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Title peer to peer science
Title of Series 2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information: Software and Services for Science (S3), May 10-11, 2017 in Hannover
Part Number 13
Number of Parts 13
Author Littlejohn, James
License CC Attribution 3.0 Germany:
You are free to use, adapt and copy, distribute and transmit the work or content in adapted or unchanged form for any legal purpose as long as the work is attributed to the author in the manner specified by the author or licensor.
DOI 10.5446/31026
Publisher Technische Informationsbibliothek (TIB)
Release Date 2017
Language English

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Subject Area Computer Science
Abstract The talk will start with an introduction to the ideas behind a computationally active living knowledge network secured by a science blockchain. Next a proof of concept demo will be presented highlighting two uses cases. The first will show how a 'traditional' way of conducting science can fit into a living knowledge protocol and the second will show the use of the Dsensor Mapping Protocol to automatically validate the outcomes of science.

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the thank you very much and that just addressed to think the questions so last compass I spoke to was as a quantum cryptography Conference in Edinburgh so yes so shall 256 analytical key encryption would be
broken however there's other encryption tools which directly can be broken by quantum computing but people are working on using quantum computing to make the shot 256 excetera uh
quantum proofs so and that the 1st question was a practical use cases is only last few months that we have the tools to actually deliver and so today's talk is going to be in 2
parts a high-level introduction but sometimes given this the the headline act and the use cases and has 2 parts the use case uh 1st all be like code results the
conference and and the 2nd 1 will show you my D sensor protocol working through video recording the the so believe it or not for a hundred years ago as the
prevailing belief that the world was flat and this through the Enlightenment and sent in what we call a scientific method and ever we realize that that wasn't the case however this is the surname of a famous historical scientists uh it's wrapped in a Seifert Caesar cypher can and 1 crack at them the next 10 seconds the the well it was good keyboard could you tell me with a
letter at the last a by and is on your keyboard it's a the if you did a pretty you got our value it spells Giovanna Bruno granted the status 1600 room for certain that the world was right I tell a story of a 2 reasons
was a kind of a culture of fear in science to publish your identity on your so called white paper back then so people included aside for didn't define themselves as a that's it I invented for that it discovered phosphorus that that was you know an atom and stuff not that exist up so encrypted 5 years later a young scientist comes along says all I made this discovery FIL scientists is no no I've got site for the proofs that a going Shiva was entirely and we all know that happened 4 years ago and I discovered have did want to reveal my identity because I might end up like the look and say well this is something that the blockchain works on cryptography and this asymmetrical property so you could been guessing of police for the 10 seconds my my encryption 1 she knew you could include everything else and modern-day cryptography is for more complicated than this the so the
blockchain sunk is given as an introduction so I'm not going to labor on this point except if you are new to it you have to understand these words and and a few more but what I do want to pick up on news that um even if we understand the tentacle mechanics of bickering we still don't understand the blockchain the so the block chain is far more than
cryptography the so we have that in the top
top left they also has its monetary economic incentive so when you discover a block you get a monetary tokens which the world outputs after an exchange rate to the US dollar in the currency but even that's not enough has this sensor game the the built-in so the miners get these tokens which may have of a monetary value but 51 % of the miners colluded then we can trust the
illogical trail the block and so those tokens would go to 0 so as a disincentive for the people on the tokens to college and to do my laptop I have a copy of the calling and other people learn all miners have a copy of the calling so we can variable to analyze the belching just look for patterns of complete condition which mood and all the rest of the world and that's the miners for people in there that the current to go to 0 so it's a bit calling is morally cryptography it's actually more than these 2 other variables melodies analogy to a gas-plasma in nuclear fusion you have magnets intention keeping the plasma check and so these 3
variables plus uh governance model of the upgrade of the core political which is a problem in in this space still and also the physical deployment of your peer network so the concerns about centralization of mining in China for example according interval but ultimately we have to solve the problem I think Martin race this in in his talk and so in the
it kept the money honest and into the idiom uh some mention the smart contracts computer programs and the IMS blockchain uses same propor were congruent to keep the computations honest and make the claim signs of mental those 2 properties keep signs honest so I described as even if you have all the money in all a compute power world well would be impossible for a scientist to make a false
claim about the validity of the the science 2 big claim mining and build a case study of how we can achieve that through the demos the the so I the can be so just
open the observations about science today in the 20th century link this is a lab in the future surveys you human sort of computers automated sequencing at the dissipate box disordered where the data doesn't get out I think it should be a right that all the tests were open Commission access to it and more broadly even if we make an insight of from signs the
and we have applied to the real world and signs Hasenauer adapted the operation of or messy environment and we
need to go with the paradigm of clinical and trials for publishing my mind set into white-collar
computation active worth living knowledge
network for all sciences validated every in real time all the time the the so i'm just gonna peek into the future or by showing you a damn I did to inspire myself a start the project 4 years ago
so the goal stand out with the fully functioning simulated humans an average 1 1st Dortmund personalized to me drill in near real time analytics of what's going on my body the not just humans but all life forms we all live in isolation the we live on a
living planet the simulated climate models NASA does 34 for climate and then we have this concept of knowledge which is intangible and so we need some sir way to
visualize what's going on and then it this from someone from Wikipedia the the the so this would be underpinned by science blockchain to have clusters of our understanding the over here of swimming and over there a new science and there's no real understanding of science has these 2 disciplines come together so shows graphically that we can focus our research to bring an understanding between those 2 2 2 2 domains the more the the
of but so just a little bit about
some the rise of the citizen science is the next talk doing and in London next month
uh this is just to make the point that the direct democratization of signs the open science so I'm going over all many of you the wearing a wearable I've got much the my DNA sequence on my mobile phone I'm sure some of you will have to but and and this so the 21st century is the century of biology the not just biology it's DIY biology I do it yourself so access to technologies like Christopher can be done in your own home so I think science needs to prepare for the mass participation the so your use
case so we're going to bring a brand new of pharmaceutical drug to market to address high cholesterol and a more graphical way of
telling the story is the start it on the top right we have a researcher doing some basic research into a protein chemicals in blood vessels to the heart for
example which publish into a paper which the pharmaceutical companies or the companies about analyzing the pick up and new insights which they then roll into a clinical trial which gets regulated which allows the GP tuple describe it to myself and open my blood pressure and cholesterol gets digging under control so we're going to show how the centralized database the
take technology along with smart contracts and my sensor protocol would allow this
existing way of science and 2 of to cooperate and a few assumptions identity has not been sold and internet yet so I just make the assumption that that everyone's acting as themselves and the 1st demo is an explicit the handshake
of authorisation permissions between myself and the researcher the so all I want to show in this diagram is that I junk images smart contracts on on the left you
have myself my sense I collect the sensor recorded a smart contract that's smart contracts at some other smart contract that gives the permission access on the research side they have to put all signs forward in a computational form and then the computational form and this data has come together in a computation and I recall at the start and stop and the outputs from the competition and the blockchain and I haven't published in the the journals but there is many start solving that problem currently the now for I so a little bit of
orientation on on the interface is quite difference here is myself and individual and we have a our researcher here in and top right here we have a Belgian a kind which is tied to
myself and top left we have
a public tunicate tied for the researcher and you see this will run in sync because everyone gets in copy of everything an idiot your laptops open right now have you have the same copies and that's why I've chosen to this life demo because everything is running is running on my laptop so the buyer to participation is as low as you possibly could have so the 1st thing I need to do as an
individual is assigned and celebrity signed into the sensor have also signed into the medium and the last speaker of last session I haven't quite integrate into Jupiter yeah but it's coming what they can help in that this and then the chains are not very good at storing data so on my data goes to think of made say Mr. is my
can't the so we have are peer-to-peer setup line so I need to add to the senses so in the stock by adding and we're all the understand mandatory in the form where but in the real version at makes a Bluetooth call to the to the wearable and extracts all the firmware and details and then have to match it to a data model the the the the the
the and then what I'm going to do now is register on the block chain and so we
heard the concept of mining so transactions can only be accepted into the blockchain once a minor accepted so when you start the mining process on this account In real innovations real-world mining going on all the time the so the go kicking in there so there's a sense of being registered on there on the network and then the 2nd permission contracts and so the data comes streaming and from my and wearable every megabits is being created and stored to this crypto storage platform called me say the
so we have the data and we need the science the you the the the so
science is added theorists more contract call that the map of decentralized mapping applications the and so the basic researches for cholesterol but about the but the book of the of the and the well this will be integrated into their research tools for each discipline of science or Jupiter on the entities in blood and it's over time and more
the and as a set of controversially all science has been a computational form but I think a 2nd last talk again should the mathematics is no going to be a computational forms and in here we just use to get out so every time you
publish to get out you have its the URL the and also you
get the hash so if you want
reproduce exact version of your code the for the the but
and as as the jupiter presentation showed the US of for extends right through to visualizations so here we're just going to do a custom charge the name and this researcher has gone external application could be due book but because my demo disk build their 1 of but the rest the the the so the science has been committed to the block chain but
the miners have to accept it again the with
the so the very quickly accepted so we now have the data and we have the computation we need mechanism to bring both together so the question that the researcher then
invites the P. so they have access to my to the public
key you the we and the moment of truth
for the life demo so there's a message being
sent across a peer-to-peer network asking my data store for access to the blood data and has arrived publicly for me and this smart contract in the research on the identification of the smart contract from from my my my data and this very simple example there's only 1 in the system that you can imagine as you have multiple crescent multiple data types is a hard problem to solve and so this is 1 the key projects that were working on and I grant permission the researcher needs more than 1
person to join the study so they go through the process they then execute the code that the
we can then tap into the study at any point in
time said and the views the least mean squares analysis so again this could be exported to Jupiter you want to research so that's that's the basic research of published living life
in the network some companies like stratified medicine and in London and
currently take all of scientific paper journals and data mining to give insights for new drug discovery potential so we can imagine that happening in the in the science chain
so 1 farmers who company has done that so they then create half
of clinical trials of about and discuss but of course we're all working and plain-vanilla science now the pharmaceutical company was delivered precision medicine the so the and has the community the whether they would
like to participate by adding the Geo the so I suggested to there have been exported from 23 May this time the D 2 data model is the gene all the genome has to be registered on the
block change of to set up a contract in the permission this actual data stored into my own personal may save a kind the the the the for
so this time when they're smart contract the science is being created I can ask for the blood but I can also ask for the gene on stop the demo here it's the same process they would have the model of what would be the biomarker to fish is effective the effectiveness of the drug and the repeated to the
network the competition here on the charter that produced they would be handed over to the regulator the regular would have a non-validating knowledge so they would have any point in time we can tap into studies to test this is the
complete life cycle and the logistics this cycle the child the success of the outcomes of Boston for so right part 1 of 2 concept the so I think there's of how
science works and how it could be worth today and in the block chain almonds so the 1st benefit is the individual patients have got granular control over their participation on all parts of the science which today is contrasted to an upfront legal agreement which they signed a piece of paper which has certain promises but no practical utility behind it they get feedback in real
time and the researcher has an automatic audit trail of their analysis guarantee reproducibility of evidence and we shift from regulated but paradigm to real-time compliance because they can't happen again in real time to the study the however In this scenario the data still escapes and so the then spirits inspiration for my own project the sensor was to
say that the can we solve this on I think we can so I currently describes science is bringing the data to the computation words I think the pardon we were heading toward a spring in the computation to the data a so so I make the case that all signs the only thing that unifies signs the outcomes so that's the computational active and it's got completely out of automation and it will be i with the rounds of human bias and it will be secured by the built-in however the learning the flight from the calling of the helium is based on artificial scarcity I think science is based on the abundance of knowledge so we have to secure horrible gene a different paradigm from financial services the I
think we can do that so combination of technologies essentially Meister itself to the well
it called the triple lock so you have kind of storage of crypto computers and complies messaging system all wrapped in an artificial intelligence that governs the quality of the signs so that the
diagram pretty they did that the 1st
demonstration all I want to say is that this is the same diagram and rearranged but rather than having a peer-to-peer explicit paradigm I'm just trusting it every participant will trust the protocol we trust the protocol we get the properties of keeping science valid the so going to show you just a quick recorded demonstration of the
same scenario but done using the
decentralized mapping protocol so what's happening on the bottom left is I'm cloning
100 that peer-to-peer counts which have gone genomics blood data
and me mobile data so we're all
data and to decentralize sampling protocol has chosen peers to participate in the sampling when the chosen the go to get hot and I will decode this sanitized they run the computation all computations have to produce a prediction path of the outcome of the signs those outcomes are then recorded into the block chain and as
reality moves forward we'll see how effective the actual outcome was so naive this is my question would and 10 % over the months I think the driver participate as the prescribed is attempts and 20 % awarded didn't change at all the so all these demos are online and the size will made of made made available so that you can watch them more at your leisure the and the 2nd
1 the 2nd 1 I . 2 is going through in slow motion the the actual
stages so we we have the smart contract being
created and the output of the prediction power and country we have the kobe dialog to it's the smart contracts starting the computation recording the actual coders sandbox and sanitized the in such a showing in my computer I got Cinco de was on get out to there is some running at time
so will just let that rely so there is the slightest
go into more and more details the
big thinking that go on behind the
sensor and I'm just going to stop of 1 of these slides to the the
the that the people of in the influence me to come up with a solution so the big messages that the blockchain does not serve the signs problem so when I discovered becoming 5 years ago I didn't think it fundamental solved the problem and I had a problem my mind that I wanted to also had a peer-to-peer network in a swimming pool the recording timing of and it also monitored real-time analytics as they came in and it has been predicted the times at championships in the future create a machine learning algorithm and that would create a training program and I wanted to validated the machine learning algorithm was better than a human so that I was interesting creating a peer-to-peer on clinical trial to prove the sports science of money I have was as good or better than human so I need a way to secure also going pools without using recipe pies and then how are we to share that data and then computed the and as a
and my science journalist 6 months on when the inspiration stories and think enterprises problem is that the 200 million EUR Alzheimer's project looking for biomarkers to Starting from all of understanding of the disease spend 2 per cent of the money in 4 years getting the data sets together and then come up with some candidate biomarkers which the declined the clinical trial teams the have for proven techniques to you had to adjudicate on them the scientific validity of them and then they did that spend all their money and 1 of the heads the projects speaking to a mathematician and he said drug this new solve something the I. algorithm that might be there to help you he ran in 20 minutes and came up with the same biomarkers such tell that's the that's the positive story we may so the reproducibility nothing it's the network data size problem and the liberation of new breakthroughs as a faster more in units of collaborative environment having a box who was the father of the nice and also the we the knowledge so he talks
about this discovery space in December last year discovered a paper written in 1988 by on the sky presented it underpins the of my the sensor of the project so and
it's around the block at this tension keeping in check somehow in science we need these variables passion towards the truth and let down is made the 1st steps and hopefully honestly inspired to improve for the features and on that I think I will conclude
thanking for
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