Modern revolutions are digital revolutions

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Modern revolutions are digital revolutions
Africa, Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya: A signal for the whole of Africa?
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For a long while, Africa seemed almost cut off from modern means of communication. However, recent events in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya show what status digital communication has now achieved there. The African-Arab wave of protest is largely based on the use of social tools; these platforms are experiencing a veritable explosion (growth of Facebook in Africa in the past six months: 50.12 per cent). But would this be possible in other parts of Africa as well? It is true that broadband Internet access is available only to an elite in most African countries. But Internet cafés and above all mobile Internet are alternatives available to the normal citizen. The growth rate in the number of African mobile communication users is almost 50 per cent – the biggest rate of growth in the world. Telephony, SMS, games and FM reception are important applications. The active posting of information and the formation of interest groups by means of digital networks open up access to educational opportunities and new market chances. Is the wave of protest in North Africa also a form of “cyber-revolution” and would it be possible in other regions of the continent as well? What chances for development do digital media offer people in Africa? How can African countries avoid the danger of a “digital divide” within the continent? Can anything be learnt from Africa’s digital development that can be applied to other world regions with an underdeveloped infrastructure?
Keywords tunisia egypt libya revolution digital cyberrevolution
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known how have head a as a group to mall
yet my name is started about 10 welcome hello everybody in and I have the pleasure of moderating the panel modern revolutions are
digital revolution the panel hosted by Dutch inventor who ever international media organization have an inherent interest of course in the current political changes taking place in north Africa and also have an interest in the role that media is playing for political communication and protest organizations and recognizing the growing importance that social media are playing the Deutsche better actually can you log in different language categories in their best the Blog awards
and we have here with us today 2 of the judges of this year's awards who are experts in the northern and western African blogosphere and the program director for the judgment of my program go care and together we will discuss the question after how far the revolutions that we've seen taking place can actually be termed as digital revolution and how far we can say that Egypt Tunisia and Libya offsetting the signal for the rest of Africa so going to take a closer look together at the factors that have actually led to social media taking the role that it has we have a look at the impact that the having on the protesters I wouldn't think about as to how far the edges of the scenario in other African countries for social media also to be used as a protest
platform so that defective the issue here that today they said we have 3 x and I would like to and not come on the stage festival positive radar pragmatics that mere out on the from Bahrain she went to the colonists editor and translator this you think about in the 2004 it with the heat come and 2nd time you that the Republican correct so mirrors and blocking since 2004 she
joined Global Voices in 2004 fixed where she worked the editor for the North African and Middle Eastern affection and also as the editor for either arabiclanguage fiction correct actually been very involved in the recent coverage of events social share little bit of their experiences from last month with us today
at 2nd I'd like to invite collaboration to that up and the upcoming especially in Chicago up and western Africa welcome Jaan who's you
and after 20 years of experience
in TV and journalism as a whole I
can't contacted taking an interest and citizen journalism today she added the French version of Global Voices I like a mirror has also a member of the best blogs jury and have particular into of the francophone and of the sphere in Africa translation tools as well as freedom of online expressions skills needed in
developing countries and last but not least I'd like to welcome you look at it on the and with what the door to Benin and a freelance journalist and solve
Africa's political hot spots but in the end but
go with friends is involved in and I work working in South Africa during the period of transition but
also in countries like Liberia Somalia and the DRC and since 2006 but that been working for deutsche event as a mark program director and I think you also published a book last year called African continent of change right OK so I'm very glad to have 3 here with us today before we actually getting the discussion I think we're gonna watch a short film produced by Deutsche manages to fit the scene were
watching these until began a young man public sentences from time to time and time again it's just the way the demonstrations went across the country in the world and the young people who connected you choose to it and there is no and and and sections of the
population seems to indicate that despite the
team's groups to respond the demonstrations continued to grow and eventually the unintelligible the 1999 and lead to relinquish power
and going to take exile in the the truth is that the success
in achieving uprising Egyptians also began to organize their own revolution by the
internet so what what about
what quality what of life of and protesters gathered
peacefully interiors square demanding an end to a
whole new barracks regime don't that right in the
political scale kind of that and you needed to
stay in power because the parents and the trend by the Egyptian army that and the I'm going to take his family in the
Egyptians liberation from the reading and
we have difficulty 1 years indicate that the Libyan began destroying symbols of his her head her it seems that in the in the pictures went around the globe by choose did the regularization located the media
extension of the because that will the only but large parts of Uganda turned against him and atrocities committed by density mentioned became public the
pressure of Western state intervene inquiry
nevertheless maybe states still hangs in the balance
this and I think what must
pay heavy picture the costs and add and that brings us right to the point that they've just coming from Verizon a mirror and and it just recently the report without borders of the enemies of the Internet report was released by Orion is known as a country that uses a very repressive of tools and tactics as well from filtering mechanisms and but also repression against bloggers people passing we know some of the police state that Tunisia was at least and and the transitions for the moment so I'd like to just
begin by asking how under these circumstances can and digital media player all what the circumstances people using the mind always the in
all the footage and this is just the patient dies the whole region has gone through a period of turmoil and a real fast period of time yeah what social media the struggle with the with the authorities cited a very long time ago from the onset of social media this was the thing that the government were finding it very difficult to
understand because for the 1st time in our collective history and as human beings were able to publish things without without without the something 1 of them and that's 1 of the publisher and the click of a button you diarrhea connected they can tell the whole world only deal with your dreams of water aspirations and people are able to connect to a human being as a person you're no longer part of a man like I know are known from an unknown don't that and the other 1 people on 1 on 1 basis you need you interact with me to be anywhere around the world and there's a normal people but they're not the stereotype and optimism people police the and it's the same 1 every single blogosphere around the world the and then came all the other social media tools so it started with log the repression against not this just the same in the same line on the same fault media has been repressed of some sort of throughout the ages television stations and radio stations across the Arab world traditionally owned by the Government mainstream media I either directly government control the newspaper is all our there heavily some theory no publisher can afford to stay in business and continue publishing a paper the government is angry with them because of a governmental decision whether this station continues to run on decision for continues to get published so again this fact
we have which by their
2004 we started having people expressing their voice on their own as independent people and speaking out and that was that of the government flattened repressing
online media with more intensity than than the mainstream media right and and then think will
get back to that as well as the truth you spoken here last year also on on basically the same regions in in the state of on in the following situation very closely and just that now that for the 1st time we had the outlet and the technology so as to how far would you say of the
internet and digital media served as a catalyst approaches that we can think this could be an
angry people have been really angry about the the overall situation on the ground but we that in small constant than all classes with the government knows what's happened with Tunisia was that they can I could have called them by the power of people by the CIA world of hundreds of thousands of people or even millions in the case of Egypt going out on the street and demanding better right that's very cutting like what we them it is something of an our by cannot come to terms with cannot believe that it actually happened to the agents of by surprise agent and copy counter-revolution to by surprise and that's where the itself because the mother is learned from each other and how to cover and let the world know what's going on and how to organize things on the ground like in many of the now there is an age of and the mostly doubled and activists in real life and blogging when there are millions of getting their message across and reaching out to an audience but where we
like it was like you're driving a friend at full speed and then somebody home of the heart rate can today so I mean Libya and the uterine the head use some of the area that when the they had part of the plan and they tell players in the minor
police on the streets and on-demand squared and the actual people because the government still learned how to repress those
movement try to get back to where he talks about a very interesting issues to the solidarity question this would make but I think 1 of the very important data to
automated and the role of the platform for but also takes a person to stand and perhaps they forgot to make a revolution happening in the and and and on of course and up and just as the speaking about the little countries that have been in the press and in our attention but also have a little bit look and look at different countries in Africa and and different regions and of course the other country that the presence of what you want and I was just now I have stepped down of the president and all the terrible news what's happening in the power vacuum in the meantime so that in in a country like the 1 I have social media or Internet take any kind of role in the approaches that we've been watching against that of President EEG if it did if it is 1 of the case where you make the best and the worst of roles and the kids in the year the the budget election in November November and we have been a lot of Ivorian in a brawl in France in the francophone world African gantries especially in the West African on not only the people living there and also a times for abroad with a lot of influence because that's great thing to bring used to bring the opinion to bring how to you and they're bearing people on grounds now what happened is that during December and January which in the words that which can you know social media can do begins with students and getting it today against each other had a bad habit of people and expressing the most disgusting thing online on facebook facebook came out and Twitter Facebook mostly become a killing field of each time because you could see the video of the the and the merits and you can see here the torches and people well 1 something thing about it in
the comments people went so far gone into this a trip on Facebook and Twitter that she had come into a joint thing with you and if you break many more so 1 wonders what would have happened in world and some of these barriers if we had at the
time that Facebook and Twitter wouldn't have sold something now right it's Twitter is saying that same time it in the very last week the past week with back with the best of the pursuant to
which we have more people to engaño refugee Ivorian refugees in government because that's where some of them were threatened had the early energy people all grounded in and so that means the the country at the time that was looted where you could not get that even to ask for help where women had to give birth at home with their doctors knew nothing when they which shortage next shortage be selling it to just for people between 2 documents retrieved conditionally flying which vector and the form and the need for it to have the median folding before my eyes on day 1 of the things we have to do something 1 day to the went to
see a provider in Ghana in Accra the capital of government and also because we have a hard time at some point telephone rings when they really ask for money on line and we got it on day for this started getting calls really holds and on and on line thing and and they are losing my garden please help me I've got a
according right in front of my door please tell someone that you remove it and that is the mother of all human situation laid out there what based on Twitter and did it find good well doctors to web ready to go this by the danger and assist people and then they said we got doctors from abroad giving consultation over the following and then
correct name that should be a part of it of its the energy against what was happening succeeded in getting at the from and the few big media groups that sorry telecom group in giving 3 units so you could ring for free you could help and he did wonders and right now as we need involving density of doing things of course the allowable now would have evolved you can call now the number is so so so if you've got China but he'll remove court history during your garden and they come and and take care of it but I mean this analysis of hurriedly as and not widely known but for myself and i've seen a lot of the that Europe had never seen them so you see when have to just say that have they are just the medium they're not good or evil Facebook and then whatever is behind it is the people behind it that makes the power of social media and in the case of Ivory Coast we do have seen the best and the words and that has to be kept in mind and that's really interesting and a very important point to make at the beginning the ambivalence of the media that we're actually looking at as platforms and the 1 thing
that from the moderator not supposed to comment on things that just because you mentioned 1 that I think the 1 thing 1 can say that is that as opposed to maybe a radio station owned all run by 1 of the side of the of the people that they are 1 party or 1 group 1 ethnicity but at least the media have a lot directionality
and not just 1 single coming out with the possibility to respond to so I suppose that you know 1 point of support to make way how the media perhaps different than other media we seen it useful but also very dangerous for the mobilization in Africa as and of course I want to say if you want to respond to each other please feel free to do so and if you have questions then I would be really glad to take them like a microphone at very high too few unfortunately but I think we have microphones up in the front and both sides of the room Alan and that you
work in the future of policy as a as a country that ruled by 1 party very authoritarian state i'd like to i'd like to not to ask you a question but I I'd like to start by reading you a quote from a blog which is published by by the European Court and the 2 and and active reading his blog for for a few weeks now I got to meet in 1 language very nice and he said that in his opinion if they wants to be and how will and additive and like at social media generated in direction of protest then it would be so it would not manage it will work out because I would not managed to evade detection by Ethiopian Telecommunications intelligence
services in the infancy instead they would get caught and crashed through the blocking and filtering when they start by an offline measures that would not be rule world out as well so you choose will vote for these
media-playing any significant role would you agree with that statement what they did Tried 1 suspect in
2005 during the elections and they mobilized tourism at the time and despite the stupid Genicom desperately trying to shove of the estimates of the time and the result was 200 people if they most of them students so they did try back in 2005 as we
speak now security agents are staffing the internet cafes and others of law the major cities making sure that it's mobilization is not taking place there have been a European excitements groups calling for a major protest full made 28 sold the whole security are establishment is on alert and so as a matter of fact if I
can just tell you this story from this morning I had a long talk with the Cuban ambassador to to Germany about the jamming of our short wave signal to Ethiopia you know but you transmits to the GOP in the local language is 1 of our most popular programs we've been running it since 1965 popular and it's being jammed every time we have an election on the corner or something major it's happening so I went again to see the ambassador to complain interestingly enough but they are and freeing all sites in Ethiopia what I'm trying to say is they go go into a lot of trouble and money to blog already signal but the Internet is free the same content and I think this speaks volumes on the importance of traditional media in Sub-Saharan Africa and I quite like to chooses cuts through a bit of the high the facebook I which I that we've been seeing and reading about and as far as we have been following the Jasmine revolution I would argue in a stand to be corrected that's 0 slaves a big part is not a major part in a bigger part than Facebook and Twitter in mobilizing grassroots support a mere either you agree on that 1 the role of genera varies
from country to country and so there is not political weight and theory for example or and since there was there 24 7 and agent and when they jumped signals and the error did did work the mainstream media like use tell which is like at 1 and then
uh broadcast material online which is like from children other medium and that's what all the mainstream media have been doing with those revolutions from the Middle East and this is very interesting for over the past 5 6 here is my main argument with mainstream media whenever dealt me how do you know that the log the citizen media people you told me I credible and now I want to to ask them that because I believe social media I believe that the credibility of those sources of mainstream media have always been dealt those people and the fact that theory the with linear analysis for because they could not the original and they killed their cameraman and so it's like engineering is out there to really come Libya was to these 2 0 1 and later in they game along with everybody else and the teenagers where screening how come the Romanian revolution got no more every time like that prompted the
green movement in Iraq why get more airtime than the Tunisian revolution line and people are interested in the Tunisian revolution as much as they were interested in Iraq generation only started being covered by
mainstream media 3 weeks into the evolution and of 29 based on top of an idea of the mainstream media was only there for the last week after all the data to work with them I think I thought I was situation you know there's a lot of that to a growing and in and I play in the situation in Egypt and in this situation where it was and it's that cut off Al-Jazeera role of course because the flowers you're itself which becomes crucial importance for the real time and direct coverage for a 10 year quest for example cause also reached the distance and in fact is a lot of people I still don't have the connectivity in Africa to watch online streaming 24
hours around the clock so I really have to have the infrastructure question at some point I guess I have also back to you as to how far you think that traffic connectivity problems despite the spread of mobile phones and improvement of backbone connectivity especially in eastern Africa in the last years how however 5 which is saying infrastructural impediments to all of the main calls for the digital
media not having the same momentum perhaps as North African countries 1 has a well known
polynomial in Africa and Western African in thank you for another produce well and forget about what they're trying to say is if you're in parallel Maryland or
else you could instruments as mobile telephone mobile Internet by telephone and it works very well and it's spreading very fast even import countries because 1 must always think of social media in African West-African OK the internet if you have an nexus these despite the cafe then something else at the relay information it's a method that's why people at the far end of the year you know multi for instance where electricity and not even a break right that
they know they know exactly what is happening why because there briefly the message relayed new and back and forth you know complement of information they are absolutely well no it's true that in West Africa radio radio is the median number 1 and that television is watched very closely by people in power that what happened in the Ivory Coast longer rule and went as far as during the battles of additional between what are
the main thing and we to presumably take media and 10 of that was relaying the the signal of I do it the joint working in in mobile trying In order to keep control and send it President gamble capture you know the Clarence watching it meant that the class of what's on everything that was stayed on the television and people you have to know that it began people get on 1 channel I did did you already working in that they don't have a choice but people know even in in defiance of morality or somehow or other
people knew about this regulation begins equally something everywhere in Africa which is that poverty because which is that development and which is the pattern which and the wanting you yearning for freedom and many of the words that were due to the
lack of food French skills work for just a few words in general as an overview of how the francophone topic here and developing with all the pranks and blogosphere has been developing in many things to side with thing and it's very likely because the new generation and no 1 knows about blogs and most of all once again because they have coverage very good coverage of the a but of mobile Internet and that changes the world it's done as you can see it from 1 1 to the other the last thing I saw on Twitter because now Twitter is very useful in mobile phone with connectivity even in villages if you think about it much higher I mean far away and where someone was sweeping people from such and such a village the word the power supply with the wind is going your way have you taken you heard away and this is why this is happening right that's what it's talking to each other with your family and now the concept that you can talk to people very far away and them very personal question and do things together even if you've never met it's very much present you know people range even wedding have been you know people ranging waiting for the daughters were or boring through an assignment this is great because instead of narrative ordering assigned to regulate you're using thousand you can sort of go further and maybe find another another families further away from the impact impact it impacts everything in Africa even when there's no intrinsically even when there no education you know writing because people know people know and we get significant someone you know have to read and write to relay the message in in East Africa that such a diversity between the state at different countries I didn't like impossible to generalize really but perhaps you can say that but also on how you see the situation developing there and 1 thing that I would have
been interested in talking about it but language issues so fractured fragment of a sphere and from top of the of the few people that locking of files I don't have a lot of situations where they really talk to each other so that you used to be a little bit of community things started to develop on both sides very little interaction between the francophone and for all Africa would you agree the image ships so much because I'm gonna just play devil's advocate here content you that you know traditional mainstream media as opposed to high I want to replace this modern revolutions of the revolutions by modern revolutions are civil society driven revolutions are coming on the plane this morning I read a fascinating article was published in foreign affairs not give you a copy this institution fascinating and the very clever professor sides of New Media New York University said but rather than looking at for adopting and intra instrument instrumentalist view looking at people having or not having access to of Facebook Twitter Internet and let's adopt and invite what he calls an environmentalist you looking at civil society so in other words you have to have a functioning of all the uh various strong civil society in order to be able to use modern technology and the gadgets and the social media tools to drive revolution I thought it was that made a lot of sense to me because if you look at a place like Ethiopia you have an internet penetration of 0 . 4 per cent this is where below even for where every instance where Internet penetration on average is 2 . 1 % of sub-Saharan the sub-Saharan penetration in a place like you give it the vast country tutors Africa's 2nd most populous nation 88 million you have a Facebook penetration of 0 . 2 % that's what 170 thousand Facebook users so how do you expect them not to
drive the Revolution and you have a very weak society of civil society the it just made a lot of sense to me I think we keep looking at the use of gadgets and the tools but rather than looking at the level of you was the word the people with organizational skills in in any given society and this is very much true for Ethiopia and yes we have very different pictures in South Africa Kenya in Nigeria where obviously you know there are 2 groups and then into the group social media forums spring up and fact and I contenders read this to you and because of from 1 of the the bigger the Nigerian platforms 1 of the Robertson and as I sometimes think that too many uh that are trying to do the same thing spreading us out in creating more
violence of people instead of bringing us together as the technology gives us the opportunity to do this is a very Nigerian phenomenon we have all these different platforms and rather than in the united them it it it spreads them apart and then he continues I'm I'm particularly interested in the size that go beyond dating or social networking for personal social purposes that I'm hoping abuse of this particular
platform will contribute to the rent and wouldn't it be cool to the power of social networking African civil society could reach a tipping point the levels at which the momentum would change becomes unstoppable this has to audience to consider case sorry to I have defined on relying on the street you give a I think you will never forget where some much migration between countries between regions and between Europe and in Africa or middle-east you can never
separated the the diaspora from the country there's a lot of the changes brought by the applied for I wondered if it's all through estimates is true family and there's the collective now and knowledge of civil society thanks to the of the the current of information between guys praise migrates migrants and the people back home that's what I'm seeing it and yet there is the collective society the doing In an orange because if you
look at what has been happening in people in that country ladies February and like can in
Uganda the things that a lot of election later effort the all of that predicate voting there has voted or is about to vote covering
is coming up in september so and the people now the best time that you know what the government know that something is something is happening and even if I may be the great Arab Revolutions posted it gave it a little push it was there it that is starting to censor and to to propaganda that estimates and in Mr. Museveni in Uganda in February the way elections going on and it's the 1st time at the head of the rounds of mass and then that is being sent to everyone in Uganda by In operated telephone cooperated only by the our you know what the majority shareholder and of what was that in
men's age if you value to further to family and if you sign this SMS to 7 1 other in a person you can win 100 dollars this is happening this is happening so this is the best time
that had governments know that something happened and then starting to grip unit of agreed on mobile health status and mobile operating
I make and similarity situation happened in the
United Kingdom happens a colleague of mine to both of those that have become places on line about house
theory in brand was sold the land masses that we have a lot of universal last and branding is the main thing so that like if you think the present propaganda like the like that do you think that
there and of the government of honesty learned a few lessons to think that there are some particular lessons learnt for or civil society organizations or media activist from the
protesters north Africa that can be taken into other African countries questions for you the yeah like people learn from each other just like our country the into the middle of this like Tunisia and and was easier than the rest of the region this is what I call them copy counter-revolutionary like the involved and that was normal and natural but everything else like agent for the 1st time and the we have scheduled revolution of evolution with facebook event with a specific they place the time this is a don't clown revolution like but there was also a timetable Arab Revolutions being
circulated online and even the main part of the mainstream media reports about things that people were like if the people in the countries the things were happening and like but then the Revolution was scheduled for several quality and and so that for example February were like will then be prompted as 1 that creates problems with agents as well on the 1st day on time where 24 that I contacted many of the Egyptian people I know do you see anything is there anything happening because they wary of these things and and if so whether it was the fact that countries were able to unpack each other and and break this area and how those millions of people across a out on the street demanding there right so that we can still pick
up on last 1 again and then follow up on that because it's kind of successfully evaded the language issue I I
raise that maybe we can get back to that because I want to ask of what you think the fact that there is a common language grounded our countries had uh how that affected the communication between countries because and please correct me if I'm wrong but I have felt that of that there's a new kind of solidarity of least amongst young generation of people political solidarity that we can see taking place in the region that is kind of to my knowledge unprecedented because these are countries that not not necessarily have a tradition in Tunisia supporting each other something that the government had always been that out of touch with the reality of
people and and that's the reality of the now like if you talk to to you if you get the chance to meet somebody called mammals but that the the rules that and there are no problems that there is no 1 dying in air and so like this just shows you know how out of starting out of reality Arab rulers of from the reaction happening on the ground of parents not only have a common language but a common set of
circumstances and a common destiny and they believe that they believe that it is
there a lot of common things in common between now and then does that mean that many common kind of Arabs have gone through all of in a linear for Chilean same kind of leader Tunisian smaller 23 years same corruptly agent close to here is about the same kind of and the world was
dealing with those of the catering when it was only after they have are out there and that of the history of the world well the but the the authenticated all the world leaders and the international community was taking them one-stop-shop and but like to the the people between thank Tunisia and Egypt of time and at the age what how how the interaction between
1980 well intonation common that inside our love their rally behind and then the main thing inherited was where alternations where alternations and then it became where all Egyptian and had everybody around about 1 1 then I think it was the 1 who and what about the guy OK laughter 1 of the 4 the idea the virus is 1 location in the states that the but highly have left the country I think that in the head what's on TV and I wasn't here that was the use that in a police state anatomy of the Internet those people had to go through so much just have their voices out
and break down here very go out on the street to get killed gets like this where the
1st images we solve and then and then this guy who will rule the country with an iron the goal it's a it's like that EU and moment and I'm not political and other political activists and someone who stamp on the sideline and the influence of the global iron and then it was very moving moment for me and for and the Arabs around here when 1 Digital's hobbling saying those millions of people on the trade and like it was the installation of this really like the content of the biotic and his reading and more on and then your own country with own hands all all of you will die and that's what worst thing in let no they're not Libya guy continues to the European of the
Libyan listed against them 1 guy he's ready to do so all the way along the high I wouldn't be people and and diagram of the well tool has shown how a lot of of support a lot of support strategies and the field of points in the following the government's reacted we have a lot of support from all over the world and it's that people-to-people connection you want me talking to each other and you are not thinking what the interest of my Government have 100 her government we don't we don't think of them on 1 on 1 level and that's what social media content that given the chance still may ourselves that expressed of them talk to people in our own time like a lot of time but like in an online with everybody else from there is you have and I know that very hard because those that have a
topic life switch between the 1 and the last thing you want to say
something earlier the yeah moment of any kind of community of alpha between as an expression of the different properties people who with starting to the media also in the francophone region or perhaps how that works in other regions in Africa is the thing you know when and how windows the
evolution have the a bit you know yeah well I'm in Ivory Coast suffered from that suffered from the lack of attention because everybody within the international TV media with Soviet leader with families and have been given if there would have been
more attention on Ivory Coast and what was happening was getting sort by the maybe things would have been a bit different on whether there are plenty of signs of hope you know in the west Africa and then again and again if it really driving country with plenty of cities media then and then have tough elections coming up with president that have been in power since there many years the whole and the the francophone suffering and backward when compared to amplify intricate OK so of but the they regain that the story of you know people being being power for a 20 40 years and sometimes in 35 years and and this is going to to come to an end there will hope they're going to be a peaceful and right not ivory coast but other than that I think we have about Ivory Coast mainly reflect 1 thing about African we share a collective responsibility to on following up 1 of the things that happen we have the collective the
relations coming we have a responsibility because just taking note of seeing that on Twitter as being you know I support language and find petitions we obviously have something you know another that great to invent to be able to do not to be so powerless and to be able to do things and to organize may be prepared and had you not to leave people in terrible situation world going and the lookup like when thinking to people
and you look at the background of what actually caused frustration and the breaking point out that it's of course been a mix of of the devastating and increasingly devastating economic situation is something countries in despite some of the richest and have them but also spoke about this little bit earlier about the lack of any kind of
self-determination that people have like the control of your own life politically but also in a different aspects and if I compare the situation the way that it was a before before the recent that found in Egypt and then look for instance at again at the Ethiopia you could say that a high economic situation have a hand and and lack of self-determination in particular in the political context also very bad and then when speak in spoken about the lack of availability
of instead the lack of any kind of local radio to give expression so it seems to me that there are 3 needs and demands that no out for this will have had you see the situation but we see the lobe of the mode fewer proteins in the in the Horn of Africa
regions of not mean the fallout from the the Jasmine Revolution Djibouti in Khartoum in Sudan they were I mean the reason moved in big time this was the end of adjustment for for much of sub-Saharan Africa so I think we
have a few years to go looking at the European particularly the situation is very dire indeed and we watching to see what happens on my there be 28 when you approaches are supposed to and culminate in a in a public demonstration in Addis other when the capital which is not seen as unit mass driven approaches like this before and see what happens with the course this morning in full swing is that in 2005 and again given below and I'm coming that I keep coming back to this to the civil society the way we did not argue with you because we totally agree with of of government
that can you this the sounds that will find you need to have
a strong structure that's why it is moving on women's movement if you look at the rate of domestic abuse Ethiopia and that is situation of women in Ethiopia and this is very true
for a lot of African countries not synagogue they've
moved a lot of money and they have made you move but of many countries we have a situation where different from this 1 and so on was so then you have a
combination of both is the not and you don't have a strong civil
society is and act a change agent and you don't have the tools it can be used it to another level of education you need to to have some society need to to develop political ideologies universal the total expected people that real irony of France and the need to stand up and and what the nature of people with the right that we are going to a little place the government that the policemen and and some countries time that's very frail
thing for the money we actually have somebody would like to ask the question which I'm very happy to see although I could barely see you but I would like to pass the word for the nite that question to you and the approach anybody in the audience who would like to ask the question to come up because it's in the back of the if you raise your hand and whenever have few so please that things of here we can talk about the media and civil society and I think government that's talking about digital media really implies also looking at things from an international perspective and we can talk about digital media within revolutionary movements but I think we also have to talk about some of this is in this direction was my question what role well the altered world place in in in the context of you know like the connections to other countries the period for example to Europe and the United States AJ um in in order to supply for example direct help was simply the fact of the invisible you know of creating their own image international public interest in what is going on regionally locally I'm asking this and also because I felt that what that this situation and behind in Syria for example and also Saudi Arabia there were things happening but we learned a little about this over here so I think that the link you know from over there to over here is sort of what we as well working as it was for example between like Tunisia and and Europe etc cetera so should we like considering this this fact also and and and think about the effect of you know solidarity uh digital media as a vehicle for international public sector thank you would you like to respond they're probably could you have lovely OK it's not in the going up a very important point here that the supplier of the international community just normal people pick up called so I have to find ways to help those people is very very very very quickly and I can't stress how important it is because people from then I cannot be I come from a country which is are than so if tho I have had a lot time and everything over the past few weeks I have not written anything about me because I don't want to endanger my help I'm I'm I'm enjoying myself
anybody from the Hague government that would not have he
also said so what's wrong with the link you know like between and the other countries that are obviously not so visible and that we don't know the answer we learn some little you know from what's going on what's wrong the thing is people on the ground should but that's just a few people are active online there's a lot of coverage on Global Voices Online were randomly in topic that we try to highlight some of the voices which are active on social media that and then you can go and follow those people and and learn more about the situation not want mass of people are active the Egyptian have in really forthcoming care and now than getting their belief to the crown because there is that he and dynamic so media of the entire and complicated any other form of the 1st week of the next question if you were talking about language as far as Africa is concerned it would be something very good
to establish bridges between the French-speaking and English-speaking African because they are not talking to each other this Togo for instance french speaking the same size as the government and resources same population roughly 1 of its variants had to have pretty election transparent elections these driving economic in that can and aboard a took always lagging behind with the same president for the past 20 years so just talking you know and abolishing the language barrier would be a great help and thinking African T
if I have my name is not L I regime change working on these things presently under very impressive the panel's comments on 3 different issues happening mentioned so and the 1st is the role of demographics half the population of Africa's below 25 the average age of serious 22 and a half the population of Yemen is below 15 to have a whole bunch of young people quite often don't have jobs so
the 1st point this is a young person's revolution as much as anything and the 2nd thing is that if 1 looks at the gym the mass of rising Egypt took place from
turn of the the internet from the system so this that have a concept of activated nodes effectively make everybody angry because you turn of something people love and the 3rd thing is that change by design what is interesting being quite involved in this is that a number of the process movements are actually led and design and there was a movement has taken place over the last 4 or 5 years of people to become educated and processed movements so right now for example the United States Government state parliament funds National at M. endowment democracy and there's like a whole bunch of trained activists in many many countries around the world and so therefore there is actually some form of design behind the government-led but is actually friends of interest of most reports the new variant for this you have to understand we have young population of people with access to online media and the and that it is helping and
all the available saying the rest of the world using the page and the young guys are not ready to live like that parents and grandparents that so that 1 agent that into another coming off the and was 1 of the but ways also because instead of people sitting and wanting a until following it comes with they have to go all out on the 3 because when he cannot enter that that actually was is going to there's something really evil away from the prying eyes
of the rest of the the international community so let's go out on the street and through them this and as the role of the US now this is the role of the devil that when you get people together people that's and then is but let me what happens they and have not taken a single strong what people if you have to wait to while and those are the sources of and the mediator in the game so can find promotes freedom of religion promotes democracy and protect certain aspects of the center of the and whenever there is this situation but overall there you and still protect the interests of for Florida and they have
exceptions were probably they will but field as the last number 1 time and that is the last few days when they were like OK and not more and again and that was the length of his thank the 51 will
touch standing when a microphone yeah I I think that some columns she was mostly I well let me let
you mentioned place of well call for for more attention to what the environmental and and civil society and the in the importance of this society
but is not that and he also argued that the natural media can actually help millions of society and I was particularly in a room reminded of the work all at beginning a common aspect of arrival the musical argued that's malevolence in in a in Africa help of enhancing trust between and well economic partners but
I couldn't natural media but also uh and support the creation of a nationwide civil of a nationwide civil society which from my little knowledge you
have about Africa's lacking in many countries using Canada's issue I understood the question which can be mobile phones in the hands of networking and building civil
society in Africa and it was actually across all larger distances than existing of before now only on the nation's scales or even on region here that the definition original scale you see that in in East Africa a lot where you have 1 of our original provider moving into countries like Tanzania linking countries like Tanzania Kenya and Uganda and it has created a sort of regional identity which was not created a critical level before you have a pretty good entity called the Eastern African
Community and it's considered pretty useless but most people consider the miniature Safaricom moved in to connect all 3 countries providing estimates of chief telephone calls and you people not needing use change this impossible to get a flight from Nairobi combining and this is very much made this consists of all the things together on the regional level have so here's the here's and certainly more widely analogy and which is the problem all data to a technology obsoletes land lines of which has been traditionally of a communication obstacle in in Africa it's happening a lot and we see that happening to achieve better because now we're busy you know we we sort of moving away from social media were looking at plane content on
mobile phones in Nigeria this is the future it's happening in Kenya it's happening big-time in Nigeria it will happen at some point in your another 10 or 20 years which talking here of review agree I totally agree and and say you know i would like just to add that this is why it is that we wanted to watch the and what is happening with censorship and
think about because we can begin the yeah this is now in the in the dangerous the censorship in my life I think before
people queuing up because the the company could not have and if I think if you will also be efficiency
tomorrow right please feel free to advertise for it might go the microphone the and and manipulative and
understand and I will be be speaking tomorrow dimension I have a and on a question to class the command
and because I think you very much for talking for reading of the topic of the civil society and however not true that having a strong civil society there must be a whole needed to get an active action on the ground of the chosen indicated here and it's not it's not that happens to be a for for an active civil society like immediately we have we have to be so far and randomly the state of the civil society of course is not working is not the window and the jobs perfectly to get the final you have to get the approval of state during the time to get the approval to read so that is not in and most of them most of the NGOs and even could not get get some of the rejected
themselves and enterprise and I'm not sure that having strong civil society and and 1 of the the things that I might be most if you didn't know some of it over the evolution of a very strong low center which was a grand defending their as people was by the army and all of people so we're just arrested and even that there's cuts
were and were removed from them and the tips of of the
computers also were removed and so on of course there a study that lie was monitoring the main thing but in the end of the during the Revolution within the doctor let you haven't had this is absolutely this is what I was
going say you need to have most of their organizations that gets fun and the opposite corners so they are not giving fountain of society and a number of the organization that the and helping they're very worried these days don't like in 6 months they will not have time to continue on their organizations are given on things like maybe it's not the perfect time to give out money for it can't be that we don't know the victory of a stable enough to receive funds so I think that this is find that you should just put more money into the civil society and and state of holding programs for longer than that just give you the money to the locker organization and then defense of a state that question now clear that some the francophone Blogosphere not that different this year so I can even includes applications like the Tunisian
and Moroccan most of them Blog French African African and also the European like this with the french so do all of them connected within the application using the same language on a connected and EPS what are the the topic that bring the spring of them together and you know how to the blogging are just like willingness
to of finding yeah in a way that more and more connected and thanks to Tunisia the continuation of the you know race that's an interest that every blog being in Africa in Canada where Francophonie with it that was the 1st link in yet another connected with Twitter because Twitter is light waves and the African using Twitter so interested now in the following people from Canada people from all organized around on the that can you take very and we're in the 1st place but I can see that now Francophonie linking linking and especially and strangely enough especially thanks to Twitter Twitter is you not to make people and to make them follow and you can you know can have a with person following someone in Mali and you got
Senegal and following elements of
Christian nation that anybody in in Africa and has to be promoted because francophone registration and not just know thanks to Tunisia thanks to the Tunisian in the Arab revolutions finding a common ground and a common topic before derivation of French candidate talked about French Canada France talked about in the 1st hour or if they're our Africa talked about in know the neighboring countries and it's provided the common ground you have no change between bloggers from around Africa I think it's very important 2 more
people to join you know when it not I'm just a freelance journalist and level and I'm just wondering traditionally to Terrians state tried to to get their hands on media outlets to control the public opinion and when when we went into this time I get the impression that is very important to get the control of the provider nowadays from providing like this and Internet Services DSL Internet
connections whatever it is they're Trent but you can maybe see that in these states um the other regions tried to get their hands on these provided so and if it is like that what can be done about it and in the real the degree of stretch for all these out revolutionary movement or with the interested in hearing your opinion that what In the case of you that can tell you that they never let go of provided the 1st place so you have a state monopoly and would be another 10 years before they even engage into any sort of joint venture talks with Malaysia Telecom model technical
anybody this is very much the same for Eritrea and you have a number of countries where the least thing they will develop the last thing they will let go of is the national telecom and the service providers of any the old communication this is going to appear at the same time variant of which is the other ideas on the other side you could say that countries which have gone farther and the variety of liberalizing the telecommunications structure and made advances on that the product is in my can other countries that we've seen you bringing out software innovation and and most strongly in the Age of Digital Media tho I think that some and rule the problem with the French was called X
friendship forget francophone Africa it's very often the people in power and are major shareholders in telecom into right this is the case again about where we have an overseas hugely profitable
and then again you have a difficult becomes all the more welcome company becomes a political player in the whole thing is not the and so on and so on so it does not only that the government still control what can accomplish companies like 1 data government switched off the internet and didn't sort of structure that telecom companies to build up and thereby and the framework of the countries where the Internet filtering is don't across the region interconnect monitoring is done across the the region with that case here and then the belief in the front countries was even the chance something like and then I origin of has been monitoring and that people who are involved in this chapter where the prison all in all the actions taken against them so we know it's monitored we know it and be because because of and the other thing I think is 1 there is a problem happening in any of those countries they still about the speed of the internet the theory to that and then you can up until the and video or photograph thank you what would take 1 last question and 1 have that that that perfect which have memories of all well bicyclists ago in a slightly different questions involved the vector of education in which I mean indicating the western countries about what's happening really in the in the states of the press the dictators because normally you get even in the western and the fitted view of the media and is there result of of of In the case of factor in spreading
the word through Twitter and Facebook and from the from the like
like reducing agents most of the information spread through Twitter in the 1st place and that's what that's what will of the people information spread in the western countries is
the effect of an indication of in the in the in the these the from your educational like in people not to read the right and on the low like informing the western countries about what's happening really immediate L. continue Thompson was was at the end of social because we can look at it I think it was happening from so many different players in many many many hundreds of in real life so in here like in the 3 of them it's really have you have like 500 people over all the carriers that carry 1 very scary and what with this is the real time so that was why it was really important and the plot of this medium ultimately can share photograph you could take them with the use of violence and you can also is the data values and brought it would do like Facebook billions
of nodes links to it and that this is happening medium which was quicker and easier to use the role of quality of following up on connection what what it just
that 1 of many of the other countries like doing is that the ontology and the signals the on on this
planet during the peak of the problem so when the Egyptians said 1 of those who live in apartments and areas with would the wire and they all very them and let the people use so
people were using were covered so that means they could get their hands on the spread of influence and that the world the what was really happening on the ground what you see the you've follow all the music
played by the fact that activists writing it but there also you want way of of this information and government propaganda the thing I think the the great radial and and all the other propaganda hurricanes those governments are working overnight day and nite to spread those revolutions those problems there is an
even online using the government's role and tools for spreading hate now
propaganda for this activity and thing that so all then people who are running well when when the international thing for and there's still think someone who any human being the 1st reaction is to run for cover because we're not used to hearing gunshots and it's really dangerous things run means go along that there was a camera training and but this is what we see in the in the world I think if I understood your question correctly what could also be said that in countries that we have very little news coming from of course for people who were interested capturing such as Global Voices all of the few woman the 12 block that exists in your text that actually going from Ethiopia definitely have a function of informing the public and and that's coming back to the origins of the people living about what actually happened in the countries with which you agree you know a lot of information from the middle of the country comes with the time frame now that picking up fast and they morning attention in the news European on facebook and ever and it's going to be maybe sometimes whenever you want a revolution because you can see that it is the opinion that broad excited and let Tunisia regret that Egypt and thought to be and opened a Facebook account and invited to many you know it's European then you from the guys great to be ready just in case now the thing is that there are a lot of tools
well and I global communities which are working to spread the word like 1 and 2 and they will come from the media type of the bulk of them in so
what they've done is activists him online and decided they came together and decided that have online like you could call and then there's a a method would be tweeted contemplated spread of PAS from around the world from the different companies from corporations and individuals they're all pooling their resources and doing whatever they can to to to help those people on the ground in other words
because it will take very welcome actually wanted to ask
questions the beginnings of a government and now have to close up with but you and you weren't involved in the best clustering
right but then theory was mentioned yesterday you actually have to give it to chose the winners trying and publicly announced also correct so that the best overall better log award was won by a Tunisian you have never mainly in Tunisia and creating a lot of things to have several and there really taking their writing very frequently denouncing censorship in know being repression never letting go it's not offensive language plenty of widgets its enemy they're playing global blond came from this plant that the day and you should get it in when it happened she was the 1st to report internationally in English at that time and Mohammed will with the the setting himself and finally got a secondary nobody had ever heard about at that time was the beep was eaten in and she when they're shifted pictures when the police found while repress the nation will lying in real bullying said she went there and she went into the home of the
blade not a son or a problem took features of the morning in the pictures of the body just that that was a long time ago that would be more than half year was toppled that was time when it was very and she took pictures with a simple camera and posted it
just to have the groups that something you know or what was going on and it started this way so I think blogging before everything and anything else and and I'm glad that you during and found it coming in on that is the voice and voice can go very far and the very fine and I think that we need to have and
I think the active life you wanted to have at the and the other with the course at the global media for Dutch available to form in June induced current in another
when you're looking at that the freedom is freedom and and a
couple the sample data is very important it's not a lot of Perez single girl in Mexico were awful things that have been you in the water committee and drug traffickers and the Mexican believe this is this is this is another killing failed opening itself in Mexico in no 1 no 1 is talking about it so it's really important that you hear about the red and called in that somebody said that could and you can find all the links and the description I guess of of yesterday on the rest of website the faded away for that of then so at
different way for the end of the discussion we have now what we would continue discussing the topic before we close of the session maybe just to take the opportunity to advertise or dimension session that will be focusing on each of you tomorrow after there will also be another workshop taking place tomorrow at 3 o'clock which look a particular acts and again that if you can actually in some detail and also Senegal and neighboring countries and will discuss the issues but also look at some technological aspects and cross media so I'm really glad to see this topic represented in different sessions in Republic of this year and would leave all all of you the opportunity to get some clothes clothing while I think what we've done is to state from truisms that we have a new before but in very interesting content and the fact that we all know that people make revolutions and not just media media can be used for mobilization in different directions of course but also the role of the this is currently playing and not just in the future in African countries in particular in the end you have mobile usage I think is something that can happen to share today and I think also 1 thing would be to really go out there like you just said that we look at these blogs follow the people and the people behind the the platforms are and and with the support of just by knowing about them and by creating awareness about the way which is like and if you have to think the word and he's still also have perhaps on 2nd thought average compromise I guess it's society and get so that's the thing to do and how education which is also an
implicated in the intact there is point for what do would you do with and when getting should have the right arrange In
other words and well we have the opportunity to speak to all of you for the rest of the day will be around in case the book and we will actually continue the topic now and in the following fashion but will start to concentrate on a different regions she told me that the the the next to you maybe the last line of humanity and having the patent data like to welcome the from then hand 1 up on stage and included bottom
coming up about like what happened that in the last to data whenever quickly so I I hearing the influence of speaking and I know wall of the of the great fan
all you In I was just thinking about you know what the the whole concept of connection we have people connected now right we are hubs for each other we are properties for each other weird like this for each other we're hands for each other in in the gadgets in in in the network we just are means of getting closer together In at 4 o'clock right now I would like very much if you would like to go out there workshop number 2 and cultural and then we're going to talk to me now and in in in nineteen year you be speaking about and that work in social media in South America in a little bit of the Sunnyside because of social media that involve America In also all of this is that you were talking about how how old approaches the actors how it impacted people in Brazil how we try to how we we saw things how we saw the impact of scene needed dying in room and you know and and things that we never found out and then we feel so much connected now in this is really the good part of social media is empowering people in a way that we feel like for the 1st time we are 1 world we are 1
human race can we really sometimes do feel together in in in a simple you know tool like Twitter but then that this feeling changes your posture in feel like learning in you feel like getting more information not because the practice of putting their but because you feel the need like how can I go to sleep I felt happen I go to sleep if I don't know what the girl that was with the laptop on the roof getting connected through a fall is she OK is she all right you know can I help her in some way and I
just can't all like I'm responsible for her to now going in in India is very much changing the in all the world at the so I would like very much to the common 4 o'clock in the known to be a little bit about social media in of American English thank you so much and I think that of the protracted
closing and opening statement at the same time that I just like to thank you very much discussion and that would like to to welcome all of you to move along that type either to join in the discussion on the American thank you very much vrijeme I can
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