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it's a genuine pleasure for me to welcome my dear friends of this back to MIT but by Adjustment no it's an all really took come on up until so yes few and FIL I love you dearly but I don't set your salary anymore you can give me the brief introduction the next time that means an awful lot to me seriously but for those of you who are appropriately here primarily to step outside is John said to observe luminous windows etc. I'm led to remember a true story somebody I knew all the way back in the sixties in academic social scientists I gave a talk at a Rotary Club or some such thing in a small town in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and the person that stem after dinner said the following like introduce professor X he's a socialist and then he said but you should stick around and listen to him because after he's finished we have some live entertainment so a little bit that's clear f you listen to me there'll be some artistic entertainment I am just really privileged uh and very happy to be back here at MIT this is my 1st time to be in this new wonderful portion of the MIT Museum bringing it to close to the fruition that were and so many people dreamed about for 4 years and John I'm very grateful for your very active leadership uh I certainly wanna thank my good friend and a person I really do adore Philip hooray for all that he continues to
do for MIT and also to thank Seth rescan who has put
all of this together for us I was also hoping to thank Jean events and but I don't think have detected a here I was hoping she would be here maybe should be in tomorrow but another wonderful wonderful member of our community well Philip pointed out that I now working for the National Academy of Engineering in Washington and this last year we had a little exercise where we got together a little over a dozen
of really brilliant most incredibly innovative and creative and
accomplished engineers if you scientist at least 1 medical doctor and ask them to sort of lock themselves in a room and come up with a set of grand challenges that were things they felt engineers could accomplish in the next 1 or 2 decades of this century that would make life on Earth better and that were really dual no pie-in-the-sky things you think there could really be done this group was chaired by uh was chaired by Bill pairing Stanford professor former secretary defense the United States and plant administration it had at least 2 MIT faculty members engaged in a less Harris Bob Langa were part of this we had Craig Venter Jane Lubchenco who's just been name to be the new director
of the of Noah in Washington we had uh 1 of Google twins of Dean Kamen all these kind of really very imaginative yet there people who still deliver the hardware or the products so they came up with 14 challenges I'm not going to tell you what they all are but they basically fed into 4 buckets 1 having to do with energy environment and sustainability defense against global change a 2nd group having to
do with the role of Engineering in Medicine modern medicine and in the delivery of health care and hopefully more efficient and effective ways to larger numbers of people in a group that had to do with keeping us secure against both man-made threats and natural threats and then finally of course the best part of all something's really having to do with just expanding human capability and and the creation of joy so a group of genes around the country can detect this up and the 1st 2 days of this week I was at Duke University where
we had almost 11 hundred people that have students in half faculty from folks from industry and government to talk about these challenges and how we can better use them to educated
engineers and to attract young women and men into a field and the reason I'm bringing all this up is that the main outcome of that meeting was we're going to fan out across the country to create a group of undergraduate Grand Challenge scholars
and these will be young men and women who will 1st of all be obviously committed to studying engineering and doing getting some project and research experiences undergraduate but who also welcome at to studying in a more highly interdisciplinary way and that joining together they're engineering knowledge with other fields
such as political science ethics business law human behavior of medicine arts sciences and so forth around some coherent theme having to do with 1 of these grand challenges facing humankind so this is kind of been a week in which I've had a chance to be 2 very different venues of being inspired by a truly interdisciplinary kinds of work but were here at MIT today to celebrate and and would have very different activity build around the science and technology and harder pyelography that has for 50 years now 60 years actually crossed traditional academic and social boundaries for somewhat deeper human purposes especially creating a very interesting amalgams of art and
technology pyelography has enabled artists scientists and engineers to produce of course stunningly realistic three-dimensional images to produce stunning clear images of things that obviously can't actually exist and to create wonderful images that enable us literally to C B and C no optical holography as we know it today was largely developed by 3 great pioneers M. at least of the University of Michigan URI Denise shook of Russia's you off the institute and our own beers the baton of MIT they in turn as most of you know build on the work of the physicist Dennis the war at least initial established a fundamentally different way of working with light their discoveries and inventions broadest three-dimensional imaging a variety of ways of processing optically encoded information and new means of visualizing and measuring in various physical phenomenon Steve bands of course was not only an important and
pioneering contributor to these developments but he dramatically broaden the communities of interest in myelography expanding the conceptual basis to a much more general view of 3 dimensional images and working to bring holography from the age of film into the digital age longer fees importance I think is attested to by its continuing ability to inspire and excite those who encounter it for the 1st time few if any other scientific concepts a technologies of the 2nd
half of the 20th century or so readily accessible in their basic form to those with little formal
scientific or engineering training young children continue to marvel at floating three-dimensional images that they encounter in science museums in school science projects and even and souvenir and jewelry shops my own association with holography stems from my days as a faculty member at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor but I'm pleased to have played a bit part in making it possible for our MIT Museum distorted what is the most important collection of all grams in the world but the
real heroes of this endeavor were Stevie
Benton and injury we who conceived and carried out the idea of acquiring the collection of the Museum of Holography in New
York at auction when it closed the story of the auction itself is very interesting is a few of you know but in essence we got the collection because much of the bidding actually ceased when it was recognized that only MIT would keep the collection intact so we therefore have a special stewardship of these treasures and those that have followed them and therefore take a particular joy in this evening so what was my role well is pretty minor I
backstop the financial effort by guaranteeing that MIT would support the purchase if we're able to unable to raise the necessary money fortunately we raise the necessary money so I never got in trouble with the trustees I also ask em at least and you're stupid neck my former colleagues at michigan if they would contribute they're incredibly important pioneering holograms to our cause which they did but the real credit again belongs primarily to Steve Benton and to jury we both of whom we all
miss very much yeah now I'm going to talk a little bit about the early days of holography from my own experience my view of the early days of holography is literally and figuratively
from the fringes I came to work at the will run radar and optics Laboratory at the University of Michigan to learn if it was possible to unlock the quantitative
information in the fringes of holographic interferograms so my
work was not at the heart of holography per say but it followed closely enough after the pioneering advances that I was privileged to work with many of the real pioneers and to appreciate the environment when emphasize that the environments that they developed in the laboratories that enabled all this to happen I believe
I 1st learned about holography in the 19 sixties when Robert how an African American scientist with Boston roots who was then
working also at Michigan's will run
laboratory presented the seminar in our department of Mechanical Engineering at that time I was a graduate student in the Department of focusing on the thermal sciences that is on thermodynamics heat-transfer fluid mechanics things like that nothing having to do with without yeah the seminar presented by about our reviewed the fundamental concept of the formation of holograms and dramatically showed that interference fringes could be formed by juxtaposing light emanating from the actual light source With holographically reconstructed waves that appeared to emanate from an image of the same source I also attended a major press and public briefing on the field in the new field of three-dimensional holographic images that was presented by Amit leaf and you're stupid next in Michigan's Rackham Graduate School Building the impact of that audience was just enormous not only was three-dimensional imagery totally amazing but lasers were sufficiently new that the vast majority of the audience had never seen a laser before after the briefing several now-famous holograms especially that of the model train were on display this was an amazing event in several the holographic images suddenly became very famous in large part due to the outstanding photographs of them made by the great scientific photographer world who publish them in Life
magazine that is actually how the vast majority of the world learned about optical ography later in about 19 68 I was in the final stages of my PhD work on a problem in the field called hydrodynamic stability natural convective flows when I decided to accept an offer to become an assistant professor in mechanical engineering at the University of Michigan this work that
was mostly theoretical was done under the supervised supervision of an excellent mentor Professor evaded party but because I would be joining the family of faculty of the same department in which I had studied I thought it would be important to move into new intellectual territory rather than continue the same directions my supervisor was pursuing thinking about Bob pal seminar general excitement in those days of lasers and holography and the now somewhat more prevalent work on holographic interferometry that was just beginning I sought to work half time in the radar in optics led to determine if this new
technique could become an important
experimental tool for mechanical
engineering research especially in these fields I call the thermal sciences the lab director of the late Bill Brown animately readily agreed and made this possible so I became the only mechanical engineering this group of physicists and electrical and radar engineers so very early on I began to learn both the joy and the value of crossing traditional a traditional disciplinary boundaries it was in this way that I came close to the early developments myelography close in both space and time but I certainly was not at its center nor present at its actual sections the pioneering work in holography at the University of Michigan will
run laboratories was made
possible by
intersections but intersections intersections of ideas intersections of technologies and above all intersections of remarkable people together with a good dose of serendipity most lay
people and indeed scientific and engineering professionals learned about holography the same way I did they read or heard about this amazing new technique for producing realistic three-dimensional images of everyday objects using laser light
the reality the reality is that those who actually developed a lot of the did not intend to make
images of everyday objects and they did their initial work before lasers were available something that has been lost in the mists of history for most people the physicist Dennis Kabul on
1st worked out the concept of what was called uh and quite appropriately wavefront reconstruction or
holography in an attempt to make improved images by electron
microscopic not by like optics today we would refer to the boss technique as in line pyelography and we will all recognize that as an optical imaging technique it was pretty lousy because it suffered from the fact that the reference wave and the reconstructed wave propagated
along the same in your that because of this juxtaposition pyelography remained mostly a curiosity however the concept an
experiment were sufficiently original and potentially important likable or
received the Nobel Prize in Physics for in 1971 but remain for him at least and his colleague yourself at next to seperate the reference wave from the reconstructed wave by placing as a substantial angle between the reference and reconstructed waves and that of course is the
idea that like so many scientific ideas that are really
important is extremely simple in retrospect but was actually quite remarkable like a bore leaf you predicts did not set out to do three-dimensional optical imaging they were radar engineers and remember this was the middle of the cold war they were radar engineers and they were also
familiar with the new field of
communication theory they work to develop coherent radars capable of
high-precision images to develop the necessary concepts they explored the use of optical analogs to coherent radar this got them to thinking about divorce technique of optical holography if they could separate the reference way from the object wave they could build a laboratory scale optical experiment to serve as an analog model of coherent radars In this
way the intersection of
optics and communication theory which prior to that had nothing to do with each other came about so the
development of off-axis holography came from the intersection of optics and communication theory but if it were not for the serendipitous development and commercialization helium-neon lasers at just about the same time limited coherence of mercury vapor light sources a
restricted off-axis holography to being a minor laboratory curiosity so the intersection now of lasers and off-axis holography gave us a new tool
for science for engineering and for r it turns out that it also led to a major delay in the availability of holography and here I'm going to tell you a little inside story that I find very few people now it turns out that there was this major delay here's why during the same period that lease others it will run laboratories were engaging in developing techniques for optical processing of radar images this to this article processing idea was very seminal work and it dramatically improve the ability of radars worn by aircraft to image objects what we would now call Synthetic aperture techniques but extracting the image from the raw data was a monumental
problem in those days because computers had only very very modest computing about optical
data-processing techniques especially after the availability of lasers was a huge advance and presumably a major advantage to the United States and these are the the Soviet Union this as I said was the height of the Cold War and because of national security concerns the fact that radar engineers were working with laser optics was highly classified for this reason there was a very substantial time lag between the time in which leads in open x actually did their early work in off-axis holography and when it was published and made available in the open literature in the late sixties and seventies there were many remarkable fact faculty and researchers working in the raid Optics Lab at Michigan I was fortunate to know many of them we also had remarkable graduate students in the lab in the early seventies people such as raw
Delphinus who days the chief scientist of Bell Labs Don winter who's currently the US Secretary of the
Navy and my own graduate student Don Sweeney was had a very productive career 1st Purdue University but mostly at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and especially well known for his work in the field of ultraviolet orthography but the holography pioneer who most
influenced enabled my own work was Carlstadt stats Karl had left the radar
optics led just about the same time I arrived there to go to work and new settings of an industrial laboratory mostly at Ford scientific
laboratories and later near here in Connecticut at United Technologies Research Center is was the most seminal and comprehensive view of the field of holographic interferometry when I began doing some of my research and my primary interest as I've said was not in the
motion of solid opaque objects which most people were paying
attention to but rather in the measurement of three-dimensional temperature and density fields and my word making the
unseen seen finding ways 1st of visualizing this this was not of much interest to the mission of the laboratory but the open minded people who ran enabled me to start this work but to earn my keep I was assigned to be the principal investigator on a rather large a project that was sponsored by are the Advanced Research Project Agency on the use of optical holographic interferometry for the nondestructive testing a solid objects especially for the detection of subsurface cracks in voids things to make sure radio that aircraft fuselages are intact things like that so in 1971 I was sent to an opera contractors meeting the here at the Watertown Arsenal just outside Boston as I was driving along stauro drive on my way to that meeting across the river from MIT literally not exaggerating when I was listening to the local news and what did I hear but the announcement that Jerome Wiesener formerly President Kennedy science adviser had just been elected the
13th president of MIT now let me tell you that in my wildest dreams I could not imagine that 19 years later I would have the privilege of becoming MIT
15th president Carl Stetson I referred to uh likes to paraphrase General MacArthur and
say that old holographers never die they just become incoherent and I have to tell you that as a dedicated teacher and researcher in 1971 I would have considered the thought that some there would be a university president as proving that coral was exactly right but such is life so I last saw him not leave at the at a
celebration many of you know well that Nicholson and Nicholas Negroponte and I hosted here at MIT in honor of Steve Benton at the media lab and as you know Steve passed away literally the day before this extraordinary meeting and at least was there it you're reading shock was there within 1 year all 3 of these great pioneers should not yet just was an incredible thing to think about Steve who as Philip said that invented the rainbow hologram was another remarkably creative pioneer yeah he was also a teachers teachers and above all he built remarkably important bridges between the holography community and the arts community the holography art connection also played a role in the early days of holography and gave rise to incredible things that could have happened only in the sixties and seventies I think especially of Lloyd Cross who had worked on lasers and mazes it will run lab and then later in
the defense industry but chucked at all and then went on to work on multiplex holograms and found the San Francisco holography school which was essentially a comune devoted to pyelography they decided in this column in that they didn't very much like methyl so they fashion surprisingly accurate things like like anamorphic lenses for the scientists and engineers here by mounting clear plastic pole cases filled with silicone in wooden fixtures and painstakingly adjusting them until they had just the right optical properties I once visited the School of Holography together with an at leaf and Steve Madden and migrate claim to fame by actually met ham how many of you know pan hammers is the 1 blowing the chaos in the famous rotating hold grand that thousands and thousands of people of C so in closing let me just comment on that the role of art and the Humanities but let's focus larger at our at MIT is really very special something very much to be traced many of us do not feel that even at that role is strong enough but it is here it is clearly part of what makes MIT MIT and today as I go around the country visiting other institutions with lots of engineering and science they are just now beginning to create programs which that merge technology and science and art and frankly they're doing very much what MIT was doing 10 20 30 40 years ago the history of has media led by our wonderful arts programs across the whole institution these are really something to be traded and the last little reflection
i want to leave with you in this regard and I hope I'm not trampling on any of toes here but I've discovered the last 15 years as I've gone around the world to your to universities in Europe universities in Asia where there is a strong focus on engineering and science when I tell them how important the arts are to making MIT what it is I met
with blank stares most people just do not understand that but I believe it is a very important to
use 2 days of vernacular of it's a very important comparative advantage that we in the United States have that are engineers and scientists are generally educated and live for some period of their lives within a million you're where they mixed with artists with social scientists with humanists and so many
others and I just cannot imagine MIT without a strong merge program
and so on and especially the privilege to
be here this evening and the be part of 1 little additional step
forward and upward on that journey to make an even more important home the arch at MIT thank you very much fewer
and 5th with 4th 5th Oh thank you so Chuck is agreed to take some questions or comments if any of you yes please so we're not word yet the
fact but not the not huge and I would really need to check my facts but I'm saying there I'm suspecting there is at least a 5 year lag and some of the more technical aspects of the work that really were not published for many years after that so it wasn't huge but it would have happened little faster the year pardon I would have to go back and check the records in the ah because of him at wrote a paper that I'm pretty sure it was clear up into the seventies or eighties and when the eye tripoli journals in which he she went back over this whole history and I think you could probably fix the dates from that and I don't think it was huge but it may be an amendment as much as 4 or 5 years so the on this story true that actually and it was dead accidentally discovered the off-axis configuration by
a incremental experimentation it was not really something that was thought about it was something that happened in a somewhat serendipitously so I think that it is absolutely accurate to say that that yeah made his discovery if you will all thought through this off-axis business and a pretty
disciplined technical manner but the history especially of holographic interferometry the development and use of friend fringes that was discovered by probably a dozen different people around the world mostly by accident but I think the off-axis idea that they had came from from
pretty straightforward technical thinking what else
that
it of the of the of the original annotation of the wife you have a lot of the of the of the of the of the work of you in the middle of the world and you will be at the
time of the book and
Bit
Bildschirmfenster
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Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Keynote
Serientitel Photons, Neurons and Bits: Holography for the 21st Century (MIT Museum 2009)
Teil 02
Anzahl der Teile 13
Autor Vest, Charles
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung 3.0 Unported:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
DOI 10.5446/21960
Herausgeber River Valley TV
Erscheinungsjahr 2012
Sprache Englisch
Produktionsort Cambridge

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