Cameras everywhere

Video thumbnail (Frame 0) Video thumbnail (Frame 1034) Video thumbnail (Frame 2428) Video thumbnail (Frame 3677) Video thumbnail (Frame 5220) Video thumbnail (Frame 6588) Video thumbnail (Frame 7892) Video thumbnail (Frame 9413) Video thumbnail (Frame 11117) Video thumbnail (Frame 12054) Video thumbnail (Frame 13712) Video thumbnail (Frame 15492) Video thumbnail (Frame 16662) Video thumbnail (Frame 17801) Video thumbnail (Frame 18961) Video thumbnail (Frame 21371) Video thumbnail (Frame 22762) Video thumbnail (Frame 23921) Video thumbnail (Frame 28761) Video thumbnail (Frame 30791) Video thumbnail (Frame 31831) Video thumbnail (Frame 33188) Video thumbnail (Frame 36846) Video thumbnail (Frame 38020) Video thumbnail (Frame 43475) Video thumbnail (Frame 44950) Video thumbnail (Frame 47239) Video thumbnail (Frame 48162) Video thumbnail (Frame 49096) Video thumbnail (Frame 50531) Video thumbnail (Frame 51610) Video thumbnail (Frame 53534) Video thumbnail (Frame 54594) Video thumbnail (Frame 55598) Video thumbnail (Frame 56868) Video thumbnail (Frame 57943) Video thumbnail (Frame 58968) Video thumbnail (Frame 61338) Video thumbnail (Frame 64143) Video thumbnail (Frame 68173) Video thumbnail (Frame 70317) Video thumbnail (Frame 71789)
Video in TIB AV-Portal: Cameras everywhere

Formal Metadata

Cameras everywhere
Ubiquitous Video, Human Rights and What Comes Next
Title of Series
Part Number
Number of Parts
CC Attribution - ShareAlike 3.0 Germany:
You are free to use, adapt and copy, distribute and transmit the work or content in adapted or unchanged form for any legal purpose as long as the work is attributed to the author in the manner specified by the author or licensor and the work or content is shared also in adapted form only under the conditions of this license.
Release Date
Production Place

Content Metadata

Subject Area
In the recent political crises in Tunisia, Egypt, and elsewhere in the Middle East – and before that in Iran and Burma – citizen video played a central role in mobilizing people within the country, informing the world about the situation, and feeding mainstream media’s need for on-the-ground stories. There is a blurring of boundaries between the professional human rights defender, the citizen activist, and the journalist; all are documenting human rights violations – and they are also aggregating, shaping, re-mixing and sharing the content of the others. A world of ubiquitous video raises new opportunities to reveal compelling evidence and stories, challenge government propaganda, and galvanize local and international publics. It also raises challenges: how to protect visual anonymity, privacy and the safety of witnesses, survivors and human rights defenders, how to determine the context and authenticity of videos, and how to effectively turn visual evidence into real change. Building on the experience of WITNESS supporting people to use video to create change in policies and practices in over eighty countries this talk will highlight key principles of effective video for advocacy, emerging challenges and opportunities, and concrete next steps that technology providers, human rights organizations and social media communities can take to make the power of video-for-change safe, ethical and effective.
Keywords witness egypt video
Medical imaging Computer animation
Beat (acoustics) View (database) Tape drive Medical imaging Length of stay Computer animation Videoconferencing Hill differential equation Conditional-access module Quicksort Family Metropolitan area network Window
Mathematics Theory of relativity Computer animation Channel capacity Hypermedia Multiplication sign Videoconferencing Self-organization Right angle Online help
Mathematics Computer animation Meeting/Interview Hypermedia Multiplication sign Videoconferencing Self-organization Video game Right angle Codec Frame problem
Point (geometry) Area Receiver operating characteristic Computer animation Hypermedia Different (Kate Ryan album) Range (statistics) Moment (mathematics) Videoconferencing Right angle Bit Mass
Slide rule Group action Physical law Videoconferencing Bit Right angle Quicksort Food energy Spacetime
Area Statistics Group action Computer animation Hypermedia Term (mathematics) Right angle Metropolitan area network
Group action Computer animation Digital media Workstation <Musikinstrument> Videoconferencing Website Right angle Cycle (graph theory) Power (physics) Row (database)
Point (geometry) Key (cryptography) Hypermedia Range (statistics) Videoconferencing Right angle Pattern language Power (physics)
Area Computer animation Hypermedia Prisoner's dilemma Moment (mathematics) Right angle Traffic reporting
Group action Computer animation Personal digital assistant Multiplication sign Videoconferencing Right angle Water vapor Game theory Mereology Traffic reporting Power (physics)
Medical imaging Loop (music) Information overload Multiplication sign Moment (mathematics) Videoconferencing Information security Element (mathematics) Identity management
Presentation of a group Range (statistics) Universe (mathematics) Videoconferencing Right angle Identity management Element (mathematics)
Area Medical imaging Goodness of fit Computer animation Different (Kate Ryan album) Range (statistics) Moment (mathematics) Videoconferencing Right angle Thermal expansion
Authentication Point (geometry) Group action Multiplication sign View (database) Moment (mathematics) Parameter (computer programming) Power (physics) Twitter Medical imaging Mathematics Visualization (computer graphics) Hypermedia Videoconferencing Videoportal Right angle Metropolitan area network Spacetime
Type theory Meeting/Interview Term (mathematics) Videoconferencing Right angle Bit Mass Parameter (computer programming) Series (mathematics) Computing platform YouTube
Computer animation Personal digital assistant Forcing (mathematics) Videoconferencing
Authentication Context awareness Wage labour 1 (number) Line (geometry) Event horizon Computer icon Formal language Medical imaging Shooting method Centralizer and normalizer Computer animation Term (mathematics) Hypermedia Videoconferencing Right angle Cycle (graph theory) Family Information security Window
Group action Computer animation Hypermedia INTEGRAL Core dump Universe (mathematics) Videoconferencing Videoportal Right angle Information privacy Mereology
Expected value Facebook Medical imaging Range (statistics) Videoconferencing Right angle Basis <Mathematik> Quicksort Information privacy
Multiplication sign Decision theory Projective plane Moment (mathematics) Shared memory Set (mathematics) Surface of revolution Mereology Embedded system Medical imaging Hausdorff space Integrated development environment Term (mathematics) Hypermedia Universe (mathematics) Order (biology) Videoconferencing Self-organization Right angle Bijection Software testing Pattern language Form (programming)
Trail Set (mathematics) Similarity (geometry) Mass Information privacy Mereology Perspective (visual) IP address Declarative programming Medical imaging Hypermedia Single-precision floating-point format Core dump Videoconferencing Energy level Data conversion Extension (kinesiology) Physical system Area Authentication Email Inheritance (object-oriented programming) Expression Moment (mathematics) Demoscene Shooting method Visualization (computer graphics) Telecommunication Universe (mathematics) Order (biology) Right angle Bijection
Group action Computer animation Multiplication sign Sheaf (mathematics) Computer-generated imagery Videoconferencing Independence (probability theory) Arc (geometry) Spacetime
Arithmetic mean Computer animation Videoconferencing Statement (computer science) Open set Mereology
Computer animation Single-precision floating-point format Forcing (mathematics) Telecommunication Videoconferencing Bit Spacetime
Authentication Multiplication Touchscreen Source code Moment (mathematics) Mathematical analysis Incidence algebra Mereology Power (physics) Medical imaging Shooting method Process (computing) Computer animation Integrated development environment Angle Meeting/Interview Videoconferencing Multimedia Cycle (graph theory)
Computer animation Moment (mathematics) Sampling (statistics) Videoconferencing Set (mathematics) Event horizon
Multiplication View (database) Multiplication sign Mass Perspective (visual) System call Medical imaging Word Process (computing) Computer animation Videoconferencing Right angle Address space Metropolitan area network Form (programming)
Touchscreen Computer animation Videoconferencing Right angle Musical ensemble Metropolitan area network
Computer animation Different (Kate Ryan album) Blog Visual system Videoconferencing Perspective (visual) Metropolitan area network
Web page Group action Computer animation Different (Kate Ryan album) Hypermedia Weight Videoconferencing Set (mathematics) Right angle
Area Authentication Computer animation Hypermedia Term (mathematics) Source code Formal verification Videoconferencing Electronic mailing list Website Right angle
Authentication Area Point (geometry) Computer animation View (database) Multiplication sign Videoconferencing Website System identification Mereology
Constraint (mathematics) Correspondence (mathematics) Shared memory Set (mathematics) Bit Information privacy Computer icon Element (mathematics) Type theory Facebook Medical imaging Computer animation Internetworking Mixed reality Videoconferencing Website Right angle Quicksort Spacetime
Context awareness Combinational logic Information privacy Number Facebook Centralizer and normalizer Hypermedia Internetworking Natural number Videoconferencing Energy level Series (mathematics) Traffic reporting Identity management Authentication Projective plane Moment (mathematics) Content (media) Shared memory Type theory Category of being Data management Process (computing) Computer animation Visualization (computer graphics) Internet service provider Website Right angle Spacetime
Group action Multiplication sign Direction (geometry) Computer-generated imagery Content (media) Mereology Information privacy Metadata Element (mathematics) Medical imaging Facebook Term (mathematics) Hypermedia Videoconferencing Autonomic computing Information security YouTube Authentication Touchscreen Wechselseitige Information Projective plane Moment (mathematics) Sound effect Mathematics Type theory Uniform resource locator Data management Film editing Process (computing) Computer animation Smartphone Right angle Text editor Spacetime
Onlinecommunity Open source Projective plane Hyperlink Sound effect Coma Berenices Parameter (computer programming) 2 (number) Medical imaging Computer animation Personal digital assistant Universe (mathematics) Videoconferencing Right angle Quicksort
Mathematics Computer animation Euler angles Videoconferencing Right angle
Computer animation
0 on as and a new I want you dismal
with modern and can speak in English and fortunately
and let me start with with 2 images and they may get something of the beginning and the middle and hopefully not the end of the story I'm
gonna tell um and the 1st 1 is from the US from 20 years ago and the 2nd 1 is
from Libya exactly 20 years later and and I will use those as kind of the beginning and the sort of the tentative end of what I want to tell you about just over 20 years ago a man called George
holiday after these images from his balcony window in a suburb of los angeles called Lake View Terrace that was quoted to 1 at
nite and it heard a commotion outside and when he stepped out holding the cam coordinate probably bought to film a wedding or maybe his kid and his family and he captured on tape the beating of an African-American man Rodney King by the Los Angeles Police Department about 9 minutes and there was 1 minute and that that became a really crucial piece of video evidence which showed the Los Angeles Police Department attempting to hit Rodney King
56 times and it's a piece of footage that generate a lot of media attention on a massive debate in the US about race relations and public protests the the criminal trial and and
initiated the organization where I work witness and and on mission is to ensure that cameras and the capacity to use video are in the hands of people who in some sense choose to be in the wrong place at the right time you think about George holiday and he was not a human rights activist he didn't want to film human rights abuses witness aims to help the people who want to fill human rights abuses to do that to do that effectively and to do that purposely and and we help them to do that in ways that help change behaviors policies behavior and practices and
over the past 20 years we've worked with groups in around 80 countries and and thousands of individual activists and let me let me start by talking about what we've learned as an organization and then I'm going to open up the land is much broader to talk about the world of ubiquitous video and human rights now time and the thousands of people who are trying to use video and related social media the human rights change we show a short video which will just
frame the of the essence of the life life and so that the and you have to and this is the end of this the the 2nd we have to
without a e so what you saw in that video was a range of human rights activists around the world who are using video and in a range of different ways for human rights work and have a good starting point to understand is that Rodney King and as an example is a little bit of an illusory examples so when you look at the Rodney King footage which I started with and it created a massive media storm it was used as evidence in a trial and most human rights footage doesn't have that impact and most human rights footage is ignored most human rights footage doesn't get media attention and and this is also important perhaps to remember the moment now as we look at what's happening in Egypt or Libya ROC area when there's a lot of attention on human rights
footage and and most human rights footage isn't impact in the mass media or in the court
of law the Rodney King was a little bit of an illusory example most of the human rights footage that the groups which witnesses working with and by using video in kind of a big space between getting it on CNN all getting it on Al-Jazeera and showing it to 6 or 7 people in a court and so it might be a energy I put this slide in here just to indicate a little bit of the complexity of of showing video in a court room and in the 19 nineties there that that the the criminal tribunal for Yugoslavia that was looking at the human rights crimes in Yugoslavia and could even work out how to think about video when they were documenting what happened in the trials so if you look through the records of of the criminal tribunal for
Yugoslavia it doesn't tell you what video which showed they showed a piece of evidence they just put this little note video play which is sort of an irony of kind of how a
lot of the human rights well tries to deal with with visual media rather than text statistics it just goes no I can't deal with that have to step away some
examples of the kinds of groups we work with so groups in Burma go across the border into Thailand had this young man and fled when his village was burned to the ground by the Burmese military and he goes back over the border into a country where filming is illegal and can be punished by long terms of imprisonment and and he goes back to film in in areas where the Burmese government is burning down ethnic minority villages and this is another example of all work this is from a sex worker in Macedonia who is trying to find a way to communicate to the Police what it meant to to face police violence she could never walk
into a police station and which you could express video and what it felt like from when the police
would have be corrupt because she was under suspicion of prostitution and and then taken great power in a back alley and so we will working with this group tried to help then think how do you how do you use video to Portland front of the police in a way that will confront them with the reality of what's occurring this is a still
from the video we worked on with groups were looking at extraordinary rendition in the US and the US record of taking people to and jails in Morocco in other countries to commit torture the and increasingly we working in in the world of what I would call citizen-generated video and this site was a cycle the harbor which witnessed launched which was the 1st online media sharing site human rights and the clip you see on it is as an example of footage shot by and Cambodian Human Rights Act was using cell phones and flipped videos to record forced evictions
a couple of key things that we've learned and
through that work I wanna use those as kind of a starting point to think about the growing range of video that is out there now and what is the idea that participation is key and in human rights work human rights what used to be a very professionalized kind of industry in a sense like on industry because in some ways it is it has patterns of behavior and ways in which you do things patterns in which a document material from but the whole power of video a whole power of social media is it opens up the ability for the people who are often closest to something to
express it in very director it's hard if you live in a community in eastern Burma to think how to write a human rights report it is easy to think what would happen if I wanted to ask my mother what it's like to suffer from a human rights violation like having a village but down at the 2nd area which I think is really important
to understand again thinking about the moment now where where I was so focused on the idea that everyone is looking at human rights footage that that
everyone cares about what happens it's not true In the vast majority of human rights situations and I could tell you now that if we looked on you tube that would be a police brutality shot from East Timor from prison violence in Brazil and police brutality somewhere in the US that's never going to get media attention nor issues that are much more structural like issues like you don't have access to clean water and so a lot of the work we've done is ready to think about the audience and and and we think about audience as in a very specific way so a lot of the work of witnesses about narrowcasting it's about how I
reach 5 or 6 people who will do something to give an example of that we were involved in a case where a group of indigenous people in Kenya were trying to persuade the African Commission of Human and Peoples
Rights and to recognize that their land had been illegally seized I'm from them to make way for a game park in Kenya and what they thought was we can keep sending reports and that's an important part of how we need a legal case but we also need to show very visually what it looks like to not have access to water to see your pals dying literally on their feet and and to think what happens when you take that and place that in a place of power and so often in the places of power in the human rights what a very distant from the realities on the ground and if any of you've spent time in Geneva in the human rights work there it's so distant from what it's like to be a belligerent but not to be someone in Eastern Kenya facing eviction um so how do you give that sense of of the reality of what it's like to the people in that room and that's where video comes in at the same
time if you give that sense of reality but no way for people to act nothing happens and then I'll come back later to this idea of image overload is that so many images out there but if you don't offer people
ways to actually start to glaze over I think it's starting to happen now even as we look at images of really protest brutality coming from the Middle East that people are starting to say wait a 2nd I just can't see another image of what could be Syria or Libya or Yemen or any of those countries that are in turmoil at the moment at the final elements and loop
back to this as well as safety and security video is a very visible medium and in the sense that it's it's hard to to hide someone's identity and video if you think about text you can anonymized someone it can be John Smith and said this and
that you'll recognize this guy if you know and you recognize and if you see him on you tube if you live nearby we've seen him walking down the street it's it's a lot harder to hide identity what I want to talk about in the in
the main part of of my presentation today are of of of free elements and 1 is the expanding range of human rights video that's out there and give you a sense of kind of the universe and the 2nd is to talk about human rights
values and how they practically relates to a lot of this video and that is being seen and the 3rd is to suggest some things we need to do differently and so I don't want to leave you just with and a tale of woe I wanna suggest what we could do differently if we wanna see
safer more effective more ethical human rights
video video that makes a difference this image from Egypt from 2 wrist where all the area around their from january 20 5th I think is a good reminder of kind of the range of video that is out there and what I think is happening at the moment is less that is really about the expansion of range of ways people using video in human rights work so I started with his explaining some of the more traditional human rights video it's being used as evidence it's being used to lobby in parliaments and governments it's being used on CNN and as we might see I think that's probably an Al-Jazeera cameraman and them with the big camera on the left but it's also coming from citizen footage so you can see that the guy with his digital still camera
and of course the man with the self it's undoubtedly a moment of promise for the use of video and I'm in human rights work and and at the same time we wanna think about some of the qualities of a video that
make it challenging the human rights were so if you think about online videos some of the key qualities about it all that it's accessible it's easy to create it's spreadable you can move it anywhere and it's malleable you can ship didn't change it and it really depends on being circulated it's all about someone sharing it someone passing it on to someone else and so of course this creates opportunities for things like transparency participation action powerful oxides of which we're seeing in someone like Egypt or Libya or in user engagement in a space like Twitter from people like ourselves who might be in Europe or in the US was far away from the situations on the ground at the same time the the very same qualities raised significant issues about things like authenticity factuality and the point of view what do we know who this comes from an uncontrolled and also how these images transform into action when the so many of them and so as we think about this human rights visual media as it's created remixed re-circulated by many more people both parameters of the guy on the right maybe prose you the guy in the want on the right for the pros
you know the guy on the middle is the the ammeter maybe in those terms as well as professionals what are the ethical and practical issues that are there therefore activity for technology developers for technology professionals and for the people who circulate it as well as the more traditional human rights activists and how we increase upside
of this massive spread of video and reduce the downside let me give a little bit of a kind of overview of of some of the types of video that I see in my work and across the parameters of of human rights video and show a series of clips that taken from both commercial platforms like YouTube and daily motion as well as some of them on each social justice platforms and I hope that illustrate some of the and some of the parameters of of what human rights video looks like online thanks to this 1 with its shot
by both the witnesses and perpetrators so that was forced evictions in France and filmed by a bystander this is in 1 of many cases where the perpetrators themselves from Slovakian police force members forcing Roma poised hydrogen it's also as much about individual speaking out as it is about the the graphic footage of violations that was from Brazil it's less often very simple acts I love this videos from the Saudi Arabia of a woman's right now and there is I think it's also indicates that it's not just as I said about the
graphic violence that often about issues of social and economic rights or discrimination this video documents are racial discrimination in Lebanon and various things like going out as they try and interest swimming pool or the thank you and some of it is also just a very simple story this is a story shed on in each cycle engage media of a young woman preparing to go to a value in in the other key thing is that it's it's not always about global struggle this is a video circulated a particular city in the Philippines about labor rights in the hospital so it's bystanders its perpetrators it's witnesses it's global it's slope and of course human rights video looks like a lot of the genres that are out there so from here on it's really remakes video but really with human rights and and as we've seen in places like Egypt and it's again a remix video here from Egypt that brings together some of the the iconic image images of the last thing you have to that the idea in the 1 on the world and at the end language the they also uses very simple and it will be familiar with the idea of the straight camera and video while all the other and and of course 1 of the most pivotal ones of those see was this plasma nothing in each addressing the Egyptian public to ask why they were not coming out of the we were the in this novel that actually this is particularly well this is what the name and what can then the and then we look at it is in the history of the world and of course there's also graphic image of this would be in in the domestic context is only an event around your your house with the family in the some like got in the cost of the shooting of peaceful protest just captured with a simple twisted his cell phone Our in Libya lies in this clip leaving out the window to fill militiamen walking down the street banging on the floor going to look at what is happening in there and I'll come back later to some of the questions that circular array around all Williams likely have half of of genres that we see in other places on the line but when they're reapplied in human rights were and so human rights values human rights practicalities and I want to focus on 3 central concerns of of human rights both in value terms but also
practicalities and what is a concern about safety security dignity and consent and I'll talk more about that the 2nd is a concern about authentication and evidence you want things to be provable if you're trying to make human
rights claims you have to have material that claims to show and shows the truth and finally you wanna think about how that footage turns into action and 62 years ago and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was worked out and the Roosevelt I always love this statue of motion it's very stern like the godmother of human rights and work to create the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and really at the core of that is is 1 of the central belief in which is and in the dignity and the integrity of every person I think it's a really good place to start if we wanna think about human rights values and that kind of spreadable malleable media we're talking about those values of spreadability accessibility malleability fluidity that we prize so much in human rights work but sorry in video work however they can be aligned with a concern ready for the dignity and integrity of individuals and and taking human rights what individuals who are in situations of trauma of pain and of rat but how do we how do we think
about and online video when we're thinking about victims and survivors when we're trying to avoid them being re victimized 3 traumatized by the psychologically but possibly also physically and and how do we do that in a universe where it's the police who were filming as well as the bystanders it's the people who filmed the roma boys who are part of that ecosystem it's not just the people who see themselves as purposeful witnesses as active I think often when we think about online culture we we forget about some of these dignity and privacy issues and we have this very strong
and sort of democratic ecstasy about it and I think actually some of the biggest proponents of that other people have the most benefit from it and so if we look of course to the founders and the owners of someone like Facebook someone like Marc say there
there is no privacy people don't have an expectation of privacy and of of of the preservation of that that sense of dignity or their individuality and but if you look at kind of that that the range of situations of human rights and situations at the concept of privacy and that there the needs to really think about what happens with your image and certainly hasn't gone away if you are if you look at what happened in Burma in 2007 and where an individual's right densified on the basis of video that circulated on you tube the risks of video become all too apparent and
hopefully we won't see this in the countries in the Middle East but it's very early to tell but certainly happened around and and we're in a world where you have to make an assumption that the circulate and so when this woman who was interviewed in eastern Burma and 2007 shortly after suffering revolution and was filmed and it 1 of the things that would have been important to tell her is this image could be seen by anyone and and that's that's a challenging concept to put out any human rights universe meant to people who are facing human rights violations because what you have to tell this woman nor pop or is that your image and video has been seen a million times on you tube if it's successful is going to be seen by the perpetrators of the violations and they probably gonna come and try and hunt you down what you said and this makes it very complicated to think about what consensus when we start to look at these images and a lot of the way in which and human rights workers think about consent and and this is quite similar in some ways to lots of people like documentary filmmakers the people have traditionally had to engage in these issues and is they think of it in terms of and one-to-one agreements so I sit down with you and I say and I want a film you and the use of my documentary project off I work at a human rights organization I say you know we're going use this to documents and test to prove a pattern of abuses and that doesn't work in our climate of ubiquitous video in an environment where anyone can fill and that's 1 of the questions I wanna put out to you and I'm gonna propose some some ideas and solutions to which which we can also use at the end is what what how do we shift our ideas of what consensus in a world where where everyone has access to video and can film this kind of material which carries these kinds of risks with it and a couple of ideas that we might want to think about is we don't have to shift away From ideas of of one-to-one consent have to shift from idea that it's about me agreeing with you that I'm filming you and and that you've agreed to a certain users to an ethics of consent that's about how we embedded in the image and how we know that an image is going to be circulated and so when this images film this said no portal should know that this image will be seen or could be seen by anyone and so she should make decisions about what she whether she wants to be filmed in that moment and the 2nd idea
which I think is really important is we need to embed ideas of consent that have have been developed in the human rights world that have come from and often for medical practice have to reinvent them for the world of you choose how do we think about that and have embedded in the way that people create media for that and lot of things share later on this is how a witness has been thinking about how you reinvent the idea of the camera better emphasizes the idea of consent when you're filming what is the thing you do in order to make that the capturing of someone's understanding of of why they're being filmed and the sense that we shared part of the way you filled with itself of let me move onto out to another set of issues that come up that are really around consent form and dignity and
privacy and this 2 key parts of the Universal Declaration that out the really important to anyone who cares about the idea of communication media 1 is an the right level has the right to freedom of expression and the core value of democracy of human rights and the 2nd is the right to privacy and these 2 rights come together when we think about anonymity and it's really important if you want to have the right to free expression to have the ability to be anonymous and and this gets complicated when on video but most of the conversations about anonymity think about how we stay anonymous when we're dealing with data there being human rights control the city's about corporations handing over data about e-mail accounts and all of all the access to internet how you use circumvention systems for example to hide your your IP address but if we think that more more video more more communication is moving to a more visual material we have start just pulling out cameras and filming people rather than writing down what they say and we think about this idea of visual anonymity and how we better enhance that and from a human rights perspective the reason you do that is because it's super important that people can have the right to be anonymous in order to express to use their rights to freedom of expression and not everyone wants to to say their name and show their face when they speak out and in some ways the situation in Egypt and Libya and the Middle East at the moment is a little atypical again because there was seeing people in protest settings with seeing a mass protest by everyone wants to speak out have if face scene the furor gay activist in Uganda all that sex workers in and in Macedonia or the Burmese villages in eastern Burma you might want to speak out you might want to make sure that your voice is expressed in the dominant medium of the day which is the visual medium and but you also might want to be anonymous so I would put out as a challenge here again as we try and think about human rights values meeting this world of ubiquitous video had a week start to create better ways for people to be visual yet anonymous I know this sounds a little strange it seems contradictory but it's actually where we need to go if we want to guarantee that right to freedom of expression so 2 ideas that consent had we reinvent consent and we think about this idea that it's no longer just about that relationship one-to-one between 2 people because that image can go anywhere and the 2nd is how do we really think anonymity when it's about video the 2nd area the big area that that comes up in human rights work is about authenticity and traditionally this has been done in the human rights world through extensive interviews you talked to lots of people in gather data and but increasingly having to grapple with how you authenticate in a world where a lot of the evidence is coming from video now a lot of that it's still in what in some ways it's kind of like the Rodney King of so there are pieces of video that appear that have been shot by perpetrators or shot by witnesses and that emerge and it is only a single piece of evidence so for example this came out of Sri Lanka in late 2009 and apparently showed trying military executing and Tamils during the the final days perhaps of offensive in Northern Sri Lanka in 2009 and so the way people authenticated that video was was very similar to how you'd
authenticated piece of video and Rodney King they look to the gunshots they worked out of the recoil of people of the people shooting was appropriate the actual firing they looked at how the people been shot reacted to the shot the blood trail they look for the forensic layers in the video to see whether the gene alterations at all and and that kind of thing a similar example from from West Papua earlier this year where
and the Indonesian military well which torturing Kaplan independence some of them activists were supposed independence activist and what you see here is just again a lot of the time this video is coming from path that was in the video that the perpetrators themselves short hair torturing Hamas here and in fact this video is a good example also of how when it was circulated the group that circulated it chose not to show the most graphic
footage they said actually turn to the general public you don't need to see the most graphic material here but in that video you looked at it you could see what the military insignia were the Indonesian military you could prove what it was I'm and even in the most traditional space this is happening and this and click was we show that the
opening of the trial of the 1st person at the
International Criminal Court a warlord in the Congo to hold Thomas binder you see in here in the picture and in fact in the opening statement of this trial the video evidence was used to to talk about what was happening all over the mean and the soldiers it is both than and that and part you see and he did not how this is the body and we my and that's it that these tool I got this tool but I the the better the we prove that I think the now the bar that was the the that was the I understood the if 1 if you want when under well below this 1 this 1 this we had this book is the fact so
even these most traditional spaces video is
starting to appear but again it's a little bit like the Rodney King video I it's just a single single piece of video and of course there are also videos that I'm confused when they used in this way and so this
video saw apparently was about abuses by and the forces of electron and the Ivory Coast to the president-elect in Ivory Coast this circulated on you tube in about a week or 10 days ago and I claim to show the blending of and by uh of of civilians by the forces of and and 1 of my colleagues
and I was reminded had about 2 years before when we're working on this multimedia cycle the Hobbit has had a very problematic piece of footage where she had had burning when you look back at that footage but I noticed OK 2 years ago they were saying this was Kenya this is an interesting also kind of even when we're when we look at these piece of footage as evidence that this kind of recycling you've gotta watch out for that kind of is a horrible graphic piece of image let's pretend this is Ivory Coast let's pretend this is Kenya and it's even not clear that this is Kenya to begin with what I think is more interesting actually now and this is that the really
evolving part of what's happening is what we're starting to see with multiple video sources and so how do we move towards authentication that comes from and not only expert analysis but the fact that there are multiple viewpoints on something and this is really the power citizen video so up on the screen is actually another shot that shows the same incident from Bahrain that I showed earlier where we saw a couple of moments of the shooting from a cell phone that showed and the aftermath of the shooting of and 506 peaceful protesters who walking along this road which I believe is in in the center of the city and still see on this video and I think this is interesting as well is they've that the uploaded annotated it to say there's another video you can look at so this process of kind of like authentication of proving this as evidence is taking place even within a u-tube native environment he is an annotation to the next video that shows you the other angle so if we look at this
video you know we'll see yeah different from also from the sample and now we're looking from behind as they walked toward the end of the we this kind of approach works well
for so the more public settings I think I think the question of this in in our minds actually at the moment is is is how you think about this in settings that the less publicly orientate when it's not a public event when there are multiple cameras and that certainly in a setting like this this is proving to be a powerful way to authenticate what's happening and an increasingly will
probably get automated and both myself and Patrick man will come and talk I believe offers solution have have both talked about how it's quite likely that this process will eventually be automated calls so that you'll see multiple video viewpoints and be able to amalgamate them into a single 360 view around something 1 of the things that's been been really exciting about the last few months from the perspective of of understanding of video can be used to human rights has been that the use of video and in aggregation and crowdsourcing this addresses
2 questions you often get about human rights Video and video in general 1 is and how that how we show a mass of video people and it's an interesting thing I don't know there's a phrase in english people often talk about being bombarded by images the idea that we can't deal with more than 1 image at a time it's funny no 1 ever says you're bombarded by words but are often bombarded by images and I think what we've been seeing in the last few months is a real attempt to try and work out how you make sense of multiple images emerging from from human rights situations and now sometimes that and in the form of individual characters and the clickthrough wrongly showed earlier cool down
and that's the screen a remix which had the music over there the human rights footage I was actually created or uploaded by a man called only necktie who's an Iranian activists who lives in New Jersey he's in his twenties he doesn't live in Iran and that he has become a voice that helps authenticating give credibility to 2 pieces of human rights video I I put up this shock is actually from later in that same video that we saw a clip of earlier the strong be driven remix
video and it's interesting because what only Mehdi is done in this video is he seen this particularly graphic
shot this a pile of bodies on the floor and what he's done and you can't you may appeal to see exactly easy but not a wrong on the video so in the same way the other
people annotated the video to say you can see another viewpoint here he annotated the video to say actually this footage is not true this is a footage from another massacre that's that's bad enough things happen a wrong we don't need to have this and so he's the type of individual curato starting to play a really powerful role in authenticating Human Rights footage and this is another reconstruction
from from the UK of the death of a man during the G 20 protesters were an individual blog put
together all the different video perspectives in front of perspectives on how this man was potentially assaulted by that that the London police and what also been interesting in the last few months have been
the growth of aggregation and curation human rights and I wanted to share some of the examples of the more group crowdsourced approaches this is crowdsourced that comes out of the the Middle East weighted aggregated different voices in social media perspectives on what is happening and here's an
example of the crowdsourced page and from and for for Libya from earlier the from
Azerbaijan from 11 March this is a tool called Storify the it's happening on you tube FIL
interestingly actually I think on you tube and the approach doesn't quite work instead to the aggregate video as a playlist but I don't think it works it's an interesting challenge when you think in video format the playlist is not the right way to really watch a set of human rights footage if you ever
tried to watch a list of human rights video it's a strange experience it a linear experience when in fact you want to be jumping around to find the right piece of evidence in a in a in a collection of video and then of course I'm from someone like Syria and you
have this this site which I've been using a lot called now Syria and which collects together not only video but social media sources and showing different perspectives on on what is happening in the
human rights and so I think this is this a really promising area in terms of this the 2nd 1 concern around authentication and verification and 1 note of course is that this curation
voice and isn't always from the point of view of the positive part so from Iran in 2009 is this is the Iranian government and cherating video in the sense of pulling from the videos that were uploaded to you choose other pictures of activists and put it up on a public web site and crowdsourcing the identification 1 but in general I think there's something tremendously powerful happening now in this area of authentication and crowdsourcing and curation of video and then know Patrick I was going talk about who
should the next will talk also more about that idea of crowdsourcing and data time and how it relates to to
not only human rights footage but other types of material at clearly the other element that's really been thrown into the mix In the last few months has been the role of
corporations this is a sort of iconic image that's been floating around and over the last few months and originally treated by an NBC correspondent and the thank you Facebook image and however the relationship of of of a video activism to spaces like Facebook and You tube is complicated to say the
least and the reason for that is of course the underlying challenge anyone who is a human rights worker in Facebook or you chew or any commercial video sharing site is that your a tiny minority there and kind of people you are working with a particular set of circumstances 2 click set of constraints in a space that although it looks like a public space is in 1 and only as we get into the annual spoke about this idea of the quality public space and even Zuckerman the Internet commentator researcher has said you know when you're an activist in someone like Facebook or you chew and it's a little bit like I'm holding a rally in a shopping mall it looks like a public space but it's not and and this gets problematic when you start to think about some of these values I'm mentioning around dignity and consent and privacy and which are not necessarily the values that are prioritized in Facebook definitely for example and perhaps not in some of these other sharing site and so what comes next and I've
presented a series of I think human rights questions and that come out and opportunities that are emerging around consent around this idea of visual anonymity and they're around how we authenticate and prove things better and witnesses involved in the project and which is trying to think on a number of levels about this and the next month we have a report coming out with an initiative called cameras everywhere and to report written alongside MiPad on who was an and the manager of the hard project that I mentioned earlier this media sharing sites to human rights video and and and it looks to try and think it what is the right way to address some of these challenges around privacy and consent authentication in this environment and with so many of the spaces that we using a commercial 1 and I think the answer is that you combination of things and firstly it's actually important that we try and think about how you engage with those commercial providers to improve the way the site work for some of these human rights purposes and and we have a series of ideas that we're in recommending and proposing an encouraging people to to sign on to the and and 1 of them is how to think about visual privacy how to build that better Internet upload processes and so if you tag something as human rights should something not due to say would you like to another this person you know so if you type something for human rights content category we put a human rights tag a piece of footage but what about a knowledge that says would you like to normalise someone's identity in this piece of footage a 2nd thing is you know if you look at the and a piece of human rights and human rights user online have you better protect their anonymity to look at
something like Facebook how do you have more anonymous accounts for people who are uploading footage or using and social media and human rights context and and secondly how do you think about you cure rate that in those human rights spaces and you make sure that human rights footage moves from being in nature and that is often isolated except for when it ready surges up in a moment of popular protest into the mainstream of of the footage
and at the same time we we also know the human rights but it will continue to be a very small part of what you find on YouTube and Facebook so we've also been working and his achieved that the 3 recommendations that and that that we've been working around and terms of changing usage policies incorporating tools and technologies and building dedicated spaces and at the same time we know that the commercial spaces will never address some of these questions and so I wanted to highlight 1 project we're working on and which ready put IO manager putting this out really is an invitation to you and for potential involvement is to think what are the autonomous tools that we need to develop to address some of these questions and this is a project we're working on with a group called The Guardian project a developing a secure phone for human rights and we've been thinking of them what would it look like to have a secure human rights friendly smartphone camera after human rights and ordered mean if you try to think about some of these issues of consent and privacy and authentication right from the start and it would probably mean that you couldn't normalize as you felt for anyone who's a video editor here you probably if you've ever had the experience of anonymization it usually means you're going to after-effects when you get home off to film the piece of video you put boleros someone's face why not do that right as your filming cut that are that that element of the process and then if we're concerned about issues like consents why don't have that built into the filming process so as you film someone you could tap the screen to indicate if someone consented and to indicate what they said this image could be used to have an embedded in the metadata of the image so it's not circulate in a different space and again this goes back to this idea that images again and circulate so it's better you embed the data in them and give the ability to analyze at the moment of creation if you can other aspects of this project include and the ability to to securely white all the data and also the gather the types of data you need to authenticate something so what is the material you can gather from a smartphone that tells you location direction
what other cameras in nearby so you can authenticate and use smart video in a more effective way for evidence so this is out a way in which we're trying to think about it knowing that the there are some things you can hope that a space mutual Facebook will do but we also need to think about what an autonomous social media and technology developer community does and and of course
neither of these exist in isolation from continuing to think about how you engage with user communities and the best way that to help people creates effective ethical Human rights footage is to engage directly with them to help them know how to do that not something that within my own organizational what we do directly thinking about how you translate some these ideas into 30 second videos had explained consent in 30 seconds how explain a film for evidence in a minute and 1 of those things that speak to this Boston expanding universe of people who are creating video and a couple of other screenshots of of this camera up showing how it identifies where people are at the and as I said this a project we're right in the middle of working on and it lives in public it's an open source public art project that you're interested it's side you can learn more about it at this web link to get top . com body in projects slashed and secure smart can so 1 and just by actually looping back to that 1st image and
and this is an image shot by Olivia and human rights activist and and and journalist called Muhammad never and we shot actually almost exactly I I look for an image that was shot almost exactly 20 years off the Rodney King to think kind of where we're at and Mohammed was killed and probably by a sniper and in late March and I think it's sort of inspiring to see how now everywhere people are taking up video in this case like the arguments of the whole whole continuing universe how we
think about lightness and and human rights video and using it for change I think the challenge now is how we make sure that they can do that embedded in human rights values safely attitude and of course most importantly effectively so that the video they create creates change thank you all
warm have an average of