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How to Build a Skyscraper

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the is right and that kind of good and bad and you have time away so study it started of 1st a disclaimer this
talk is not about skyscrapers so I have a hand so I know you're probably think
like but the very 1st slide it said how to build a skyscraper but I promise you
this talk is not about skyscrapers is really important we remember this as we go to the talk so for those of you were on time you're going to be like really confusing the other people come in late because we have an exercise to do here anytime you see this slide I like you to read it out loud we try that right now this talk is not about skyscraper alright but when I 1st started researching for this
talk I did find it really interesting when I started to read the descriptions of the considerations you have 1 of you do skyscraper design and construction the I think that
so 1st skyscraper really talk about a dozen technically qualifies a skyscraper it's the Equitable Life building built in 1870 but to be fair skyscraper is also a term that we use for very tall horses very tall man and even very tall hats so I think we can probably get a seven-story
130 foot tall building up our past now the Equitable Life Building was the tallest in the world from 1872 1884 and it was the headquarters of the
Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States but that's a mouthful so I'm going to call them equitable now they were like assurance sparse
society they were like insurance companies what that really is also them being a life insurance because of company they were experts at assessing risk now they determine that the building was fireproof become that back to that a little
later but so it's basement housed a safe and vaults that were filled with several billions and I do mean billions in 18 seventies error money of securities stocks and bonds so put simply this Equitable Building was the center of most of the wealth of New York and in the New York financial district specifically and it really showed us this building is gorgeous and tenants in the building included
bankers and lawyers and it even had an exclusive lawyers Club which is what you see here and
really it only had 1 problem can you spot it had stairs and pull your on the 7th floor of the building was not to have very many clients if they had to climb up 6 flights to get to him so thankfully a solution to this problem did
exist on the government nameable I showed us that was a tinkerer his son's actually and at age 40 that meeting 51 he was managing the process of converting a up and abandoned sawmill into a bad frame factory now what cleaning up he had a reason that he needed to get all of his degree up to the upper floors of of this factory and our voice in elevators existed but they have 1 really important floor which was that if the rope broke than anything that was on this voice was likely broken a dead combinations so his
son's design what they call the safety hoist and it would fall to the ground if the rope broke in think too much of it you didn't patented even try to sell it needed in and ask for a bonus for for designing on but 3 years later the bed frame business was declining and he was looking to try something new and so we formed a company to to sell his elevators we got no business for of several months that that anything thing about these elevators is these teeth right on the side of the elevators whatever the rope would break the offspring would release its tension in these these pegs would shoot out into the steep stop the elevator from falling so there no business for several months and then came the
1854 New York World's Fair now he had a great opportunity to demonstrate the elevator in a really dramatic way he was a bit of a showman so he gets up on 1 of these wastes and he has an assistant cut the rope and he's fine up everybody it's it's kind of like nascar is waiting to see the disaster right that's gonna happen but everything's fine and I'd like to point out to you that this is charcoal drawing but there's about a bonnet I'm not exactly it not sure what that's all about on so these
elevators perfect and they on steam engines back in the day and so that meant somebody had to keep them constantly fueled but even though would be a while before they were updated to run electricity it's a big
deal but you gotta think about equitable here it used to be that when you are and when you had an office building because people didn't wanna climb stairs if you own the building you made the most money on that investment by renting out the lower floors also company would lease the space of in the lower floors and and make all of its employees go up the hill climb and up sweaty and amass when they get up there begin which other showers this morning of so it but now there's a safe way to travel easily to and from these higher costs on and you know the highest floor is also happen have the perks of being the most well let the most well-ventilated the furthest away from road noise and so this literally turned the the value proposition for buildings upside down on the head and all this was the result of something like showed a standing thing was that they get beyond bloody shared but anyway
we were talking at the Equitable Building in know although the 1 that was fire proof and I have had billions of dollars in its basement this is uh the
cafe solver on I was a really fancy cafe in the Equitable Building now picture this January 9th 1912 it's just after 5 AM and the wind is howling with the gas over 40 other 60 mph and I is making the below freezing temperatures even cooler and Philip O'Brien who was the timekeeper that covers are on the time had started his day by letting the gas in a small office any distractedly throws still let match into the garbage can by 5 18 AM the office
engulfed in flames and the flames spread the elevators on the dumb waiter system and quickly engulfed the entire building and the fire department arrived but you can see here it was so cold outside as the spring the building down with water it's freezing on the building they literally can put the fire out this it's turning ice before kids the fire so the building was completely ruined and
so it was that the building builders and so was the the building builders fireproof was lost in a fire and history buffs out there might also remember the 1912 was the year that I our and unsinkable ship struck an iceberg and sank as well you know you'd think chooses to disasters in 1 year I would be enough get just we mean we shouldn't be making this grandiose statements anymore but again
and Net
skyscraper really talk about is the home insurance building it was was built in 1885
i the architect was William LeBaron Jenny and via the story
goes that Jenny left a work unusually early on 1 day in his wife but perhaps he was sick and she she rushed to meet him at the door and she took this heavy book that she had and she sat on a bird cage and inspiration struck Jenny when he got there he said if so frail frame of wire with the state so great a week without yielding would not a cage of iron or steel serve as a frame for a building and quite sure why it kind of sorta rhyme that's very poetic if he really did say that really go with it
so the Home Insurance Building is considered the father of the skyscraper by most and it was the tallest in the world until 1889 I was built from cast-iron columns enrolled on beams of for the framework up to the 6th floor and then from that for up it was steel beams now the majority of the masonry that was used that was actually hung from the framework like occurred so in construction like this the the mystery was there look pretty to keep the weather out to keep the people in that sort of thing but the heavy lifting was done by the framework and this made building drastically later and up to the tune of about 1 3rd the weight of a typical load-bearing masonry building so something as simple as a bird
cage led to an idea that was going to revolutionize everything about how we went on to build tall buildings from this point forward but you may notice I said that
that the majority of the masonry was wasn't bearing in since there was still sound load-bearing masonry in in the in the building a things open to debate and so the end result was that if you're from New York you said well you know the Home Insurance Building really the 1st skyscraper but if you're from Chicago you certainly did think that this building was the but 1st skyscraper but you know the interesting thing about
this is here these people in Chicago and they've built this awesome building upon an iron and steel framework is clearly a technical accomplishment in more partly it's it's serving the needs of the occupants but it was so easy for people come 1 after the fact and sort of debate will now it's not really that impressive so
this is Leroy Buffington has all very happy those in because he claimed he had the same idea for this framework sort of design in 1881 except he didn't build it he did however applied for a patent
for it but in November of 1887 and was granted and maybe 1888 now by this point the techniques already in wide use but still nothing can started a company called the iron building company for the express purpose of pursuing lawsuits now this is a flexible
that used iron framing this was built in 1797 sort sound like prior art to me but but that in really
stop from trying to extract money from anyone who gonna pay but again I
I like you propose to launch this is impressive and love you people so that's
going to talk about monadic building building 1891 in Chicago Illinois
also there were these 2 brothers of the wealthy brothers I can we find a picture of 1 of them of Peter Brooks but Peter shepherd Brooks Abberley Chicago was to be America's largest city and you can tell peer was rich because they don't do oil paintings of people that rich I find and they hired this guy on the right 1 of others to be the property manager and Peter only ever visited Chicago 1 time the brothers relied on others to to do all the heavy lifting figure out figure out what they really do so as recommended that they are retained Daniel
Burnham and John route of the very imaginatively named up burden route ought to design this building now were don't was uh pragmatic businessman but route was a bit of an oddity a flair for the artistic this is a sketch from
1885 that was drawn by root this was at this time the buildings 13 stories and it had this sort of Egyptians inspired ornamentation that you can see appear now Peter Brooks was no not only for being very wealthy but also for being very stingy and he preferred simplicity and in fact he insisted that the artist refrain from any kind of elaborate ornamentation he said in fact you don't want anything to provoke protrude at all because it was just like create a place for pigeons to nest he really about I
get he really had a trouble pigeons and so when rule goes on vacation Burnham the business guy has another just a draftsman creates simpler drawing you might imagine that when we
came back from vacation he wasn't terribly pleased here was this artistic work that he had done that was being guarded essentially now he did eventually however decide to throw himself into the design and he he he found a way to kind of get invested but he declared that the heavy lines of the Egyptian pyramids had captured his imagination and that he would throw the thing up without a single ornament so
by embracing this constraint that that Brooks had that provided instead of fighting it usable find a way to remain invested in passionate about his work
so this is the sketch 4 years later in 1889 and you can see route really can't quite give up entirely on a little bit of ornamentation but he has these little protrusions that stick out along the way little bumps at you can see but all this was able to sell Brooks on the idea because of these protruding windows would increase the square footage they correct so in fact the higher the building was calculated by determining how high can we actually get away with building this thing while still having enough room to rent because this was very masonry so by the time you get down the bottom of the walls these walls were 6 feet thick so you mad you keep going higher you lose rumble spaces of new erupted equation figure out optimized but so Chicago also had soft soil so they had by the special raft system the kind of floats the building on top of the soil so this is that the
finished product right so to 15 feet tall 17 stories what was the tallest of any commercial structure in the world at the time now they they knew that the building was gonna settle are designed to settle 8 inches but by 1905 it'd settle that much in quite a bit more of the end up having to reconstruct the 1st 4 148 I settled 20 inches and so they actually had a put a step down so you have to get into the building of the step down to go into this gradually sinking and guess
what is found its found be sinking in 1967 I they forgot already was I guess I so probabilities a really important factor to consider but it can't be the only thing that you consider while you're building the building
again is and it is this has referring to talk about is the floor flat
1902 but so during the
construction of ionic uh John passed away and then was still in business but he had DH Burnham accompany he partnered with a guy by the name of Fredericton Goldberg to to build the to design the floor flat only now the 4th
Lateran was which was suppose to be called just the love for building after of the recently deceased George a fella Fuller he was a kind of big deal in the architecture community but locals call it the flat and now I assume like 0 it's because it's like and it's made out of iron you know something to that effect but as it turns out was much simpler than that of the building looks like a flat iron and at the tip it was only 6 and a half feet wide the shape of the plot of land they had this triangular large plotter land in necessitated a different kind of shape the building
if the man required walls that were 6 feet wide at the base you might imagine that's not gonna work whatever your 6 and a half feet wide for the entire building kept on and it was only 16 sort so this is a tall building on so this point that's obviously not the case you can see that they're not 6 feet wide not 61 walls on
so since it was better to have an oddly shaped building and then half a building Burnham and I think overhead had adapted their approach so that they could fit the space that they were given and this meant using some new materials in this case it was all steel was not masonry at all so the fire was built on all steel
frame now if you look at these photos are you might not be terribly surprised to hear that the locals recall this building bombs falling in that they're actually taking bets on how for the building's debris was going to blow in the building toppled over during the the wind storms that hit so but you know there is an engineer his name was cordoned hurry Purdy and that he was involved in this product project and he designed bracing that already tested within 4 times the when this building was ever in 1 camp so it was after this building went up during the 1st windstorm than it very shortly after 60 miles per hour winds and the tenants were saying they can feel the slightest vibration in the building anomaly that 1 even said that the filament in his light bulb didn't even quiver whatever they had this 1 store and so this surprise the
engineers 1 that they had run the tests they knew what was going on but it really blew everybody else away the
end
so this is a 2 really talk about 2 skyscrapers it once they both lab up in New York and we're gonna talk about 40 Wall Street and the Chrysler Building now age
grade sevens and William Van Allen were formerly partners in another architecture firm and they were very different personalities and Van Allen was again artist was the type of guy like to hang out with other architects and discuss the finer points of design and route but it was very much like him there's this is pattern you see of these kind of pairings of a business person on an artist on but severance on the other
hand I he spends time with the business folks and he was drumming up sales but you you might be withheld here humility wasn't exactly as to his strong suit how many hidden really have a particular passion for architecture is part of it still whenever the trade magazines would all refer to Van Allen has this this great designers very impressive person they didn't really mention severance and all of the buildings that the design together on it he took it personally and the partnership as you might imagine that ended badly and then make things worse they found themselves in competition with
1 another so severance had been commissioned to design 40 Wall Street but man Allen was commissioned design the Chrysler Building at the same time now you might already you probably already familiar with the Chrysler Building by talk to people regularly don't know what I'm talking about I say 40 Wall Street so maybe this will actually help but we call this week we call this the Trump building today are back then it was known as the Bank of Manhattan trust building so severance had assembled a bit of a dream team consisted was associated associate a yes or Matsui and consulting architecture schreiben lamb to design 40 Wall Street now Walter Chrysler had been Alan designed the Chrysler Building for his car companies but he paid for it all himself because he wanted to leave the building to his children 1 day and he was obsessed at every single detail this building has he later referred to it as a monument to me and so the Chrysler Building was announced a month earlier then and then the building severances working on so all you might not be terribly surprised and that that the 40 Wall was announced as a bit higher right so in October of 1929 severances visiting the site of his construction and his buildings is just about to catch up with the Chrysler Building he's feeling pretty good about things because Chrysler Building slowing down now they're putting these domes on the top you you probably would recognize and that you know they can go much higher now Chrysler was in that are already in the process of drumming press rebuilding so he was announcing the still work was complete which would make Chrysler the Chrysler Building the tallest 1 in the world at the time and a revised height of 850 feet and the severance was really worried he already put in motion plans to build higher than announced this is what's so the month was filled with all sorts announcement from other builders and everyone was claiming that they would build something larger than there were people say well there's nothing really stopping after building a building that was 2 miles tall on so many Allen silent he Chrysler of very few other people knew that her to build a lot higher than anyone was expecting so in the 3rd week of october severance hears about other citing a 60 foot flagpole at the top of the Chrysler Building and so he raises his plans again and this was enough when the leak
this information the press to declare that the banking and trust building was in fact going to be the 1 of the top of the tallest and you know it just it had made centric a sequential and a much higher and so that they knew the Chrysler grow them Manhattan trust building was being not 25 feet possibility would be not 5 feet this was all including that's liable only the flagpole was a flag the
flagpole was just 1 part of a 5 part 185 foot 27 times still spire that man alanine the vertex and he had built an off-site in all these 5 pieces and then he shipped each part separately to the building and they wish to them into the domes fire tower and 65th floor so then they partially assembled them place the base of the river at all the rest of pieces in place in about 90 minutes so then
Allen Chrysler go to bed this even knowing they have the tallest building in the world but the best part is nobody else actually noticed because from the ground this stuff can just look like it really tall Kramer something attached building so is is kept quiet consumers severance can keep on going if you want so just keep a quite a lot and so when 40 Wall Street tops out there in November the New York World runs with this headline and they're talking with Chrysler Building but the talking up 41 and 4 days later this kind of uninteresting trade magazine the called the daily building report from the Dow services normally running things like the cost of building materials all around the country and can optimize for that kind of stuff they break this news dramatic news the price of buildings over 230 feet taller than anybody really knew they were built and so
after all is said and done and the Chrysler Building of was towering over 40 Wall Street by over 100 feet and it became the tallest man-made structure that was ever built it is be out even the Eiffel Tower which had been the tallest man-made structure on the both these buildings cost a fortune new 13 on 1 side 14 o on the other think for a moment about how much extra
expense was incurred on these buildings and just because they were trying to win against arrival
To make things worse for the wear Chrysler refuse to pay Van Allen his 6 per cent design the after they finish this work all that was 840 thousand dollars that he steps this architecture because the architect hadn't quite bright enough to enter into of legally binding contract out when he received a commission to to build the crisis of you know Chrysler would have paid anything up until the
point this building was completed in he had won the title to reach this high that that just in we seem like was worth it then Allen had to sue him to get paid I which ended up making him a bit about our a cautionary tale to other architects fact but no major studies are really the devoted to the state of an ounce work from many is little known in the history of architecture on his death The New York Times Union publishers of it again
and it the so another neat
skyscrapers the Empire State Building and again we're talking about New York here back in August and
the 1929 this is during the construction to build it just discussed rumors started circulating that new developer was gonna take ownership of old site of the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel on all Al Smith was the former New
York governor that was running against Herbert Hoover for the presidency and he invited John Roscoe to chair the Democratic National Convention apparatus got but had been running his campaign well grass that was VP finance for GM and until a 1928 when he ousted but by a governing the OWL Sloan who was a supporter of Hoover and claim there was a conflict of interest years Arsenal company well mask of like OK fine whatever he sells the GM stock he once defined a building he creates the empire state company hires Al Smith to to be the president of so
our Smith of politician right he has a flair for the dramatic but this is how we announced that he was going be president of the bill of the company in the news and build this building and of course he announced was immunity story skyscraper that the tallest in the world but but again this is this is around the same time as everybody else is making grand claims like to mile tall buildings and everything attention of to speak in these months
remember retrieving land they were the consulting architects that were brought work on 40 Wall Street on during the same time they teamed up with a guy and other governing war through this harmony and um by part things October 2nd and 1929 they were already showing scale models of this this new building the Empire State Building on 2 up to Roscoe and I think that's really interesting is they had these other buildings handed in density the sort of had some insider information about what's going on on
now lamb was again when was an artist but very much like Van Allen and John root form but not in his partnership with tertiary was very much tree was the business now the thing about this is and he was also pragmatic enough to know that there were certain concessions you have to make even though he had a flair for the artist and you know that he had a tight deadline and that was in to be the primary constraint because that have to deal with now initial
drawings for this of this building were created within 2 weeks and uh finals untreated for is like really fast and 1 of things they did Julius's instead of designing from bottom up they designed from the top down but they set a standard for light in the interiors and this was the thing that they said they were going to compromise on they wanted a place to stand on how pleasant would be to work in the in the space that they were building and no lemmas priorities straight
he he understood that certain things had to be constants and everything else would have to shift around those things he was willing sacrifice lighting ventilation anything else the property valuable and appreciate by those people who matters while who matters make that they're the present
and the future occupants of your building the people like her for people like him the people like this guy
because if the building can be maintained it's not be very good for very long i in the the
population come in all shapes and sizes but what 1 thing is for sure just because someone is a
big strong loud they wanna use your building to make themselves bigger and stronger and louder that doesn't mean that you should put their needs of of the greater good so 1
reason the buildings designs took shape so quickly was that they were able use parts of designs that had been done before but this is the Reynolds building in Winston-Salem North Carolina it was designed by Schreiber land previously and this is carried tower in
Cincinnati Ohio designed by another firm if you look at the
scale model side by side you can see that there were 2 aspects of the design they were sort of slight from both of these are the pre pre existing designs and it's
great to be able to reuse previous work because it can it can make your work too much faster so fast origin November of 1929 it's L. Smith has just announced that they've also bought the adjoining land for the wall Waldorf-Astoria which a cost the news of people are now recognizing what this means of building higher on now Shreve lamin Harmon they all wanted to keep the height down the practical because the hiring when eventually even had the heavy gap change elevators right they can describe 1 elevator up to the top and again I'll walk around change over others that's fine and good but Roscoe of the guy that's paying for this and he was to add more height empire state and so the next day Al Smith in his typical fashion announces that they're had 5 were words he announces the new title the new tools can be 85 stories in 11 hundred feet that's an overestimate by about 50 feet but you know he's not attack it's OK right so I love this low I I love that but this is what that what the the actual architecture saying we want the sound development of usable space so John Raskutti his sentence
officers look at this scale model they provided and like every client ever in the history of ever he decides he knows exactly how to solve this problem and what we reportedly said at the time of that this building is a hat now we can mean a literal had what he meant was a
Maureen Amorim post resemblance to be with dock above the streets of New York City and let passengers off at the top of empire state so they can they get on the building it can be so much better than the Chrysler Building spark this had but a good purpose and that it was gonna need another 200 feet and you know this is going to stay true Shreve promise that we're going to do the sound design of usable space but you'll
notice how Smith just happens to mention the final height of the buildings in that in his announcement about this new development now never mind the feasibility of docking and has plan at this height above New York City or what was gonna happen when the Zeppelin got caught by something that's needed to maintain even keel by dumping several hundred gallons of water on the people below I will remind you know if you you know remember this from physics water weighs about 8 pounds a gallon and so we're talking about well over time of water being dumped on citizens below the building the rice process had to build the tallest building this matter now this plan was going to add some 150 thousand dollars to the to the cost of these this building but because it had marketing appeal and because everybody was so enamored with flight at this error are the architects had Camino say on it all Roscommon Smith were determined that happen so this frustrated Shreve he wanted things to be practical but in the end they still had to go
with it now with the design sweet it was time to start building the interesting thing about building is I don't care if you design from the top down but you you definitely the built from the bottom up when you build everything that
you have to sit on top of something else note here definition of bottom might change depending on what you're building on top of it but the only way to make sure that the structure is going to be sound is that it's sitting on something else that's already sound
but it's important be honest with yourself if you build entire ecosystem in your own building as well on the top of another person building not considering that person's building at the bottom of years are you can't really complain when the bottom gets yanked out from under you by the way
of storing the act of building the Empire State Building the real heroes are the workers that were
putting in work that the ways in which they had to do their work for extremely dangerous
extremely stressful but the they were always
operating a tight schedules and they
didn't even always have time to put in proper safety nets and sometimes even the
support so they could build didn't seem terribly fit for purpose now you know sure they
got to have lunch but they sometimes had to have have lunch in the office as a were and that you know construction the Empire State building it started on March 17 1913 it went for 14 months this building was rising at a rate of 4 and a half stories per week which was a record speed to 14 months after construction
began building opens an example have the world record for tallest skyscraper for the next 40 years so notice how short-lived Van Allen's record was after all the the work in the effort they put into it now they completed this monumental feet with
only only 5 deaths something of 5 deaths on record when you look at the conditions these people working in seems pretty low like really but 1 life lost is too many
and
next 1 and talk about United Nations Headquarters and again will be in New York I know there's
something about this building is our compare this building through the height of the previous building and this building is actually like half half the height and yet it took longer longer built was constructed from 1948 to 1952 that gives you some idea how quickly things move on the empire state and now the big thing about this building is it's all windows and they decided they wanted lots of light and so everything had to be sealed windows but you know what else is
there lots of sealed windows a greenhouse right so the problem is that would light comes he and if you want the light but you don't want the heat you have to figure something out because it really doesn't matter if you're
building super pretty nobody can actually stand be in
so the solution to this had started earlier and it sort in response to a problem of by upcoming company in Brooklyn now the train company I was actually having a problem with their paper getting wrinkle by committee and so then when they in the paper there would be wrinkles and they would cause the thing to come on this line so a fellow had
already come up with solutions this name of Willis Carrier he was an engineer that had worked of basically come up with a way to remove the humidity from the year haven't had the side-effect of also pulling the air network by blowing air over coils of the local and so he called it the apparatus for treating but we later came the cold air conditioning for
between yeah so the 1st the 1st space to use a similar kind of that technique to cool for human comfort was actually the New York Stock Exchange and the ITER design that system was offered well the thing about the system that was used uh there was 1st of very expensive and also very heavy this this device actually wait 300 tons so
in 1922 carrier improve on his original design he added a centrifugal chiller what this meant was that was simpler it was smaller and it was most importantly more cost-effective so without there's a building like the UN HQ wasn't able to exist and this is really important
because yes the technology existed before but is a big difference between existing and being accessible but again
but now a
talk about the Willis or we may have known as the Sears Tower at 1 point in Chicago
but posla running con was the architect for this building and he was actually a structure and your task with building an office complex for Sears Roebuck income and then what the hell post all Chicago employees in 1 building so this is going to be a very tall buildings the Chicago is known as the windy
city is not really known as the windy city because of the gas off Lake Michigan but the from lake Michigan can better the city with winds of over over 55 miles per hour now the towers steel skeleton building gets the more susceptible what is the bending in high winds and so this decreases swaying motions that gives you a sensation on like seasickness you can get seasick on the top of a very tall buildings
so can't develop something he called uh to structural system which doesn't look much like a tube but in theory really was it it took the x this skeleton that we're used to still skull and turn it into an exoskeleton questioning everything out to the actions and not only did this give you better resistance against when but also reduce the buildings of weight even further and opened up more use of the floor and you have a large like OpenOffice or entrance all of those on and the thing about this
is unlike this lobster whose exoskeletons not winning many beauty contest and concepts exoskeletons open up new avenues for design of
buildings that frankly turned buildings in art
and you were able evolutions of this design were able to become very very impressive over time
and the important thing here is that it would've
been out possible build this high if we hadn't that built up a thick shell to guard against the wind
now the sears tower was built using comes bundled tube structure it's exactly what it sounds like it's the same kind of 2 construction but a big bundle of them on this was 9 separate buildings of various height and use the same construction model together end result was that even with
wind speeds of over 55 mph at the top of the Sears Tower in this way is 6 inches so it's interesting how multiple small
structures working together can be more resilient than a single large buildings but
and rob was done to more 1st of all going to talk about these
2 is Taipei 101 but it was completed in 2004 it's built in Taipei Taiwan which Hollywood know from the name Taipei
sits near the Pacific Ring of Fire which is the most seismically active area on Earth it gets it by an earthquake about twice a year and earthquakes are very different the wind windshear right earthquakes on they have a very strong effect as they affect the foundation of a building and so an earthquake in literally break a large building and this is is pretty
important to test against breakage before you erectile large building on on a foundation and so it turns out that spaghetti models like you might have built in science class at 1 point there actually they model still very nicely they bend and break under similar conditions market characteristics and so this is how they test this is so awesome like I wish this was my job seriously to play with the models all then now what the structure the structure seems mostly intact right but if this had been a real building that top floor would have fallen down and kill everybody inside the structure was too rigid in transferred to much of vibration to the top words the industry by the way has a term for this kind of failure
so this is fun but it turns out that
the only way that you can actually assure a lack of failure is to test for all nodes and the only way to know of all modes is to learn from a failure that actually happens and so it's not possible to be absolutely sure that any given structures can resist any loading because of it all we're really doing is figuring out that it's acceptably unlikely think about that the next time you're on the 30th floor of the building someone someone is in charge of deciding what's acceptable and so it's really important we test to ensure catastrophic failures acceptably likely hopefully set properly so give bar for that some right so
desires of Taipei 101 they may be a region where it had to be inflexible where they can afford to be and this is a floor plan for time a typical for for 1 when you do these yellow but these yellow dots on the on the map here there represent 36 of rigid steel tubes including 8 mega columns are in red these are all pumped full of concrete and then every 8 floors so these outrigger truss is that essentially big rubber bands around the building that allow the building to shape now on March 30 1st
2002 was 6 . 8 magnitude earthquake hit Taipei and Taipei 101 was still under construction it destroyed smaller buildings i'd toppled to Ukraine's from the tops of this building but the construction and real resuming our without incident after inspections said everything was fine it was no structural damage in fact the engineers said during a quake Taipei 101 is the safest place in town so you'd be surprised how
flexible it turns out you can afford to be no
that is great for withstanding equate but you might imagine that making a building this kind of stuck together with rubber bands has negative effects in the way that you can resist wind on so if every time the wind gust everybody got sick you problem have any tenants are so it actually has 3 tuned mass damper and this is that this is the biggest 1 is suspended from the 92nd to the 87th for it way 720 tons and what happens
is this is during a typhoon last year what happens is it swings in in the opposite direction to sort of maintain our against the wind so that when the building this way it's kind of pulling back in the opposite direction you know it's
really good when when pick up that something at the top pulling for you this talk on
the right and most importantly I but I wanna
talk about worst Khalifa was of building in 2010 and everything everything that we've learned so far has been refined and improved and applied to make this building possible but that's not actually what I wanna talk about becomes the costly so
after the attack of September 11th from it was actually discussed that maybe we wouldn't be able to build in the super tall buildings anymore because the problem becomes 1 evacuation the back in an evacuation situation stairs you're really the only option and it turns out that walking downstairs is almost as difficult as walking up n it twice the height of the former
1 World Trade Center Boss Khalifa they needed a plan to ensure the safety of people are going to be inside in the event of a contract and you know the building had naturally fire-resistant concrete core which your helps but even so as you go higher and higher and more and more people need a lot further and further to get to safety so the big question then is how the
people there in the borscht leaf get out in emergency and the answer that surprise me is they
don't and it turns out that it's not
just enough To give only 1 option to people who were in danger to leave the building so what was done
is that refuge rooms were built on the mechanical flaws of the Bush Khalifa they were built from layers reinforced concrete and they had fireproof she thing and the walls of these rooms they they can withstand the unifier for up to 2 hours and each rule has a dedicated
supply of Arabs pumpkins from our part fire-resistant pipes the and by creating the
safe spaces that are up the people in danger able to go the architects make it more likely that people are going to survive a catastrophe the
spaces are every 25 forces so that's important because it doesn't matter at the safe
spaces exist if there's not a hybrid two inaccessible or the too risky to get to now
in a fire you probably heard that is not usually the fire that kills you it's the it's the smoke inhalation well if the route
to a refuge room is blocked by smoked in that room is is no good so the boss
Khalifa if anything activates as far detector at each sensor water sprinkler on a network of high powered fans kick in and they force clean up cool air through these stocks into these rooms are to push the toxic smoke out of stairwells so that the route to the safe route is clear it's is important
not to just provide the fresh air of the state space but actively work to push toxic elements in your building the course none of this is a
substitute for rescue workers and the rescue workers still need to come to the aid of those people who were in the refuge rooms safe place is just a
place for people to go out there are people actively working to resolve the issue with all the emergency because anything worth building
is only worth building because of how it impacts people thanks this was not a talk about skyscrapers
this could be a and in the middle of the of the of the word
Rechenschieber
Garbentheorie
Computeranimation
Konstruktor <Informatik>
Deskriptive Statistik
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Garbentheorie
Term
Computeranimation
Metropolitan area network
Expertensystem
Videospiel
Computersicherheit
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Schwach besetzte Matrix
Computeranimation
Fehlermeldung
Client
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Minimalgrad
Verbandstheorie
Rahmenproblem
Schaltnetz
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Disjunktion <Logik>
Faktor <Algebra>
Bit
Rahmenproblem
Rechter Winkel
Ablöseblase
Notepad-Computer
Resultante
Perfekte Gruppe
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Aussage <Mathematik>
Geräusch
Perkolationstheorie
Hill-Differentialgleichung
Computeranimation
Schreib-Lese-Kopf
Office-Paket
Beweistheorie
Gefrieren
Computeranimation
Office-Paket
Quelle <Physik>
Befehl <Informatik>
Wasserdampftafel
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Gefrieren
Physikalisches System
Computeranimation
Rahmenproblem
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Garbentheorie
Computeranimation
Aggregatzustand
Konstruktor <Informatik>
Punkt
Gewicht <Mathematik>
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Garbentheorie
Quick-Sort
Framework <Informatik>
Computeranimation
Resultante
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Garbentheorie
Framework <Informatik>
Quick-Sort
Computeranimation
Punkt
Framework <Informatik>
Quick-Sort
Computeranimation
Rechter Winkel
Monade <Mathematik>
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Familie <Mathematik>
Figurierte Zahl
Computeranimation
Bit
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Routing
Wurzel <Mathematik>
Quick-Sort
Computeranimation
Schlussregel
Gerade
Computeranimation
Nebenbedingung
Bit
Quadratzahl
Bildschirmfenster
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Minimum
Routing
Gleichungssystem
Physikalisches System
Figurierte Zahl
Computeranimation
Bit
Rechter Winkel
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Biprodukt
Datenstruktur
Teilbarkeit
Computeranimation
Subtraktion
Shape <Informatik>
Krümmung
Plotter
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Stellenring
Computerarchitektur
Dreieck
Computeranimation
Punkt
Materialisation <Physik>
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Overhead <Kommunikationstechnik>
Raum-Zeit
Quick-Sort
Computeranimation
Metropolitan area network
Softwaretest
Rahmenproblem
Digitale Photographie
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Stellenring
Projektive Ebene
Biprodukt
Speicher <Informatik>
Erschütterung
Computeranimation
Subtraktion
Punkt
Datentyp
Mustersprache
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Ablöseblase
Routing
Garbentheorie
Computerarchitektur
Sieben
Computeranimation
Gradient
Assoziativgesetz
Suite <Programmpaket>
Konstruktor <Informatik>
Web Site
Bit
Prozess <Physik>
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Automatische Handlungsplanung
Quick-Sort
Computeranimation
Leck
Rechter Winkel
Fahne <Mathematik>
Mereologie
Ablöseblase
Computerarchitektur
Drei
Metropolitan area network
Knotenmenge
Fahne <Mathematik>
Mereologie
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Turm <Mathematik>
Information
Computeranimation
Metropolitan area network
Dienst <Informatik>
Momentenproblem
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Mereologie
Ablöseblase
Turm <Mathematik>
Datenstruktur
Verkehrsinformation
Computeranimation
Beobachtungsstudie
Bit
Punkt
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Computerarchitektur
Computeranimation
Aggregatzustand
Design by Contract
Konstruktor <Informatik>
Web Site
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Versionsverwaltung
GRASS <Programm>
Garbentheorie
Softwareentwickler
Computeranimation
Aggregatzustand
Rechter Winkel
Mereologie
Gebäude <Mathematik>
EDV-Beratung
Garbentheorie
Information
Quick-Sort
Computeranimation
Aggregatzustand
Dichte <Physik>
Netzwerktopologie
Nebenbedingung
Bildschirmmaske
Lemma <Logik>
Minimum
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Innerer Punkt
Raum-Zeit
Computeranimation
Standardabweichung
Konstante
Shape <Informatik>
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Kombinatorische Gruppentheorie
Computeranimation
Arithmetisches Mittel
Shape <Informatik>
Mereologie
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Benutzerfreundlichkeit
Mathematisierung
Güte der Anpassung
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Raum-Zeit
Computeranimation
Office-Paket
Client
Rechter Winkel
Wort <Informatik>
Computerarchitektur
Softwareentwickler
Aggregatzustand
Prozess <Physik>
Benutzerfreundlichkeit
Feasibility-Studie
Wasserdampftafel
Physikalismus
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Automatische Handlungsplanung
Softwareentwickler
Raum-Zeit
Computeranimation
Fehlermeldung
Aggregatzustand
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Minimum
Datenstruktur
Computeranimation
Konstruktor <Informatik>
Scheduling
Datensatz
Gewicht <Mathematik>
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Bitrate
Eigentliche Abbildung
Computeranimation
Office-Paket
Aggregatzustand
Videospiel
Datensatz
Konditionszahl
Garbentheorie
Computeranimation
Rechter Winkel
Bildschirmfenster
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Computeranimation
Aggregatzustand
Wellenpaket
Datennetz
Endogene Variable
Gerade
Quick-Sort
Computeranimation
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Physikalisches System
Raum-Zeit
Computeranimation
Task
Subtraktion
Punkt
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Datenstruktur
Komplex <Algebra>
Computeranimation
Office-Paket
Skeleton <Programmierung>
Gewicht <Mathematik>
Tragwerk
Gruppenoperation
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Turm <Mathematik>
Physikalische Theorie
Computeranimation
Trennungsaxiom
Resultante
Konstruktor <Informatik>
Informationsmodellierung
Nabel <Mathematik>
Evolute
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Turm <Mathematik>
Datenstruktur
Faserbündel
Computeranimation
Soundverarbeitung
Unterring
Flächeninhalt
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Datenstruktur
Computeranimation
Informationsmodellierung
Punkt
Prozess <Informatik>
Konditionszahl
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Klasse <Mathematik>
Ähnlichkeitsgeometrie
Wort <Informatik>
Charakteristisches Polynom
Datenstruktur
Term
Erschütterung
Computeranimation
Mapping <Computergraphik>
Teilmenge
ATM
Skalarprodukt
Knotenmenge
Röhrenfläche
Rechter Winkel
Gruppe <Mathematik>
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Datenstruktur
Computeranimation
Soundverarbeitung
Konstruktor <Informatik>
Gruppe <Mathematik>
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Größenordnung
Datenstruktur
Inzidenzalgebra
Computeranimation
Rechter Winkel
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Computeranimation
Richtung
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Automatische Handlungsplanung
Speicherabzug
Ereignishorizont
Computeranimation
Design by Contract
Konfiguration <Informatik>
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Schlussregel
Computeranimation
Konfiguration <Informatik>
Forcing
Mereologie
Routing
Katastrophentheorie
Raum-Zeit
Computeranimation
Fächer <Mathematik>
Benutzerschnittstellenverwaltungssystem
Wasserdampftafel
Routing
Substitution
Element <Mathematik>
Raum-Zeit
Computeranimation
Aggregatzustand
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Wort <Informatik>
Garbentheorie
Computeranimation

Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel How to Build a Skyscraper
Serientitel RailsConf 2016
Teil 77
Anzahl der Teile 89
Autor Miller, Ernie
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 3.0 Unported:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen und nicht-kommerziellen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen und das Werk bzw. diesen Inhalt auch in veränderter Form nur unter den Bedingungen dieser Lizenz weitergeben.
DOI 10.5446/31522
Herausgeber Confreaks, LLC
Erscheinungsjahr 2016
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Informatik
Abstract Since 1884, humans have been building skyscrapers. This means that we had 6 decades of skyscraper-building experience before we started building software (depending on your definition of "software"). Maybe there are some lessons we can learn from past experience? This talk won't make you an expert skyscraper-builder, but you might just come away with a different perspective on how you build software.

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