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Lecture 16: Oxidation Reactions

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a lot of last time talking about hydrogenation catalytic hydrogenation Sotomayor's million years the there's the story where we use
hydrogen gas and a catalyst so that there's many catalysts I'm only going to talk about palladium platinum and nickel and what I typically uses palladium just to make it easier for you less for for you to memorize and so I usually use of use palladium highly actual direct reaction but it has an enormous energy of activation so you need a catalyst that doesn't really happen without the catalyst all right so typical catalysts somewhat myself room so palladium and platinum and and of course I'm going the UC using of the Palladium so that's a
100 years so they can also changes the nature of the transition state I don't want suggests that this is the acts all energy diagram for the catalytic hydrogenation the point I'm trying to make this energy diagram is that when you add a catalyst to change their reaction pathway and it doesn't really doesn't have to be the same pathways so it's not a one-step process by any means it's just that you you provide different category that has lower energy so as you can see that this would be wait to energy of activation for the UN catalyze reactions never happen OK so the NEA is huge so reaction doesn't go without catalyst so so another education just because this is a very excellent reactionary reactions and go breezily if it has a very high energy of activation then it's not going to go easily so here here is the catalyze reactions and again this is just generic but you can see that this is a much smaller energy of activation and we still have to come up with this much more but even so much lower energy of activation so this whole thing is the catalyze reactions so in this case the catalyst provides a different lower energy pathway all right so that's all we need to know about that energy diagram here is an example of a catalytic hydrogenation we take a polyunsaturated fatty acids and 8 to Nichols so you will recognize this from the podcasts is 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 years of polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid and so this was a melting point of minus 8 degrees centigrade so liquid at room temperature and once we hydrogenated that we get a saturated fatty acids solidarity temperature so this would be on foot fully hydrogenated fatty acid and then of course we have partially hydrogenated and partially hydrogenated we use a different catalysts we still use H 2 buoys different catalysts and in that process some of the the is double bonds become trance and that's when it becomes really helpful to to us when we do that so that's the whole idea of this is a fully hydrogenated so how does this
work on my way to think this is a mechanism you don't have to draw these guys on her testimony as to any mechanisms from this this chapter but I want to give you an idea a little bit of an idea how this happens and so I am just going to go take you through the process hydrogen is on the ATG ads were not the same thing as Abbas ordered ED had stormed on onto the surface of the metal and when it does that mean we're going to get these of hydrogen that the hydrogen hydrogen bond rates apart a get a bunch of these guys here on the surface of the model so that's the hydrogen and storage and then what happens is we got this hydrogen and sorbets was that continue with these guys here the other out team moves in I'm until to sell keen on its side so I should to switch that her -dash that that is the guest series that started with him so it turns out he side this is going to approach the surface of the mountain it's going to get closer than that but I think it too much closer because my have hydrogen is away as you can see getting and come close to the surface of a and when it comes in the vicinity of 1 of these moves puts adds a new hydrogen hydrogen here these are going to add to the same side here so what's going to happen in this next phase is that the arm we've got a hydrogen is here the AL team goes now we have something that looks like this this is now bonded to the island surface of the metal we've broken the tie bombs again not going to have to reproduces and and what happens is that 1 of these hydrogen hydrogen is like these guys here which I didn't have room for are going add to the same side and so what you get is something that looks like this we have these hydrogen is going back as hydrogen coming forward and it's released once this hydrogen adds to the same Siam luckily do aerial pushing here but you can see that and we still have these other writers and you're ready to add to another Alpena when bonds to the and then that was away and so this is the UN h to added to the article so it is a sin in addition very important you know that's in addition so the overall result for this
reaction here it is ,comma send version of H 2 to the article there is a and additions summary page that I forgot to add to the practice link and then add that this afternoon and that summarizes all the addition reactions we talked about and I actually have this 1 on their also said the same addition there's an entire division and the other's reactions give a mixture of Sunni and tied that hand will really help you when you're trying to kind of get all this stuff together from Chapter 2 students so far anybody let's talk about hydrogenation about that
so key tones and Allardyce heights can reduce with age to a nickel-plated platinum although it's much more common to use lithium aluminum hydrate so you more of a high price for the same reduction so we're not going to use this very often more common this is chapter 20 which is 1 of the 1st chapters you go you know we talk about 51 so right now this is the only way to reduce the ones with the and so were hydrated in the really important reagents and 51 seats and is a more common way to do this but known as serious as key Johnson Aldo hides not carboxyl gasses investors the picture Jones and allies not carboxyl aghast ancestors Anonymous and we can prove that as we
just didn't right at the top .period in only his go back when we
reduce the hydrogenated has polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acids we reduce the teams we did not touch the carboxyl gas right this will not work for for carboxyl gasses so that makes a good point Our Excellency without looks like the same
idea here for adding hydrogen and understand doctors as it comes in adding the elements of hydrogen to that carbon-oxygen double bonds so when you do catalytic hydrogenation here's what you get so H 2 added across a double 1 it's a sin edition so it's OK to use that now but when we get into Chapter 20 you're going to use lithium aluminum hydride or sodium or hydride any pH for instead In 51 so this is going to make more sense to you when you come back and look at these notes when you're already in 51 C cognitive semesters imaging carboxyl guests resistant to hydrogenation and will not
typically react with age to palladium platinum nickel and so as you can see here this is in no reaction Our right that leads us right to is
that this page 94 registration and useful that leads us to reduction at all points when I was introduced alkaline now we have enough time we have to buy bonds it turns out we can reduce 1 of them a we can reduce both of them we can do we can do either so if we do full hydrogenation I'm going to draw the carbon skeleton and a majority of hydrogen commune in in a different color so you can see what's happening here organ added we're going at it twice so here's some 1 of the bonds meaning hydrogenated and then we can hydrogenated 2nd it we use these catalysts here we will get full hydrogenation even if you use 1 equivalent to base to you will still get full hydrogenation of what the catalyst to have our own and good luck trying to chew on all lead was 1 equivalent of age to it's a gas laser Harry unity that -dash measure of wonderful initiative as it seemed barely not it's doable but it's not easily doable so we could if we wanted just add hydrogen once we have to use a different cars so the weighed these catalytic hydrogenation is redundant ,comma fun you gotta Stefan around 1 plastering solvent and then Philip a balloon with hydrogen gas you put a little real on the area's taken so that the Analyze and that's how you do it so really difficult if you only needed 1 equivalent of 8 students going to be very hard to do so if we want to do with partial hydrogenation we have to make the catalyst less powerful enough to warrant doing rather than trying to land at the age to so that we we make the catalyst West Apple as we it poison the catalyst it's helpful extend capitalist at what you do with win-loss catalyst show you what that is on the next page what happens with Lula's catalyst poison catalyst there is a regions that are added to it that tone down the reactivity and poisons have a good word there because that's what it seems like it's doing making it less reaction because it's
poisoning the catalyst so this is what it would look like addition right so let's try the hydrogen is in a different colors frequencies and addition revenue hydrogen Nevada saloon large catalysts so this is our stereos electives in addition to give this a sulking I need to know that stereo selected syndication To give Sasaki if you want to train and sometimes you wanted Transall rather than a since we're going to use it differently agent and this is called a dissolving metal reduction so you take a
chunk of sodium you added to liquid ammonia money isn't as a gas at room temperature you could would undermine 78 U.S. choppers sodium and then you add you're out you're out kind you will get Styria selective entitled tuition so it's during was straw that again 1st skeleton here and as you can see no immediate trance I will not trigger the mechanism that it's a little complicated it involves radicals and we'll talk about radicals sensible Chapter 15 so it's not really something that's appropriate to show you right now and not even after we Chapter 15 solicited some stereo selected Entiat To give us a cellphone during the trend something yeah questions about the production so far OK so we
poison palladium catalysts we had led and went away and that reduces the reactivity so here's menorahs catalyst don't try to find it in your book they don't show you and and here's the way it works with me and you can see right when large catalyst you don't need to draw out what all the love in all the regions are misses palladium ,comma calcium carbonate so what is that thing this is reaction takes place on the surface of a medal if you increase the surface area you increase the rate of reaction so very often the Palladium is deposited on something that has a lot of forests so that you can increase the surface area and so that's what the Palladium on calcium carbonate and then you add led acetate so led poisonous for us also poisonous for the catalyst we will go into the details of why that is but since it is the case In equivalent answer let's swimmers catalyst and like I said you can sit straight large catalyst that's what some people do was alright large catalyst but they'll forget he ever important aged 2 you have to have a source of hydrogen added the arcane so you need don't forget to add the hydrogen at any nation liquid dissolving the production on you which is a castle the talked about this but we take a chunk of sodium Minnesota becomes an class .period donates an electron in May and extreme becomes a needs to minus 1 loses approach so this was the 2nd type of reduction that we were talking about so that any and extreme liquid it is a source said 2 electrons plus 2 2 hydrogen to protons to electrons into production alright the 3rd type of those who reducing agent they were going to talk about is lithium aluminum hydride and that is it's a hydride region the reaction also has sent you mechanism here's what it looks like the lithium we're going assumes a spectator answer you can completely leave that out entirely here's what aluminum hydrate looks like a L H 4 there is a negative charge on aluminum and it is a hydride stores so we're going to be transferring 1 of those of hydrogen from aluminum on already using that to attract carbon so when put long peers on the bromine Oregon actually do innocent reaction here when we change the color so it's a little clearer the arrow can come from any 1 of the aluminum hydrogen bonds were the attack carbon and we're going to break the carbon bromine ball and so we replaced the bromine so this is a substitution reaction were hydride is our nuclear file and this is a very very powerful lithium aluminum hydride is a very very powerful and the files it's also a powerful base powerful base based slashing nuclear follow and we know it's a very powerful but we we know it's a very powerful new good fall because it does at this issue reaction is a very fast reaction but we know it's a very powerful basically look at the T of the conjugate acid the conjugate passages each to if it acts as a basis and that is approximately 35 and so we know it's also a very powerful face so and it can do the same things that some of our other indignantly files can also open up in the Parkside so this is what it would look like if it opens up Parkside here's a reagent this is where it what I'd like to know what I like to call famous region hinting meaning that you will use it a lot this is going to be a really were not using it that much right now now but when you get into 51 see you will use it a lot and so it's a really important reagents yearlong took away and think about using a synthesis so what it would look like here again the comes from the aluminum hydrogen bond it's a powerful falsely attack on the substituted call when it went up in my 1st year there about them so attacks at least substituted side and once you do you have you open up the Parkside Oh my list so this looks like something straight out of Chapter 9 Alaska Chapter 9 and it's really this is going to react just like this strong nuclear files in Chapter 9 N H O H you can also use age 3 0 plus here and really were adding a 2nd acid stepped up because we want probe Nadia Parkside and so that's all we're doing in that 2nd step so extremely powerful army could fall and make sure that you number these steps so number's steps really important In recent is if you add lithium aluminum hydride to water it's going to blow up right all over you OK it's very very powerful but when you do this reaction you do the lithium aluminum hydride you let the 1st reacted run its course once we get everything converted into this year new plot that that reaction vessel into a nice bath you let it cool to let some very very cold you cautiously added drop of water Annual if you'll see hydrogen gas coming out very violent reaction you wait for that cools off stops and then you have another drop cautiously so I am really particular about on this number in here if you mix these together you will not get any reaction you get any points so make sure that this is a little migrate and this is water I had an explosion in grad school armed with lithium will hydrate so I have a tremendous amount of respect for this very powerful reagent I was actually doing a distillation and the lithium aluminum hydride was used as a drying agent to get rid of water in my reactant that I was trying to do and I'm so I had it going in my homeland and I lowered the lab jacket and I saw I still have some were left in there I raise the lab Jack close this Ashuelot full bloom in the whole thing exploded so I was like I was seconds away from getting my hand blown off honestly so maybe I am particularly about the numbering of the steps that had reason to right got anyway so that it's very powerful it's that powerful and so on certainly we wanted to do this but cautiously we want 1 step 1 and then we add the water in the high during a mine in the 2nd step are excellent the moment says this is a source of this strongly basic hydride
ion since this is a lot innocent your reaction using a strong base works well only for 100 primary and metal substrates and of course we can also attack upon science and I wanted to try this 1 is doing this weird screwing things and the fact that a correct answer because of the strong nuclear violent attacks at the least substituted side I do we make a point here and that is that NDA H will not work for this reaction so don't try to use any don't you know you might think yourself I'm really clever outlined I'm no sodium hydride and that's easier to remember H minus is easier to remember than I am they always Linus harmonies that state of Sony either does not use the same reaction of lithium aluminum hydride and does even know they're both hydride sources that the difference here is that so you might write is actually on this is that age minds is actually an ionic compounds this is a covalent bond here between aluminum and hydrogen and so on they don't react the same way and a beach all only does acids and bases reactions and never acts as a nucleophile so on that's a good thing to remember let's write that down many which only does acid-base reactions it never access nuclear file To do substitution options I mean you could actually categorize it as evasive action as it is is acting as a new good probably doesn't need only does Bronstad was let's clarify that Bronstad Aceves reactions and never acts as nuclear file the substitution substitution reactions focus something to keep in mind without saying why the question so far anybody that's it for a reduction reactions never talk about oxidation reactions
and all these regions so we got a couple stray I'm circle the ones that I use most so that will limit the amount that you have to memorize so we had a grievance regions for reduction now we are only going to have to different types number 1 is regions they contain an oxygen oxygen bond so we've got a lot to ozone hydrogen peroxide after few peroxide proxy hostages however originally her that's a proxy these guys but was written views this as a proxy so proxy Osasuna things were going pennzoil peroxide is a proxy acid and yes that's the same stuff that you get in acne medicine Bensalem peroxide actually putting understand that's 1 of the regions in this category and then regions that contain a metal oxygen bond would be the 2nd tight chromium reagents so we we have this I will be be using this this is another form of that use sodium dichromate is is interchangeable This is the 1 I use I use this 1 I also use this 1 PCC is 1 of those famous didn't use a lot so this is an important 1 but I also use this 1 I think a metaphor so they might drop side we will also use that 1 too Bosnian science so much they don't really use there is an awesome intense trip to oxide reaction that I will also use but not as much of the famous ones are to be the eyes there is a lot the crummy reagents here both of the crummy reagents and these guys not as much but they also do something decree activities that we have to talk about questions similiar appear where talk 1st about oxidation in approximation that's where we're going to use the proxy assets
so boxy I watch these indigenous single oxygen to announce gained a four-minute pop Davis
reagents you're gonna uses a lot and so here's the idea we haven't keen plus a proxy acid also use Jerry chemistry in a minute this is 1 of the strongest without stirring chemistry your side product is a carboxyl Okasan the mechanism is not is not on the test but I'll show you because some people like the mechanism they like to see it makes more sense if they see it so here's what the mechanism looks like we have here is and just in case you remember when you come back to this list is right that mechanism not on tests again I suppose I was going to ask you any mechanisms from Chapter 12 so this is Chapter 12 knocking asking that and you'll see why I don't ask you this is a very strange looking hero pushing I remember having
to memorize this mechanism when I was a student and did really help me with anything was just a little bit was a little crazy and a little hard to wrap my head around and once you see that I will definitely change colors here
as to what you see their personal CY so 1st era comes from the pipe onto the oxygen and then we break the oxygen oxygen bond move this over this era comes and picks up this hydrogen and electrons from this point communion attacked the other science you glad you don't have to remember that so basically think about it this way but we have we have the the peroxide and were delivering 1 of the oxygen to the Elkington taken apart sigh and I am not shows Jerry chemistry here any resumption streak here is because we have stereo chemistry of about the arcane we see that we start with this assault team if we start with the Cissell keen we will get this this the side and your psychotic which we're going and not worry about them in a drawer out here just to complete this is a carboxyl gas do not need to include that if I have a predicting products this is a carboxyl acid Cyprus on the test you only would have to draw if it's a predicting products are the most common proxy acid is medical world proxy been Zoellick acid and this is the only 1 that I will use what I like about this 1 is the most common Wyoming and it has a nice little abbreviation for Little M C P III can use abbreviations but please be aware that the proxy acid because I think there's some problems in sampling and probably in Smith where they use just a proxy acid that's not specifically and see the VA and you'll be thrown off if you don't realize what what that actually all right so here's an example here this is the only proxy acid I will use so here's an example we start off with the 2 bewteen also known as Trans to new teams and endowment that is in a Cairo region many keep track events in the car we do not stir chemistry about the Al-Qaeda's trance we wanted notice that some MCP VA is also a carnival so if we react the Cairo regions so we have no Cairo influence of were making new stereo center then we need we must get overseeing the mixture we must get a receipt pictures so really get of answers Salemme to an insurers having an apparent answer 1st oxygen can command from the top or the bottom here but do notice that knuckles a relationship between the metals they are transom team and they are trends in the approximate also that's important to get the other uninsured remembered the saltiness planar so the proxy came in from the top working command from the bottom to get the other Indian you the oxygen comes in from the bottom so like that the name of this plus sign over
those are the 2 products so apparent interest
registers selectively to knows that gives only transitory three-dimensional observations gets only so we maintain Missouri chemistry of these 2 on methyl groups on in the AL teams this actually gives the same arm exactly the same product that we get with our very way of making a park sites are other way of making a sites is to do make deal to make available hybrid and then use sodium hydride OK so that's the other way we get the same exact product mixture plus Placentia so it's the same to an intuitive gets these reactions are interchangeable but I'll tell you right now that everybody likes the idea of using rather than using 2 steps so you can use these interchangeable probably from here on out no one's going to use this 2nd mounted animals museums MCP instead that's perfectly fine so as you can see we have because of the fact that have this is a car rolled and this is a Cairo we're going to get a pair of any insurance on Monday as we did have some kind of Cairo on reagent here and we could just get 1 Parkside and not the other was a single insular and that's what happens in the sharpest was asymmetrical participation he actually uses it makes a car catalysts the area agents are shown on the next page this is a tightening catalyst and do you use 1 of the 2 would ease the plots are Otter terror gazetted the minus ancestor Tareq gasses and not with the 1 that you choose depends on which an answer where you're trying to make and then all of these these 2 regions catalytic amounts what happens is that these
some regions assemble themselves into a catalysts that will you the way to think about it is it's it's it's kind of an applicant enzyme has its Cairo it's going to react to have only 1 of the products this is found to repeal height of peroxide this is 1 of the 1 so these are catalysts and we only have 1 equivalent of that and so instead of getting a receipt mixture you can get a single an inch so here we have they got this is a part but this is and you can see that you can you can and you can choose which can ensure you can you want based on the catalyst in years now there's reactions in this year is Smith's book where they have you predicts the correct any onshore I'm not having do that so I don't want you to do that I'm not going to I'm not going to ask you to predict the collective natural on tests and I'm trying to show you an idea rather than having to predict will pay so I 2 Highbury highly and selective you can change history chemistry
this actually this reaction force of other work that sharp listed actually earned him the Nobel Prize it's really important idea in concept that's super to think about especially if you're a chemistry major right the reaction only works without Lilic alcohol so we know in our league alcohol is so if you do the reaction with just With this compound here the only Alpena you're going to put in a pot site on this 1 right here and that's because it's always also attacked the entire tenure is part of the catalyst sell and you you with this will be left alone this only works without the halls and so this is the product that you would get again I I don't think that you are need to predict these products on the test that's not important and I'm not going to ask you that and so on but students usually think that I'm going to ask this question on the test because of professor Sharpless was was a professor when I was in grad school and I actually teenagers class 3 times and so when I got what I got my Ph.D. I have a picture of me sitting with their doctors Sharpless seal he's holding 1 of my molecules that I made and so this nice picture with a Nobel laureate but that doesn't mean I'm going to ask you learn this because I like him I like the reaction like the work he's done I I'm trying I always asking questions that are going to be important for you moving on in this series and this is not important for you living on series such as more and more about about a concept here are rights questions anybody died hydroxyl nation is the next election yes you certainly can't yet the certainty are but you don't need to take the correct catalyst your because you need to remember that right there is a mnemonic for drawing the wreck crackpot octagonal you feeling breaks friends faced with that in mind OK so that's not important for you to move on and the series so died oxidation and this is an old die also that means we get to alcohols right next to each other and their security agents for their and this is the 1 that I used and the only reason I use that 1 is because you've seen potassium remaining before haven't you you remember that from she can came at 0 for circles did use it allowed yeah purple right and then when it reacts to what happens during number had such a vivid image of this Brown's sludge on the bottom line now and then 0 2 is brown precipitate lazy staff was beautiful purple and then you get Brown Pacific so the recent using that is because it's already familiar to you a little bit I hope and so that's the 1 I am and I ask so it's a sin Diane hydroxyl Asian so that means that the 2 hydroxyl scum on the same side what did I skip out of hydrogen as women doing this side am skipping I'm skipping area thank you for pointing out right so soon Sinn edition have 2 hydroxyl to opening so now we got colors here that's labeled this says purple With the purple 10 about that I don't have ground following have room somewhere here that's Brown students cluster Brown said in a note to it's not really quite ground but it's close enough to have a little error because it's a precipitate so To said it is as you have a visual there and senators into hydroxyl so you can also do the same thing with Osmond had trucks also also was in following our doing now on the call around American schools here's my mental on 1 side here's my hydrogen on the other hand and I've got my wages also and eyedrops solutions well we can enhance here yeah it's a comedy ,comma were making a move to new stereo centers plus an insurer did I leave office an insurance previous 1 Is that no careful with that policy that you're going to be allowed to use of term to that is a car also we won't have coffee appointed cemetery here this 1 is not a viable so we have to help will have we will definitely have been answered this is also a scene died oscillation I believe that these 2 reactions are also on the addition summary sheet of posting this afternoon if not then you can print it out and can be used to it all right so here's an example here is an example near hardly naked so these are 2 ways to do send I'm really entranced eyedrops salacious the opening up of topside so you make the Parkside site in chloroform or step 1 under running water step to those are interchangeable we make in a pop science so this is old news we already know that and then we can do on sodium hydroxide water weaker or we can open a separate arson or each 3 0 plus water alright if we use them sodium hydroxide hydroxide attacks and then we we break this summer carbon-oxygen font that gives us various this is going to be here all minors we have our hydroxyl coming up here and then we approach made here we would approach it with water so definitely can you see that that's a trans die hydroxyl edition so our product is strands so I need to know that to do so we're going to do potassium for making any and to do transferred into a pop side and then open it up with your acid or base that's a perfect stopping play ,comma sovereign guarantee guys ever greater three-day weekends
Hydrierung
Aktivierungsenergie
Fest-Flüssig-Extraktion
Reaktionsführung
Zigarre
Magnetometer
Computeranimation
Carcinoma in situ
Nickel
Mannose
Wasserstoff
Insulinkomabehandlung
Trihalomethane
Hochdruckhydrierung
Bohrium
Palladium
Platin
Hydroxybuttersäure <gamma->
Differentielle elektrochemische Massenspektrometrie
Aktivierungsenergie
Phasengleichgewicht
Stoffwechselweg
Aktivität <Konzentration>
Reaktionsführung
Wursthülle
Magnetometer
Trennverfahren
Computeranimation
Doppelbindung
Säure
Auftauen
Mannose
Körpertemperatur
Übergangszustand
Alkoholgehalt
Durchfluss
Trihalomethane
Bohrium
Gesättigte Fettsäuren
Hochdruckhydrierung
Chemischer Prozess
Metallatom
Phasengleichgewicht
Oktanzahl
Computeranimation
Allmende
Additionsreaktion
Lewisit <Giftgas>
Mannose
Reaktionsmechanismus
Oberflächenchemie
Chemische Bindung
Altbier
Insel
Tiermodell
Hydrierung
Fülle <Speise>
Phasengleichgewicht
Reaktionsführung
Tank
Säure
Sorbet
Mischen
Wasserstoffbrückenbindung
Bohrium
Chemische Bindung
Chemischer Prozess
Alkene
Hydroxybuttersäure <gamma->
Orlistat
Computeranimation
Gasphase
Altern
Base
Lewisit <Giftgas>
Mannose
Lithium
Trihalomethane
Bohrium
Platin
Carboxylierung
Aluminium
Alkene
Homöopathisches Arzneibuch
Hydrierung
Mastzelle
Magnetometer
Setzen <Verfahrenstechnik>
Aluminiumhydrid
Natrium
Computeranimation
Allmende
Gasphase
Doppelbindung
Lewisit <Giftgas>
Mannose
Sense
Lithium
Natriumhydrid
Gesättigte Fettsäuren
Hochdruckhydrierung
Chemisches Element
Carboxylierung
Hydroxybuttersäure <gamma->
Kohlenstofffaser
Setzen <Verfahrenstechnik>
Peroxyacetylnitrat
Computeranimation
Altern
Mannose
Redoxsystem
Wasserstoff
Chemische Bindung
Alkane
Palladium
Platin
Biologisches Lebensmittel
Differentielle elektrochemische Massenspektrometrie
Hydrierung
Reaktionsführung
Querprofil
Reaktivität
Magnetometer
Base
Gelöster organischer Stoff
Nickel
Säure
Blei-208
Katalysatorgift
Gift
Farbenindustrie
Vancomycin
Initiator <Chemie>
Bohrium
Hochdruckhydrierung
Palladium
Radikalfänger
Potenz <Homöopathie>
Metallatom
Hydrierung
Natrium
Humifizierung
Computeranimation
Gelöster organischer Stoff
Carcinoma in situ
Umsatz <Chemie>
Ammoniak
Stickstofffixierung
Mannose
Redoxsystem
Gift
Reaktionsmechanismus
Bach
Farbenindustrie
Palladium
Gensonde
Nitrosamine
Metallatom
Mischgut
Lambic
Bodeninformationssystem
Chinolin
Wursthülle
Oktanzahl
Wasser
Computeranimation
Mannose
Redoxsystem
Wasserstoff
Reaktionsmechanismus
Haschisch
Säure
Oberflächenchemie
Terminations-Codon
Substrat <Chemie>
Lipopolysaccharide
Elektron <Legierung>
Reaktionsführung
Hydride
Reaktivität
Halogenide
Magnetometer
Base
Alben
Substitutionsreaktion
Protonierung
Base
Wassertropfen
Maische
Wasserblüte
Gift
Primärelement
Bohrium
Explosion
Monoaminoxidase
Brom
Oxirane
Kohlenstofffaser
Maskierung <Chemie>
Hydride
Aceton
Chemische Verbindungen
Hydrate
Altern
Ionenpumpe
Wasserfall
Bach
Alkane
Atombindung
Calciumcarbonat
Palladium
Braunes Fettgewebe
Biosynthese
Acetate
Konjugate
Destillateur
Differentielle elektrochemische Massenspektrometrie
Hydrierung
Potenz <Homöopathie>
Chemischer Reaktor
Querprofil
Setzen <Verfahrenstechnik>
Quellgebiet
Aluminiumhydrid
Gangart <Erzlagerstätte>
Tank
Natrium
Aluminium
Metastase
Coffein
Vancomycin
Farbenindustrie
Lithium
Natriumhydrid
Wasserstoffbrückenbindung
Aluminium
Palladium
Hydroxybuttersäure <gamma->
Metallatom
Arzneimittel
Computeranimation
Allmende
Ozon
Mannose
Redoxsystem
Chemische Bindung
Säure
Altbier
Chrom
Pleuramesotheliom
Aktivierung <Physiologie>
Aktivität <Konzentration>
Fülle <Speise>
Setzen <Verfahrenstechnik>
Dauerwelle
Magnetometer
Natrium
Dichromate
Peroxide
Azokupplung
Biofouling
Verhungern
Thermoformen
Acetonitril
Wasserstoffperoxid
Sauerstoffverbindungen
Bohrium
Alkene
Sauerstoffverbindungen
Chemische Forschung
Monoaminoxidase
Wursthülle
Computeranimation
Allmende
Epoxide
Säure
Mannose
Sense
Reaktionsmechanismus
Säure
Nebenprodukt
Farbenindustrie
Sauerstoffverbindungen
Alkene
Carboxylierung
Chemische Forschung
Pipette
Butene
Metallatom
Hydrierung
Elektron <Legierung>
Medikalisierung
Peroxide
Computeranimation
Allmende
Epoxide
Substitutionsreaktion
Mannose
Säure
Chemische Bindung
Mischen
Vancomycin
Sauerstoffverbindungen
Allmende
Alkene
Carboxylierung
Hydroxybuttersäure <gamma->
Carbonsäuren
Sauerstoffverbindungen
Chemische Forschung
Biosynthese
Nitrosamine
Omega-3-Fettsäuren
Computeranimation
Gasphase
Mannose
Methylgruppe
Sammler <Technik>
Polyurethane
Natriumhydrid
Trihalomethane
Hybridisierung <Chemie>
Enzym
Aktives Zentrum
Krankengeschichte
Insulin
Spätburgunder
Baltischer Bernstein
Reaktionsführung
Querprofil
Nobelium
Proteasom
Magnetometer
Gangart <Erzlagerstätte>
Peroxide
Magma
Mischen
Vancomycin
Natriumhydrid
Adenosylmethionin
Chemische Forschung
Peroxide
Alkohol
Hydroxide
Chloroform
Wasser
Chemische Verbindungen
Lösung
Computeranimation
Mannose
Redoxsystem
Nobelium
Fällung
Säure
Natriumhydrid
Molekül
Lactitol
Weibliche Tote
Aktives Zentrum
Kalium
Natriumhydroxid
Röstkaffee
Hydrierung
Reaktionsführung
Cluster
Querprofil
Gangart <Erzlagerstätte>
Base
Hydroxylierung
Osmium
Farbenindustrie
Inlandeis

Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Lecture 16: Oxidation Reactions
Serientitel Chemistry 51B: Organic Chemistry (Winter 2015)
Teil 16
Anzahl der Teile 26
Autor King, Susan
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 3.0 USA:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen und das Werk bzw. diesen Inhalt auch in veränderter Form nur unter den Bedingungen dieser Lizenz weitergeben.
DOI 10.5446/21610
Herausgeber University of California Irvine (UCI)
Erscheinungsjahr 2015
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Chemie
Abstract UCI Chem 51B: Organic Chemistry (Winter 2015) Instructor: Susan King, Ph.D. This is the second quarter of the organic chemistry series. Topics covered include: Fundamental concepts relating to carbon compounds with emphasis on structural theory and the nature of chemical bonding, stereochemistry, reaction mechanisms, and spectroscopic, physical, and chemical properties of the principal classes of carbon compounds. Index of Topics: 00:08 - Addition of Hydrogen to Alkenes 09:17 - Hydrogenation of Other Double Bonds 12:29 - Reduction of Alkynes 17:44 - Linlar's Catalyst 20:10 - The Reduction of Polar C-X sigma bonds 29:24 - Oxidation Reactions: Oxidizing Agents 31:44 - Epoxidation 39:49 - Sharpless Asymmetric Epoxidation 43:50 - Dihydroxylation

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