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Re-thinking Linux Distributions

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hello everyone and welcome to fast and they 2 and our 1st main track of the day is Langdon weight rethinking Linux distributions yeah hi everyone I would like to point out it's not really early for you it's early for me so I apologize in advance pricing mostly and as you said I mean is lying this is rethinking Linux distributions but this is the time use the evangelist for or enterprise Linux it's for Red Hat and now I'm a platform worked it for the developer experience as part of the plot I assume everyone can hear me because I can hear myself and you will be no reason in the news something you currently I'm working on a kind of what we call the objectives in Fedora which is called modularity and most this talk is about that's of records explain what that is so this is my son Thomas we plays a lot of soccer and basketball and he does a lot of work and on the users Instagram's tacos friends which I find very hard but then again the pooled so that's 1
of the at so moving on to start up a distributions are also know they just might be getting a little old you know and they sit together really really nicely of but there's this basically some issues and they been great from last year 20 years right up and let's say the 1st 5 or 10 years and they're really really fit in the end really trying to let the owner of the kind of the machine that the distribution was running on the in charge of the rights of the less dependent on the vendors and taking selected school away from vendors which they had 4 up and the the problem with that was in the sights of sweat when I say vendor I mean typical proprietors Opera company helps open source projects so basically whoever it is that's morning the software the 1 run as an application under operating system so I don't necessarily mean company just you know it's kind of a word for that class of applications so so what happened was right if you can trust and to deliver kind of timely updates particularly for security vulnerabilities and so you wanted as a as an operator of that machine to be able to be updated independently and the distributions in my mind right 1 of the big values table was the ability to do so those 2 things about however as
we've moved on but what we started to notice is that the operating systems the frameworks that applications use and the other piece themselves that really have often very different life cycles they not only have different life cycles from themselves right so you know you might have an operating system that wants to be around for the 10 years or longer like well right or you might have it wants to be around for like in europe 13 months technically like but in that kind of everywhere in between right but then you also have kind of framework so you might have something like rail right where you have something like last right and they have very different life cycles as well and then we have the applications themselves are if you take something like a you know a marketing site right that is going to be promoting a movie but it's going to have a lifespan of call 3 months right whereas taken the RPE and it's going to be 10 years before you want to spend the next several million dollars to to reinvest so that's really started to show up and certain really be a problem but it's it's kind of funny I saw a talk distributions from yesterday I was told them that and for some reason my notes and showing up so apologies but it was a distributions from the perspective of packages and it was talking about be and how much the different life cycle really be has been something like that or and how much of a problem that it says that it's funny that that that talk was accurate about the has recommends
watching the video the other thing that's changed is how we build software has also seriously changed and you know in the early nineties a a lot of developers basically did everything right so I know what I was starting out again I reiterate a kind of old you know ideal replace a hard drive right because there would be a server that I need to replace hard drive answer my application would run a now that's kind of not something you really do any more but I had a terrible example of somebody who used to work with me that he wasn't entirely sure aware of files were on this that were part of his job application radio is used eclipse and it just was there and it didn't really know exactly where was so you went into that plastic flow job on Windows which if the file path was too long we just said and he didn't really know how to fix it because you don't really know where the files work which for me was just astronomically bizarre probably for lot you 2 but you know you kind of proves the point I think a little bit that developers are fairly you know application of fairly far away from actually understanding operating system that the running of then we started destroying how all those different jobs right then we had sequel administrator we had started like deviates we had sequel developers we have Q the people we have UX designers we have of you know back in developers with foreign developers who knows to have all these different kinds of of sub fields within software application implementation right right has been called the science of and what we saw this as a reaction to that that now we have all these little brain drain all these people 1 person didn't know everything anymore and so we sort of suffer from the lack of communication between those people and then we said they may wish have talked to each other when that interest the and so we stress on the and and add right which said let's actually bring the people who were provided requirements into the process and then more recently had a loss which is let's have people who were kind of running the applications bring them into the process to other things to both of those but you know kind of for my my purposes here that's only part of the cover of the other thing been big right is that data sites is another huge thing right now we really need that kind of have we have a massive amounts of data compared to any other reasons we did prior so all these things are
changing the other thing that's been happening so in the past couple years of solution book by steve overrated on that the credit pendulum of power has switched from in the kind of early 2 thousands of from the kind of administrators be the ones who were in charge of what actually got the
West's as well but so you know this marketing site because it doesn't actually happen in real data per cent Ready fact collecting user information and it's just you know essentially real insight for sure where kind of thing but maybe it doesn't need to have the same quality of components with quality dependencies that this year p there is you know basically running a business us but it also because that life cycle thing that might be only use a much more bleeding and version of something but because the it doesn't we don't we for its maturity to ensure that it's can have a lifecycle of 10 years further dependencies as well the
so in this is what a pattern is the crux of the problem I think is that updating those dependencies can have unintended consequences right and this is my representation above about compatibility I hope you like it but the the what things you know that happens insufferable Belva's right is that you know you get a deadline we wanna get the application of the door and we know that this framework has a bug in it so we won't work around right and we put it directly into the application is the admin comes in updates that tendency and fixes that work around or fixes the bug that my work around was going around but that may actually introduced a brand new security problems right it may introduce a brand new blog that I have no way is that of nobody knowing about testing for writing for anything because I don't have any I don't have the control over the application itself the personally some of the excitement around things like containerization and kernels and things like that particularly from application developers is there is such a taking back control over their dependency tree as well as the applications themselves and that part of what's so appealing right you know it worked on my machine becomes true with all the problems that goes with right so into darling and I have a couple years ago now the mapping Miller and you know he thinks a lot of people in in kind of this presentation but came up with this kind of ideas the rings proposal or that next i where the idea was to start to try to recognize some of these problems and to try to redesigning the distribution in such a way that the there's kind of a central hole for and that has to be a kind of the horror and mature and jumped into long running the pieces but at the same quality that we consider important for a typical distribution these this up and then they kind of have an axle something like the frameworks for the things that in the bowl other things so you know you're containerization technology here your virtualization technology Michael here but you know things like flat may or may not go here by kind of depends on on the individual example and then after that research talk about the applications themselves and they and it's represented here is free rings so but we'll talk a little bit more about like really that's potentially a lot more than that so
it's a kind of a 1st step towards this sparse solution in the what color Fedora conditions and so the idea here is that this would be the you know the the operating system or the distribution that we're delivering depended on the use case of the end users so as a result of what we wanted to live didn't give us kind of the availability of content and when I say content here I mean kind of like software binaries and documentation I mean everything right but the 2 the different use cases and let them choose which ones were important to the use case they what so for example the workstation addition you know comes with a you know some sort of user experience that is you know graphical right desktop environment of the server 1 is a you doesn't right it's base features command line and but it might have some other features that don't make a lot of sense in the in the dust so for example but also other so that later the ability to easily install and you know something like a DNS server right which you may not need to be able to do quickly and easily on your workstation all content is still there for the workstation is just that kind of what you're given by default when given access to a kind of and the choices you can make are kind of all you to that use case for you FIL so we don't have a cloud version which you know kind of also starts with a you know kind of all those you know it's not that far away right because a lot of times in cloud lab distributions you don't really need a firewall and related to the cloud 1 is the atomic distribution of which if you familiar with our stuff at all atomic I an instance the operating system that is a non changeable right so you so yum install doesn't work that you have to uh basically way it's it's meant for kind of that full on CAD model where you have to change the server detection feeding the images to the individual operating the ends of the genes that were the after that
so we started to kind of go all the way to the outside and that certain kind outermost ring whatever number ring that is farthest away and created this thing called copper which is cool the repositories but I really wish it was cool the repository for reuse of because it would make lots and lots of my grammar nazi problems go away but this is basically a facility for any person to create you know the set of our hands and their dependencies and all that stuff and and make them available to any users who choose to use it but do you know which is replacing young and Fedora actually has a plug-in that will allow you to search the copper repos enable coppery post so that you can say 0 bother Street you know has been putting up the stop him through the latest version of we're like you're 22 for example shipped with we're office for I believe and somebody had put up their office 5 in a copper post like a whole down uh before 23 came out was shipping it for real of obviously this potential but you know potentially was the inequality that was OK with that just you know it's just the thing around my presentation with so you know level of and so the idea is basically to try to open up that that for each of the applications so that you don't have to have the same quality of the things it normally we don't the distribution that are available and and the idea was that things would hopefully maturer over time right and and the idea being that you know the in the outermost from start with but over time becoming a closer and closer to the set so that you know the kind of with increasing church after that there was a proposal in this class and you has not been ratified yet of let's talk about it the next ring in from the way outside and this the idea is that there will be a selection committee that would say you know this cover that problem that copper over there are mature enough to actually be promoted to being a real repo of some kind and this is called playground and you can enable it but we start have stronger rules around the you know the material itself in its ability to install of multiple things without being conflicting etc. etc. and so that was kind of an next in
progress after that were around the same time I can remember exactly what was the elephant puzzled and this was actually a proposal of to define the all right so there's you know the sponsoring the 6 was here and and from that comes from the master a rather than the Hebrew term but the math term of light a zeros dataset images right and it with 1 is the set of all most of you know but that's the idea is that OK we have a set of applications of and they had individual kind of packaging guidelines individual packed into walls depending on which set it wants to be a part of a 0 being the strictest right and finds the str was the idea
yes then we started really run into the props that and this is basically the the rings metaphor starts the fallout and and the reason is some of the reasons that I gave earlier which is that the art but it's not concentric rings there's multiple orthogonal of metrics by which you want compare er decide upon your software and and they're they're just not the same right and so you also have even weirder stuff where things like what about bill dependencies right do if the bill dependency is required to build bring 0 does it need to be every 0 quality will not necessarily right it just needs to be only produce ring 0 called stuff right business need the package were shipped to have same lifecycle writing that's right so I should be able to build a you know a containerization tack with GCC just see only has you know kind of like a year where you want before you of regions to see so but the thing it notes you may want half 10 years right so it's weird many gets even weirder when talk about things like unit test right what about the testing for it to those things wandering 0 Beckett's we're you know or topics right and so it starts getting weirder and weirder and and you know you start to recognize is that this like whole thing to search the couple them and I did all kinds of weird things with white bubbles in their with like event diagrams and stuff trying to make a picture that made this work events I couldn't figure out to
of the thing is that it's still very much everything they said to talk about so far it still involves working at right of and at the end of the day of the application developers don't want to learn another language that they use incredibly infrequent OK it can be obvious dead could be whatever they don't really like the direct and really like doing anything really jets but he doesn't do much for regularly right when you talk about things like distro packaging languages you know if you are lucky you're doing it every 3 months maybe they 6 months that innovation learning the entire thing from scratch every talk so it the burden is way high right so this is my own thing about your turn the pattern and virtual hosts like I do this once every 6 months right every year I can't remember who the syntax for right and it's not like it's like anything else in the entire world and so I have to be wary every taught that a huge pain and personal like that's the huge appeal hats right is that I don't have to learn the intricacies of administration but like system administration from inside the house but every 6 months
which is not the that sort of so this is where we started the together is of this kind of concept of modularity of and there's a couple more slides to instances and the only thing but 1 of things is but can we start to think about providing components to suffer applications at the higher level than typical packages and circuitry them at a higher level as optical pacts as you be really mention as well is open source what right so now now distributions a a huge amount of trouble right this whole open-sourcing just in terrible mass because 0 my god now everyone is doing it so we have a higher income for edible proliferation packages that need to be distributed need to be updated at me the tested and you know the it's great right except for the horribleness of now we don't know the numbers are but some of its ungodly it's like you know hundred thousand packages right so we're trying to maintain those things that those that those microscopic levels is also incredibly difficult right so can we start to think about these things more like as modules is more common it's kind of this I really break word for of because is the idea is that can we have a concept of a web server so that potentially has been open API right but that is what will be met by that web server but but not necessarily guarantee that it will come always work the same internally so the packages inside said web server may change right but that the outside API is still there remain the same as far as application developers are normally speaking there's always exceptions but normally speaking that's a good thing right that's fine you noticed but I don't really care if modest cell you know version 3 verses version 7 years on the inside right as long as it does SSL stuff right you know as nothing and so this can be any of the modules another point is that the other problem with having rate is like what is whole or what is the center what's that ring 0 or even ring what and because the distribution is thought of as a distribution it's cyclic dependency structures and say right like everything is connected everything all over the place so part of the effort is also to the breakdown of what is actually the operating system part right and then let's make it even more foreign and talk about containers which has an operating system except it doesn't really into the kernel which kind of also breaks that argument and so that also becomes more complicated right and has been something working on for a while there is also a kind of relief aid of but for slightly different reasons is kind of and minimization of right is that you want your containers to start off as small as well as possible right you want your Viens to start off as small as possible and have to bear in assess these that you need to build a run your application and what talk about us for attack vectors some people talk about it because they you know the the ship you know 50 thousand those throughout the data center of but the point is that minimization is important from kind of you know could mole facets but not just because you want to simplify it and then the other 1 is having a developers connected to this bowl they are you're using all kinds of packaging form so that the unit circle more regularly right then things like document or whatever but and I guess the argument here is what if we let them use their right what if we found a way to the problem with Kosovo over the problems 1st of all that are all completely different of varying levels of of quality as far as a package of you people right packaging systems and so on and most importantly is that there but they don't deliver things like metadata which is my blue card catalog graphic of very nicely right so there are at least in a similar way so I can write a DNS plug-in that change in a generic way is able to consume the metadata from all these different things without a whole lot of work right and then as well as I want the developer to build actually just feel use you know will generate or in the or whatever I don't want to have to deal with that you know making sure that is a you know the the individual packages people's down is that the right name or he knows how to install it and get it from things like the enough but I just want to and do those things the way he does that he she sort of as a developer right and just kind of go on their merry way and then come a related way right I wanna give a big bag put that stuff in so he can ship it to his customers whatever that it's right you know to be of source project project to be you know proprietary product that could be a whatever you know the problem still the same right is that you wanna give him a bag with the stuff in that then that the user can can get said that right and then run the application and without having to go through all kinds machinations so it's very charter so this is kind of where we're going for the next phase of this of this work is to try to bring all these things together you know can we that provide developers way to directly use the content that there used to be in a way that they're used to then also provide kind of the next level off components so they can you know so if you're a you know into bowl developer right you can just kind of grab webserver gravity server and then put the ball on top and it then then in you can rely on a your Drupal still running even as the database and web server getting updated right so can we also try to figure out a way to give them a deliverables right arts are a way to deliver the states of and you know maybe that's containers right maybe it's something like that packages you know accepts the generated rpm spect not but but the point is that you know we need to be only give them a away to to distribute those applications of and then finally we needed users and in this case users actions both developers and end users to be able to look at that matrix of various uh you have the same orthogonal metrics around an individual components and decide when they want to use it if it's right for the scenario that they walk the reason actually showed and you know this is coming as an American I don't actually know what they do this anywhere else in the world construct something comes up in conversation for me but 1 of things that we do when you want your retirement planning in the US as they a series of questions and a they cop with this like Pinter and I
can assure 1 from this is uh life
but they don't but they can tighter and then you can say OK this is my pie chart and then there's all these mutual funds right with our collections of stops and you can match your pie chart to the other pie-charts right and it basically that's how you do your risk assessed right as you can see it is a you on a retired 50 years and I have 37 kids and the you know etc. but and that's how you get your little pie-chart and then you know you're supposed to match that against with the funding best and you know we need to deal provide our our end users preset developers and users both and say hey you doing that marketing site but it then you know this is kind of Applied that you should be matching against for all the components the strike or you do in the CRP and here's the
applied using for that you know what that slide back so there's a bunch of different things going on the at least loosely connected or that are trying to deliver on some these components and 1st and foremost accurate from the 1st all is walking which is of the same with the observer this is the idea of being able to install model or install thinking but in such a way that you can kind of guide the user into its insulation and you know where the date somebody else's guide to the installation of in kind of a generic simple way right so instead of going through all the different machinations of kind of setting up a DNS server setting of a database server or whatever but to essentially wrap that up to me and infrastructure in the 1 place I so that you can can deliver it to users and users connected way some were where yeah that is a containerization text so that is the kind of mostly coming out of the norm of space but the idea here is that this is come back right or 1 of the bag option is a way to deliver a application but you know generally speaking in this case desktop applications but to an end user so in a way that is not only security so that it actually looking at ridge out right this kind of back to like when exactly approximation error over them and this is now it's like but we don't wanna do is go back to what it was like in the late nineties where the vendors could actually damage the operation the systems I was so what we need do is we need to be able to provide this kind of made of packaging formats applications usually shipped in all these other things but without actually return removing control over the machine I'm running from 1 of the persons operating so something like g at what it does right is it says OK you can ship Firefox and Firefox and do whatever you want inside the little self-contained sandbox and and every time you wanna touch anything is actually part of my machine but it goes through basis during my right so if you have any reforms from does as well but I never use levels so much terribly familiar with it but at least 100 right it's that the unfortunately the way it's designed for the US perspectives that screening nor when you install stuff but but the idea being is that there is a set of permissions to actually access your local hardware or your local system really and have to grant it explicitly and that's the only way the application you get to the same the same kind of idea here and check it out it's called the atomic workstation kind of its kind the other half of that is can we make the actual workstation itself of base the invoice right so the word even I hold in a sense of where it's if you are familiar with atomic in all of this is the idea is that if you keep actually install anything on your desktop at all but because you get this perfect Seif version of it and then the only way that you can put applications on it is these kind of sandbox applications of another kind of related and if he knows a lot of these are all kind of related a and all independent efforts that are it's starting to collapse but the next 1 is that molecule it from a gap and this is of an idea of where it's basically new tools a specification the time gap isn't is kind of like a reference implementation of the specification specification is a weighted to describe an application that is not only reusable so going back to my Drupal example is I can actually say here's all right it relies on a database in relies on a web server and and then I can actually have other new fuels that are web servers and database servers and I can as a you know as my as the true bold new will developer I can say you know what your options or PostgreSQL or really be or whatever these new point them right and then as the operator I can say you know I I don't like that when I'm actually go back my sequel somberness to swap that right but the stomach at is this will will run those specifications and this is very much based on a kind of mostly Dr. containerization so Dr. containerization with communities or with an open shifts but the idea being that it's most of these applications will be multi component which is true for I would say most year 90 cent of applications is there's but there's you know you know I have in my notes and so that you see yes like were not stand solar giants anymore is application always right were sinuous shoulders of skyscrapers right of and the big skyscrapers and as a result you know we we use huge chunks out of the you know the rest of the open source world but to build and deliver you are sliver on top of that and what utility do kind of saying here here's where that has a chance for right and and then the Floyd them in such a way that they can be orchestrated and operated at the end hopefully resilient ways but still unfortunately relies on all that and in the yeah kind of the other another part of the story is kind of that streamlining operant system and delivering metadata and this is definitely much more nieces and the Roveri relatively recently and we were able to get we dependencies and RPM right and what that allows us to do is you know kind of an act for the area right so we can not require everything all the time right we can say you know I I can have my core functionality is this and so therefore I require these dependencies but I also have some optional function for example right and so I can softly require the use of i don't have those I'd just won't have those optional features strike or potentially you know you can also do a kind of
more sophisticated and a kind of swapping of what what is providing emergency but and then the base Working Group and the environment assess Working Group our of both working as visual group is also working on right turn so no for trying to simplify the base OS and actually define the operating system itself as a separate and distinct thing from all these dependencies and everything else and then environment stacks is really working on some getting data formats available to end users some of that is the stuff we some ideas there it's it's still it's still pretty young so and then a model for how do we ship metadata to those end users how do we have we have implemented in you know how do we have and also having integrated ecosystem right because you know going back to but as a as a distribution per cent right as a person who you know I'm a Fedora counselor and I had a vested interest in Fedora being a distribution and being something that people want put applications on top of but I I know we have to get our toolchain into all precursors right so I can't tell every single Ruby developer out there to only use my Special jets right so what I need to use I need the ownership that the metadata in a way that they can consume and I need the oldest ship them or allow them to ship or allow them to get or whatever right word is but the is they need and and the medial to choose the crazy stuff right they need you would choose this leading edge beta version of something but and I need to be old and let them choose that as well as see the metadata that says that the crazy right God nope sorry that's me a question of so and this basic atom I wrap up slide here but there's a will be talking about this more does come which is a conference puts on in Brno Czech Republic next week but then I will be presenting on something like this talk of you know I highly encourage any application alters the audience you know recently Fedora put up developer about your project and or the to try to engage more actively lots right I mean you know like set up you I'm I'm obscure Application Developer I you know I built you know I'd like to say copied websites but website for most my career right of and you know the the thought of actually doing anything kind of inside the US is is not my bag right but we need more people who come from my experience to participate in this conversation so that we can provide a distribution that is useful to develop that is you know what they want to be and then as operating people right or a sysadmin packages whatever we need to make it so that they can hurt anybody else basically the of the and then you know going so we we had this kind of falling down a little bit because the ring's didn't work when she got past a certain point so we really need your help we need you guys to participate in the conversation we need you guys to to recognize that this is an interesting new model and please come and help us and and you know a deadline for myself I you know flock is the Fedora user the developer conference nor conference of and it's in August and I I promise to at least submitted talk to deliver talk about how much progress we've made them in the next slide said this next phase but by the and that's pretty much all the slides of the swings in the references and I I meant to put the slides up before the talk I forgot and so I will put it up right after the talk about it and then you know a whole mess of attributions no 1 analytical out is this template was done by summing over community and I think it's also my highly recommended the questions so In the of the I can repeat until you it you would talk about them not needing to necessarily needing to have fun build dependence is essentially all things in rings there are also very in rings does that leave you with a risk that you end up shipping soft lack the good below sold let's build is so the result is different or incompatible the crystal China's lived on on the right of the idea of so the question is basically uh Freeman here our this if you're not maintaining the quality of the bill penalties for example but at the same level as its output of what's there to ensure that you can actually build it again ever right and so I would argue that has said is that the problem of a solution that we've been proposing is essential in maintaining the maintaining them as a kind of pirates right vs. as shippable packed so there's kind of a different means of feeling use those things to do will and actually be of use those things and also use them to build other effects that make sense so so you get a ring 0 right here Oracle dependencies when Fedora 23 came out of this is the stationary and we are going to maintain interviewer continued 23 or the things it within the Fedora 23 but we don't promise that you can build anything else right but that makes sense yeah the other questions but at the end out time so that if you have other questions I have here an order on the day of or I will see you in the next thing or you can find me on the Internet where this the that
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Virtual machine
Mass
Discrete element method
Metadata
Open set
Number
Revision control
Goodness of fit
Database
Operating system
Energy level
Data structure
Distribution (mathematics)
Plug-in (computing)
Form (programming)
Series (mathematics)
Cellular automaton
Projective plane
Content (media)
Planning
Unit circle
Library catalog
Ring (mathematics)
Cartesian coordinate system
Kernel (computing)
Personal digital assistant
Optics
Data center
Gravitation
State observer
Distribution (mathematics)
Multiplication sign
Sheaf (mathematics)
Mereology
Web 2.0
Direct numerical simulation
Computer configuration
Atomic number
Core dump
Physical system
Area
Spacetime
File format
Software developer
Basis (linear algebra)
Functional (mathematics)
Connected space
Website
Fehlerschranke
Normal (geometry)
Right angle
Resultant
Point (geometry)
Slide rule
Server (computing)
Implementation
Game controller
Perfect group
Sequel
Open source
Connectivity (graph theory)
Virtual machine
Electronic program guide
Metadata
Pie chart
Workstation
Revision control
Latent heat
Database
Operator (mathematics)
Touch typing
Utility software
Computer hardware
Operating system
Energy level
Subtraction
Shift operator
Multiplication
Generic programming
Set (mathematics)
Cartesian coordinate system
Word
Personal digital assistant
Point (geometry)
Slide rule
Flock (web browser)
Building
Beta function
User interface
Distribution (mathematics)
Scientific modelling
Multiplication sign
System administrator
Online help
Function (mathematics)
Stack (abstract data type)
Metadata
Attribute grammar
Template (C++)
Revision control
Internetworking
Single-precision floating-point format
Operating system
Energy level
Data conversion
Distribution (mathematics)
God
Copyright infringement
File format
Software developer
Sound effect
Bit
Ring (mathematics)
Cartesian coordinate system
Local Group
Word
Arithmetic mean
Integrated development environment
Order (biology)
Website
Right angle
Arithmetic progression
Resultant
Computer animation
Core dump

Metadata

Formal Metadata

Title Re-thinking Linux Distributions
Subtitle Seperate the operating system from the content
Title of Series FOSDEM 2016
Part Number 82
Number of Parts 110
Author White, Langdon
License CC Attribution 2.0 Belgium:
You are free to use, adapt and copy, distribute and transmit the work or content in adapted or unchanged form for any legal purpose as long as the work is attributed to the author in the manner specified by the author or licensor.
DOI 10.5446/30996
Publisher FOSDEM VZW
Release Date 2016
Language English

Content Metadata

Subject Area Information technology

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