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How the brain sees: Optical Illusions and the Potential of Holographic 3–D

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the morning everybody wants a great pleasure to
be here and are in the sense few weeks now and inhibition on you know you can enjoy over here so that might told it's structure along demonstration and then you some went to meet your brain and your attention so I will show you how good your visual system is and how about you read system is and I hope that the demonstration to they will give you inside about some of the fundamental mechanism your way is using in order to see and interpret the visual world and make them and they use a demonstration to they are related to how your brain we'll be seeing all of what the three-dimensional images while the edges and may change interpretation in an unexpected way so let's start with the 1st
demonstration we have a lot of knowledge about the world and we use this knowledge all the time this is unconscious to you you see with your where modern with your eyes in a way so let's look at this video it's
extremely blurry but again that interpret what's going on it's just a normal
day ideal phase of my colleague is working at his computer on nothing well In many situation that way
says more and wants to see more than what is In reality in the world so let's look now at the higher resolution you the
it yes as you can see the object and that really want this thing to be
you know I
I I think you see the moment then the thank you enjoy it you enjoy it and so the good as the thing
you see with your mind and was your experience and this is the type of economy TV news so the visual system is confronted with the task to the the the very difficult task of interpreting the 3 D weld putting meaning to it and just behaving normally understanding what's going on the advanced faces of people or friends I had to solve this task we make I put disease an assumption and this helped to reduce the number of possible interpretations and some those assumptions medieval long but in the world is not expected so yeah said
well we see when we see details and you not wandering around singular videos all over the world so not going to show you a picture you have cancer can't just a normal image just look at it OK explore the metric tons of so it's
so a from my hometown informed of the didn't use anything yes the building change you all see the building vanishing away the now not only in 0 why it well let's have a look I
don't now now the 2nd time but we know that the 1st time most of you wejust blind to what was going on in front of your eyes he we got all the changes so maybe you
saw the building but this was 10
seconds 10 seconds is a long time and
all the changes that happen in front of your eyes you had the shot the wall
building people can mean out some code and
some light this is the normal way it is normal if you did not catch anything right I
for of you here is again self the
online is an extremely poor whom machine but also sometimes very far as you I don't watch in the Department of when and cognitive science and from the cognitive science scientists trying to understand where rain works well and when each under something that we are very good at we would colonize the world immediately we and Paulson interpretation from your memory and illegal start this 1st impression so you things that you're not expecting opening in front of your eyes there's a chance you will not notice that this is the way the work of the brain works is just too much to see so he needs to kind of cut down the interpretation and must often it would be the object of the details that you would be missing but what are we
the while show you would do you know that you're not experiencing in the real world many sometimes if you watch TV unduly of somebody like that changing the channels of the title but here the speed of changing images 1 after DR is
really very hard be aware that you're going to see a very fast the stream of pictures provide and I want you to clap your hand if you see a cat all right so it's a stream of pictures of and somebody was changing married as a channel on tv you don't know what's coming next right when or if you see a cat truck you had it ready
it groups the you know
I everybody everybody so the cats still
there's a little paradox here but in makes sense In the wake of brain wants to see the world media come 1st you expect to capture before you had a clear streets that seems to be static the detail might be gone but there's enough that is class to see of the interpretation so vision is nothing ways of knowledge and result to memory you could colonizer because you know how capsule class you have no idea the cat was animal and the quote decide upon a new so the current however you up and out of knowledge of the cow sold something very important and this is 1 of the main component of vision is memory after you have seen think how good is your memory once again 10 seconds letter of what you've seen so I'm going to show you tend photographs and then we do a memory test the man who show for about how officer can teach tha
all right so the best if you are sending major clap your hands once if you have not seen that to do nothing let's go the it the excellent
the yes yes excellent
and yet the the this that's
and it's
normal public affairs kind
and yes that I
didn't know what it is that this image that indeed was industry was left right reversed but it is not a big deal and this is perfectly normal while the abilities of the human brain but it is to the meaning at a glance we know alot of information that left to right this kind of faces yeah let's do again
a visual memory demonstration it's exactly the same ID depictions of black and white but it doesn't change our interpretation and the demonstration on right again about half a 2nd each good all those pictures into memory but
so this look fast however this is the time your eyes on the rage spanned looking at something in the world your eyes move very fast to at the time the circuit and even here that was actually more close to us at our right those memories so if you've seen the picture clap your hands once and then the
the no the
and I mean and then
yes OK again of have that feeling of the and I all
right but that actually Q here lethal however in a while you're faced with a lot of those situations you have seen the group pictures you have just stayed with the when 1 if you like I agree they share the same structure the same meaning the same space volume is that the sum of the localization of objects but they don't share exactly the same object and actually choose not spending some time looking at them they can be quite different if and there are 2 channel the bottom is actually a number of room at the top with a different interpretation and what match you'd be lever they were the same is because we chose the beaches a test so that they well resembling in the layout and the 3 D structure and the quantity of object and and
so again the women a lot you have a very good memory that's user can select this some information on we may become they something happening in front of your eyes minute anterior consciousness so
let's come out to the question of creating images with multiple meanings and I'm an area of research that is very a very important time for both for uh when scientists and also for the museum of hearts again show you demonstration of my changing what you expect from in in the display on and because what top than is your facing the world
always in interpreting what's going on so if we sure you display that go from 2 D to 3D or when they moved from in a 3 D space like if you're looking in all of display new moving around sometimes image can change interpretation this is something unexpected something a little different and for you it's perfectly normal it's cool you will see everything was going on you will see it in 3 D by using the new interpretation but there are some when disorder that's a lot this linking of the interpretation going on ways to events going 1 of 2 g over all lack some of them from them all image processing cruelty than we do actually everything so he was a series of demonstrations that our are based on the hybrid images illusion that's a read you is actually to look at how the boy informs speeches and how when when that that's and if you see it the I work was the was the was new images of those new interpretation to it so entrenched time is going to be transforming into Marilyn Monroe eat that we usually like loop from clause that to the display over there and that bike until you see your interpretation just here as a simulation of
going to change the size of the picture if it doesn't work here you can play later was the display something else again remove your glasses or squint your eyes but basically when users stepping away from those type of display that have more interpretation
to interpretation here you should see Marilyn 1 Monroe and your eyes and then he tells
comes back this is the same measure those changes size it better that you play that along with the display over the it so here I with
images of our mental and we can use to study some of the metabolism of the brain that are totally anomalous straightforward for you but maybe a that may be disoriented maybe we can when there's some other states he point is it on we build that I'm going to tell you a little bit how we deal that is the basic idea is to put together so the font interpretation and depending on the viewing distance might not see the same so here will be avenged time transform into my really model and you have 8 over people of India the so what you see depends on the
distance at which you look at the image so that's 1 of the 1st principle you see something and then you have to change your mind and see something else sounds and and women from our way
those of you women so in the face the woman at larger Sun really screens your eyes although far away you will see the end so you can print visual illusions that 2 or more meanings it
here's another demonstration a little more susceptible but when you used to it and have seen that 1 of most that people have no problem changing their mind and seeing the 2nd interpretation so this is going to switch from side surprise all right yes
you have surprise if you see a lot if you don't see it that still normal they
might have to you know play was those experiences and also it really depends on your distance from this for the so this is
exactly the same pictures now we can build up so that there are 2 his interpretation thank you so to support your screen eyes on to those images I hope you able to see her
it believe me this is not a cat the you'll see a all right you might have to go outside this time to see the over interpretation but there was not only a all right if your this standard and mental call it a bit of more about this in a few minutes it's just she also to the other components that are hidden in this picture it's actually a little dog
so here in the middle is underage that looks normal good to most of you have a cat however it has asked reading your eyes or defined really reduce the size you see that in the form of the cats are transforming into a dog and on the left and the right to of the 2 images that we used in order to compose that hybrid image for those of you that are and that know about spatial frequency and image processing the bases of building the signature sometime can really look like with foot to what he but of different interpretation is based on the complement of low and high spatial frequency of details that how you segment images in different of form and how we put them together so we manipulate those image so that we can know what you're going to see depending on the under some the kind of metabolism at
play that we can put into evidence and was the was the those type of our illusion is the fact that again why not I animators transform into an over but I'm attorneys on that the brain is using on this is all in conscious to you but a mechanism that is a weekend when for some went is is is this notion of perceptual grouping which let you see a world but your Buenos to put all of the elements together so here I am maybe most of you at the people in the back but it's very clear for me I see a bytes and there is a wall and there are some shadows do you agree with me on to some of you that there is cast shadows on because I interpret this out of the shadows are cast shuttles then it's very the OK you have this this bites in in in France office of the world but
actually if you will look at this image from FAO where for the you will find the reason have the ability to remove features to give a weekend then you might see that is the motorcycle so it's close by a synoptic and it is unaware interpretation of the image in the shadows become something else sample into another object the so here
are on again double Edward images that we actually using in laboratory on because of it's so it's not it's school to do illusion with multimodal all or some nice our images for demonstration like today when you work in a laboratory and you usual those of pictures to people you want to really are very well master exactly the quantity of information and what's going to happen you want to be sure that everybody's going to see the same interpretation depending on the distance so depending on what a person has to do so to me those 2 faces look the same wouldn't it do you see a woman was an actual emotionally was the but into 1 of the same don't look the same to you because your offer for away but actually behind those faces those really cast shadows are hidden so
the the faces of the modern but as an angry expression on the left and and have more happy positive expression when you work out so don't Our goal picture inserted beyond the images at the top and most of us will be a ball depending on the distance the contrast to go from 1 interpretation to the over however some was such that down in collaboration with other people who are working with the patient population that have come which is a more schizophrenia we can see that the outcome of reluctance to change interpretation like to to move from 1 interpretation to the over 1 and 2 basically integrates the new features in details into the original image and then change their minds so on
what actually is so today was a series of demonstration and some of you the you act as the capitalize on the fact that there's a lot of our when time and that we can study end of a good idea of how they work in normal situation by
transforming the visual world in
unexpected ways on the I believe
that this on on new
visualization display that would show the world in 3 dimensions such as they were erected display and other possibility to change interpretation when you move from 1 side to the other side of the pictures and some playing with the spatial frequency and the hybrid principle even in all of our for display and provide for for tools to creates images where we can control in the world and understand better on how the way this season in this in the world when it is normal for when I it this weekend and there are 2 essential cognitive processes that a little disturbing more or less in autism and schizophrenia for instance is the central currents which is how the visual world is integrated into a meaning for wall and some of the demonstration today actually this you you why want to switch from the bicycle to the motorcycle of from 1 faced with an emotion so this is this metabolism is something that usually works well and selectivity tension which is where the site to be attention selectivity tension is not very good even for all of us because you cannot see was was going on into the the demonstration of this video of the street and was disappearing so those 2 mechanism can be a study was newly released fission display and it's my hope that we could move on to integrating those new tools into the study of the point that my colleague and myself are doing thank you very much few thank you very much maybe we could have the old L C is licensed by the militants over and we have a few minutes once again of 4 questions for uh both so please use the microphone if you like to uh the see hand yes right from you did distressed you have any specific examples of how a person with autism or sit pretty would see that any major mean what is it that they tend not to see that maybe human that
that people with nor the normal scale see it made obscures but some specific examples again having so and 1 of the things I did not and that in going to give you huge condition now is the fact that the dose perception we can really manipulate what you see when we change the presentation time right so because we know that if we change a presentation tend to something like office account instead of lecture circuit looking at then while we have some ideas of the 1st group of mechanism going like you see the wall and the details we know comes later for all of us so when we use the example at the top which was really the example we use in this study was patients that have had some success of that schizophrenia arms and another group use them for a teenager that had some which is in this order the 1st impression was always pays on the lower on the lower parts OK so when we would see the details and neutral woman for instance for officer can't it would kill the the angry man beside or when it was still see this over interpretation that is hidden and was more time they would integrate the over interpretation and be able to change your mind but everything was slowed down in time for this specific study we did so which indicates that some of the essential mechanism of putting things together might be our we can't with those disorders and so if I hope and question thank you means as little I'm fascinated by we presented today particularly in in how I feel it relates to holographic this and given the new systems that are becoming available for us as artists to work with you have about 8 seconds of animation time to work with yes but I'm curious how you see yourselves exploring that when you give me a lot of ideas to tune and because this is something that's in my mind all the time right now but I'm very curious to
see to see how have much much further you've gone in terms of thinking through this next stages yes so on Donald grammar is this goes to the precise nature of this entire so you see any major but your brain can can take into several parts and components like and I bring here you work
to different interpretations so I could go into a world where they might be for different interpretations which is that was the only way you can create an image this course the image that seems to go out and greedy and continue points which change interpretation which was something else but we can make it again so odd those spatial frequency differences which will give you very and imagine where you will see something and something else and then you will and you will see a fair and for interpretation so I would give them the notion that will expand the richness of seeing within a single dimension in space this is a magical somewhere you have 1 object under you you moving between 3 or 4 of 5 or 6 different interpretations depending on the distance so I would other on the composition of spatial frequency and the knowledge we haven't perceptual grouping into the other graphic display to give more are reachable to give more which our representation of the world on what's happening is that most of us we might find this animal interesting all Swedes it's something a lot of me cancer medicine play that happened expected animals so wondering if this is a way to understand better what's going on when the plane is we can't when some of the interpretation just gone you're not getting on then missing then all your disturbed by you 1 more question of all of us here on linking me I have a question for the legal domain and then if we don't have time from now we have a we do have type from art she's so our lawyers know that the eyewitness accounts in notoriously unreliable and yet it used all the time in trials do you think is an historical reason for God in other words is that the evolution of the understanding of vision on at 1 time been thought to be more stable but is created this use of you know the visual evidence is evident tree in court had never been called as an expert witness and can you anticipate trial proceedings changing and delta so this knowledge so I'm not being colony an experiment but not here is the very picture and you may think well I never see very picture you see very picture all the time simply by looking at something far away so when you look at our face when event happening from far away what you sees or this mislead of blurriness mystical coarseness under some in that case it's like the movie the 1st movie you interpret the world because you don't have the details so you putting your knowledge and you interpretation in top of it and this is something that happens I mean you see you so it with this movie that was here to make you laugh and show you what was a what your brain was doing but this is a reality when your very far away from something at me and the 2nd aspect is if there is any emotion in voice in seeing an event there can be 2 companies you forget it or your feature vector did the details and transform them so in motion other to your memory much more memory or much worse memory but certainly move away from the normal range so thank you very much and you have to thank
Chipkarte
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Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel How the brain sees: Optical Illusions and the Potential of Holographic 3–D
Alternativer Titel Insights on Brain Disorders through Optical Illusions and the Potential of Holographic 3–D
Serientitel Photons, Neurons and Bits: Holography for the 21st Century (MIT Museum 2009)
Teil 05
Anzahl der Teile 13
Autor Oliva, Aude
Torralba, Antonio
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung 3.0 Unported:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
DOI 10.5446/30391
Herausgeber River Valley TV
Erscheinungsjahr 2012
Sprache Englisch
Produktionsort Cambridge

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