets by maybe 10 % if you haven't got 140 classes so that's a lot of effort to expand for a minimal increase in the data volume so what we do is find carries people like to do and what we do is if you happen to us a message of report a compiler report flooding geo-location is an on them we think you free blacks and that's the next scientists that the phenomena so just put a GPS and to try encourage you to do it you your own tool and die or the the uh yes we're using our until so we we built we developed this all program in a 10 month period and so we did some very rapid development using no yes because it's the data that we want collect and then we want push the websites very targeted and soul in top adjacent and to answer the 2nd buoy so when we tested using the Streaming API we did it would get hit the rate of because the filter that we on this keyword and the bounding box but 1 of things the datagram has enabled us to do is to start a conversation with data about how is potentially would scale because I think we will hit them I mean I think it would be if you hit the limit this year and that's a success because more people more data that we can that we can get and the yeah so we did we workshop with a couple of students and 4 addicted to try and then we we tested and applied the keywords there we have uh 6 words to 3 the same thing in English and Bahasa Indonesian so it's officer my head flood cool and submerged on we tried by the others this is a some of the keywords in Mosul at the rising and what we found a way if few them because this is a really exciting like you had 1 uses the word rising everyone uses this way but then we get all sorts of like my blood pressure is rising and it is getting all the streets all over the place so we can have this limit on so it will be interesting to see once we get the text in this year and also from the data graph to see what those combinations of keywords are the dry were kind missing well thank you and
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