The Internet of Elsewhere

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The Internet of Elsewhere
The Emergent Effects of a Wired World
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In his new book, “The Internet of Elsewhere,” Cyrus Farivar looks at the role of the Internet as a catalyst in transforming communications, politics, and economics. In it, Farivar explores the Internet’s history and effects in four distinct and, to some, surprising societies — Iran, Estonia, South Korea, and Senegal. He profiles Web pioneers in these countries and, at the same time, surveys the environments in which they each work. After all, contends Farivar, despite California’s great success in creating the Internet and spawning companies like Apple and Google, in some areas the United States is still years behind other nations. Don’t forget: – Skype was invented in Estonia–the same country that developed a digital ID system and e-voting; - Iran was the first country in the world to arrest a blogger, in 2003; - South Korea is the most wired country on the planet, with faster and less expensive broadband than anywhere in the United States; - Senegal may be one of sub-Saharan Africa’s best chances for greater Internet access, and yet, continues to lag behind.
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it was back good only the a just hold
Hi good morning and everyone's maybe little hung over a retired from yesterday but I appreciate your coming out here to hear me speaking but yes so many resources
for where I am only running American journalist I currently live in Bonn Germany and and I've just written this new book called the Internet of elsewhere and it's coming out of this month and it'll take a little longer to get into Europe because you know they still have to put it on ships and send over so I apologize but if you google it you'll find my website and you can order ask your local bookstore anyway but I work currently at which developed in Bonn Germany digital
english so your taxes pay for my job so thank you so at the end of I this program called spectrum it's in English at about the Germany and European science technology German and European science and technology and check it out there have also worked for these other radio programmes but in Canada and the US so my book is about the internet and of elsewhere but
was that mean that means that the internet of course you know that that some of you are using right now that that we all know and love and you know it's it's kind of the same right when you use the Internet in Germany or whether you use it in in this case Mauritania but you know kind your experience is the same so what I mean by the Internet of elsewhere well I mean that the thing is that the Internet producers are different in different parts of the world
right so there's a reason that the various kind of you could column applications you could call them effects emerge in different parts of the world right there's a reason why the Internet itself was born in the time and the place in which it happened which is to say Southern California in the late 19 sixties but I feel like we've lost this understanding this kind of historical context if you will of how and the Internet is this kind of thing that that collide if you will with history and context we recently sort things in Egypt and Tunisia and now Libya as well other parts of Africa and the Middle East where there is this idea that you know that these were Facebook revolutions and the people were you know using social media and how great is that that's changing the face of the Middle East and you know but of course I I don't know I I guess I'm a little bit more skeptical about that because as some of you may know Egypt shut down the internet for 5 days prior to a box of stepping down from power so I get the protest got figures so to me that seems to be kind of check against this idea that the internet as a concept is an actor In these things right that in this case it produces democratic change we seen this
before in here on right 2 years ago and but you probably know there was this presidential election it was very controversial after the of won the election and is now the president again of of Iran and there was this idea that you know people were speaking out against and the government and using Twitter using all kinds of social media and again really pushing people to the streets this was this narrative that was created I think in the American media I don't know how much attention they got over here in Europe and but you know there was there was this idea and that again the Internet is this actor that that no changes in the country and change as a society but that also applies to situations
that political right that applies to development there's this concept that I'm sure many of you are familiar with which is called ICT for ICT for development information can be and communications technology for development so this is that there is this idea that
you know we see in projects like the 1 laptop per child where there is a nonprofit start in several Cisco called in video and there's all kinds of other projects where you know if only we bring technology information technology mobile phone technology internet technology Wi-Fi whatever to a place then we create some effect right then we create economic development right so again this is the idea that that that the Internet or technology information technology is somehow acting upon and that place and I'm not trying to say that that you know it doesn't help but I guess I don't really haven't done research for this book I believe less in this kind of primary kind of acting on relationship but the thing is we've seen this idea of before this idea is even older than that of
Nicholas Negroponte today said back in 1995 that you know the Internet will flatten organizations it will harmonize people the nation state will go away but the nation state you know as we all know is still very much here on and this is the an idea that you know more than that right with that with that
this quote was taken from a book that I have to recommend you guys rediscovered Victorian internet and it's about the rise of of the telegraph around the world and and there was this
idea back into that that the that the telegraph it was connecting people in harmonizing people and that's so awesome and you know and again like that it really happens and so yeah this is kind of what we've been
reduced to I feel like is like when you have the internet and
bring it to a place right either some kind of change happens in political change happens some kind of economic change happens and that's great you know and and again I'm not to say that it doesn't help that it doesn't is not good for people to have mobile phones and Internet access of course there's lot show is that it's more complicated than that and I would argue more interesting than that so I took I took a
look in my book at 40 countries as he said South Korea Estonia Senegal neurons you might ask why why
these countries right this is the longer part in my book but I explain how you know what I'm trying to argue is
that when the internet arrives at a particular place it collides with what's already there right the Internet doesn't arrive in the same point in the country's history in every place right some people are more literate are less literate more educated are less educated have more economic power less or have more political freedoms were less and when it arrives at that place at that time it does something to the character of the Internet and it emerges really interesting ideas
and really interesting things so I looked at korea right like Korea because Korea is the world's most wired country in the world and I don't know how many how many people been to South Korea it was from South Korea will
cover people so that is this really wacky place right it's
got the world's fastest and cheapest and most got most widespread broadband of anywhere in the world right this is according to the to the OECD of suffering is also the place that has and this is what this picture's showing of the world's most developed the sports lead these are these are young
Koreans playing professional starcraft right these are people who are paid tens of thousands of dollars in some cases as high as hundreds of thousands of dollars to do nothing but play Starcraft
there are 2 television channels in Korea devoted to showing CA how much of the time and you can go this is indeed the sports stadium in Seoul and and you know and so this is what they've done now with with the internet right this is 1 of the things that come out of of the history so I would put Korea kind of 1 end of the spectrum the next country that
I that I wrote about is the set of all which I would put
not on the opposite extreme end of the of the spectrum but I would say so a a little bit closer I would say I would argue that Senegal is 1 of the world's best least connected countries what idea might but there are lots of countries in the world that have terrible terrible situations in places like Somalia places like the former Zaire places especially in sub-Saharan Africa where there's been a lot of political and economic turmoil over the years sample is a subset of African countries that is
different than some of these other ones in that they they've had a peaceful transition of power over the last 50 years since they became independent from France and their economically stable as well so they've had political economic stability that's good they and happen to be well placed to connecting to the undersea data cables that slow down the Atlantic Ocean down across the so the western coast of Africa and yet so they have all these things that you would think you know would make the internet work well would make more people get an inch and use the Internet and make websites like this which is called car and which is the kind of got if you will of of of
Senegal a relatively new website it's kind of a gossipy news site I guess I but is only used by really small percentage of the population so and so you know my question is is if Senegal is 1 of
the best case is 1 of the places in Sub-Saharan Africa where you would think the internet would work why doesn't work there you know and that's a set was a little bit on the on the
other side the other countries are Estonia which again I would put some words slightly less than 0 and then the
South Korea but you know somewhere toward the middle top region and everything didn't write about every country in the world so I don't know precisely what the rankings are but you
Starting from Estonia France and the story is this kind of place that I had anyone any Estonians in room 1 Estonian I love you I that
I would be to Estonia very few people so you those of you who have into so you'll know what to me in
Estonia is like a to paradise right there's free Wi-Fi everywhere they had these really awesome digital ID card you can vote on the internet so you can access all kinds of government services on the Internet and of course sky you know came out of Estonian and a wide spectrum of Estonia right why don't why did instead come from Silicon Valley or from Germany or from Australia from anywhere else right what why did in Estonia produce all of these kind of cool thing so that's what I'm trying to understand and then again somewhere
in terms of connectivity may be further down the last Estonia maybe not quite as low as off is here on the and end of your non-causally has the distinction of being the world's 1st country to arrest of blogger and arrested this guy Mr. seen immortality and who was a journalist and blogger and he was arrested in 2003 and now lives in London and as we saw a couple years ago with respect to people using the Internet as a way to fight back against the government right there's this kind of see-sawing and that's actually been
going on a lot longer than 2009 it's been going on for over a decade now in in iran where the government pushes pushes 1 way against the Internet and people push back and so on and so on so this is a this is a much longer I think more interesting story so take the first one South Korea in my book I read about this guy his name is
Choi until now and he is a this is just a little time 1 of of of cream history and I think it's important to to understand that the answer to this question command is now a professor in he retired from his university in Korea and now teaches in China and Japan I didn't know a whole lot about Korean history before I started this I I don't know how many of you you don't know a little bit about the prehistory but 1 of the things that I think is really important understand about Korean history in the 20th century is this kind of weird relationship between Japan and Korea and by weird I mean you know not so good on the Japanese and Japan context of the entire Korean peninsula 1910 and and so Koreans were basically forced to become Japanese and ends korean culture and language was very much suppressed for the for the beginning of the 20th century and you can of course of bombed Pearl Harbor and entered World War Two in the forties and 1943 the Pentagon is dedicated right so this is again in the kind of world war 2 period and you know Japan is kind of being defeated and in the war and stuff John Shalom I was born into a Korean family in Japan in 1943 and actually he grew up speaking Japanese in Korea it's using the graphs something japanese in Japan even
though his family was career and he was ethnically Korean and again he was part of this you know this idea of kind of Japan sizing people even if they were
from other other places especially from Korea so the war ended 1945 and eventually you know these kind of issues unresolved issues from the Potsdam Conference just down the river and did resolved what was happening in Korea right and so the Soviets and the allies were you know in disagreement over what should happen with korea so we've got this screen war in North and South Korea OK so then we we get into the 19
sixties and this this kind of general parts he who takes power in creating general and he becomes this kind of dictator but you know he he mentions in because on the 1 hand yes it was a dictator yes he was authoritarian and yes it was not a democratic system however he did create this meeting economic development program that continued for 4 decades of what he said in motion and just kind of a key example of that I think which is kind of amazing is that in 1961 there were 30 thousand cars registered in South Korea 35 years later that number was up to 10 million and and for those of you who have been to South Korea you'll know that it's it's no just as I would suggest is developed in and modernists as anywhere else in the world so OK so now it's in the sixties right and trunk commands these studies of mathematics in Japan and then he thinks about maybe going to do graduate work actually at Moscow State University to study mathematics but during the 19 sixties as Korea there were kind of pro-democratic protests going to create this time and and he was kind of the curve of this whole toward Korea he he felt alienated in Japan and even though he didn't speak Korean and never actually been to Korea until until the sixties when he traveled there with his mother for the very 1st time in you know anything
that Korea and but yet somehow he felt like he didn't have a future in Japan and he felt like he was kind of bound to help is the ancestral home country and so he thought about OK well what can I do that would be helpful to this country that is funded undergoing this rapid rapid development and he thought well I'd maybe it could be a doctor but it turns out that you know
hospitals kind of freaking out a little bit he doesn't like the smells and blood and the they got the mathematics information science and computer science and because you know that would be useful to to to people as well so and and so he looked around at various universities and decided to enter the UCLA as a
graduate student I'm saying computer science in 1966 and those of you who know your Internet history you'll recognize this right you still in the late 19 sixties was like in the place to be for people working on this obscure thing called the argument right and the art and that is what is now our intranet break it started at UCLA in the 19 sixties that this American government funded research project that that guy right there is a professor at UCLA still teaches his name is Leonard Kleinrock and and what he's standing next to is something called the in which is the world's 1st round so all those little you know 20 or obviously there's have in your apartments or houses originally they look like that
and it costs you know tens of thousands of dollars some trying to memorize at UCLA he is classmates actually went surface who invented TCP-IP he is that it is the active course is what makes the Internet function so it's really kind of fortuitous that that should pronoun was around what was going on In at UCLA at the time to
end so what happens is the total number of these
studies to get his doctorate he works and teachers for a little bit in California and they can get offer to come back to Korea again never lived there and he starts working on what he calls the system development that were right this is the 19 eighties and he has a view made a professor at this place called which is that crane advances to science technology and it used to be in Seoul the capital now it's engage on which is a city about 2 hours south of Seoul and as you was this let's build on the internet in Korea right and this is the 19 eighties this is 1 of the
Internet is still a relatively new thing with this kind of obscure computer science project and there's only a few intranet nodes that exists I think probably by the eighties I'm guessing that there was something like on the order of hundreds of thousands of nodes spread around North America Europe to other parts of the world and and so he said OK what we need to build our own and we need to build our own of our own you know computers in our own stuff and so he was he had this idea of making this network to connect is used is the replicating the opera right and and and this was kind of his own his own pet project and so he has a professor he had graduate students and these graduate students in the 19 eighties they became this kind of dream team and and went on to and the and because of his experience in Japan and the US and knowing what you wanted still wanted to and create something new in Korea that had never been there before which is to say the Internet and and and Technology he told them you know I don't want you to be professors I don't wait to be academics I don't want you to you know do what I do I want you to be entrepreneur I want you to be a you know leaders of industry I want you to develop this country through through the means of technology and and so what he would do it if it was also start up right there the need that the students of his they would wake up at that you know 910 in the morning they would code they would
happen with Triton you know building were building routers they only make this stuff works and then it would work Toledo midnight 1 1 2 1 2 in the morning whatever but then on the weekends he would and this is my favorite part he would make them go rock-climbing you would make them go hiking he would make them go skiing he would and you know it was very kind of regimented and he would tell them he would have instill into them this idea of pride and of duty to the country these were young young computer scientists in their in their early twenties they were exempted from military service they were given full scholarships they were just you know all the doors were opened for them and he was saying look you don't have to take this seriously and I will work you know doing stuff during the week and then you will have to work physically to because of you know I want you to be able to to not only solve these problems but to you know be healthy so you can see you can work on this project but so what happened was that they did build it they built this network can begin to connect to the Internet I believe it was the 1st non US project to that was kind of independently developed to to continue and so and he got what he wanted which was that the students of his they came out of this program is doing exactly that in general were is a uh a Korean entrepreneur now now and he launched the 1st private Korean internet service provider and in 1988 the 1st of a broadband service was launched in Korea and the the a person who was kind of in charge of that part of the company was also 1 of joint amongst students and and through that because it was so destructive in the Korean market at that time there were other companies that came on and there was a major major price wars but anyway and that was really what developed what kicked off this kind of high this season but very pervasive broadband
across Korea also maintained in 1988 believe Jake song and he wrote a program called lineage this was a really really big and or continue massive multiplayer online role-playing game and well before world war craft and all the rest again developed by 1 of his students I'm and lineage actually really pushed into the korean the sports players association that that slide that I showed earlier with the guys and the bad guy and pod starcraft right this is this group that does this Caspar and and and so they you know it it really kind of snowballed into that direction on the and so you know I I think that this is again this is the if you want a kind of a lot more details there there's more somewhere but I but you know I would say that that this combination of high levels of education of nationalism of duty of pride of these kinds of things really kind of pushed Korea into this direction and they've used the internet as a as a means to getting to
to development obviously did the they did a lot of other stuff to and by 2007 they had had 90 % broadband penetration I don't think that my home country of the United States but has that high of broadband penetration so
who wants to go in and OK so instead I write about this going on the top he was now also a entrepreneur newer in developer and kind activist guidance and all while I was researching Senegal and actually settles a student for about half a year and in 2002 2003 1946 at IBM from actually shows up in French colonial Senegal and they are hired to build kind of the IT systems of the kind of proto IT systems of the Senegalese National Railway and a few other kind of big government projects and they thought that they could make money just like they had in other French colonies like in French Indochina give non-promoter that those those countries Morocco other other places like that and this was kind of the the I guess early in the IT environment that on the top was born in and he grew up as a kid under colonial Senegal of course occupied by France and instead of intended 1950 but a layer of by the end of the the sixties he won a logic and mathematics competition that was held by IBM and he later went on to work at IBM and of the you
know the however rose through the ranks of idea and lived in France for a little while and you know really benefited from being exposed to various types of technology and and development and things like that but if think the 5 of them that he had left IBM and started his own of company in in Senegal and then the attendance yes for the 1st time in 1995 and was I probably I would guess maybe some of the more deeply hackery people in the room probably were using the Internet earlier where the where the leader of a little earlier but I know for myself but you know that that was around the time when I 1st got exposed to the internet and to the web and and all the top was the same thing he he saw a do an early demo version of Netscape while he was at CES in Las Vegas and he's that
means that this is this is really cool we pictures about 10 to the whole and that would be great for for Senegal but you know he was worried about it being expensive and and stuff like that which is definitely an issue in in Sub-Saharan Africa and but you know the kind of seed was was planted in his head and he went on to really encourage the government and he ingratiated himself to various government officials and really tried to push the government to use and more websites and and for people to to use the Internet in a better way when the issues that also happens in Senegal were not is instead of in Sub-Saharan Africa is this idea of the monopolization and the privatization of the telecom so Germany having went through this in the eighties with the 2 telecom it's private that US the same thing with 18 the France Telecom other the telecoms around world so instead of the telecom company the incumbent monopoly is this company called sort itself and they
privatized in 1995 but however France Telecom bought 42 per cent of the company and and a lot of people including other top we're very upset about this because they felt that it kind of reeked of colonialism and you know it wasn't very kind of democratic and when they did it but you know what and by 1998 on the top advised the government to put on election rules in the Senegalese of presidential elections and so what that means is is that people were sure kind of who was eligible to vote on who had been officially
registered and down this general had been put in charge of this project and the general general seasick went down the up you know what can we do have to make people trust and that they are actually you registered to vote in the civil just put them on the internet and you know and so he didn't people did that was little problems you know he had some personal information of their that people probably should have access to their mother's 1st names which can be used as a personal identifier but in Senegal but still a it was a new idea even though at that time 1998 very very very few people in central had access the internet and but it would you know starting to come and the government was buying into this as well and and there were all kinds of projects and and this is part of what I'm what I'm talking about is that there were there were a number of projects both from within Senegal and and kind of coming from other places that kind of started and then kind of fell apart from 1 of the 1st ones was this program by the Senegalese singer use using your friends of there anyone couple the
this famous Senegalese singer and a very cool guy you know plays
in Europe and and so of course some of that he that UNESCO list of UN like cultural ambassadors something very charismatic guy and he had this idea of founding these joke clubs and juggle is it is a war of words in local languages at all it means connection a link and and the idea was to build kind of cyber centers cyber clubs the community centers places where people could go to to go and use the Internet and stuff and an HP hewlett-packard was involved in they were putting up all kinds of money but he gave it there was a big uh speech about it I believe it gobbles during this time and and you know what is really excited so and they can tell apart because it relied on a big American company or a big company to keep bankrolling this project and the practical part by 2002 but 2003 the American Government got involved and they had something called the digital freedom initiative and they've heard of the devil freedom initiative 1
by 1 per cent of cases so this was a
uh a project was started by the American government under the Bush administration the idea was was to bring better Internet access better connectivity to various places around the world and to teach entrepreneur is and people again as a development project and the 1st country that paper was sent off and so there were all kinds of committees they were too there were American Senegalese advises that we're trying to figure out how to make the internet work better some the established a cyber cafe in the middle of 1 of the biggest markets in downtown Dakar of but again they the project was funded for 3 years it kind of fell apart after 2 years that's IRA cafe that they that they built and is still there at least it was when I was less concerned all 4 years ago and it feels like every other cyber cafe and this was also runs in time when lots and lots of private cyber cafes and were were opening up all of a sudden also did again that that 1 didn't really go anywhere I mentioned earlier I just want to show this is a cable map of Africa and and so for those
of you who may not always is so if you can see on the map there there is the westernmost point in the north where that where that will text on purple and orange circles just know that that's probability analysis the westernmost point in Africa and like I said is is geographically well-placed you can see these massive data cables running down the coast of Africa and and the landing stations are in in Senegal and actually the countries and the landlocked countries the nexus of like Mali into the services and actually have to rely on the axis from Senegal because of the because of the cable actually decide tweet this morning so that Nigeria things that you're the since the sum
of these newer tables that they consider a diagram like the the the orange and purple ones Nigeria traffic is up
like 400 per cent since 1 of these new cables was was turned on and as you can see East Africa is really deficient in terms of connectivity as well so do freedom initiative did
really go anywhere and by conservatives and 3 the president said all this guy and let wide and had his own idea which was to create something called Digital Solidarity anyone heard of this the Digital Solidarity found no effect the
this is this idea he proposed it in and the WSIS conference the World Summit on the Information Society that was in Geneva and he you know
what he said that you know look the part of the reason why assemblies people and other people in developing world don't have access to the internet or don't have as much access as we would like is that stuff is too expensive right so so what I wanna do is I wanna make I wanna create a program where people at the point of sale unless they really knew what the shopping like I want my laptop it's thousand euros you know would you like to donate 10 euros to this digital solidarity fund that
would then go to people in other countries but this didn't go anywhere at all did they created a foundation in France and another 1 in Switzerland and this didn't also going In the time so so the is raking in the cash I'm pretty sure so as well as the most profitable countries the most probable company in Senegal in 2007 and they had a profit of 310
million dollars pretty good I can still you know certainly in penetration remains kind of low and this is what I say when it went about you might be there probably some other ones that would fit this there is well you might be 1 of the best least connected countries and that's what I'm saying is that and I think part of it has to do with education part of it has to do with the level of economic activity but only 40 % of Senegalese people can even read so already 60 % of people can use the internet as they every of so yeah so that's that's that's that's reasonable clean
without Estonia what my favorite places I write really obsessed with the story I could talk for hours about just about Estonia and I had never been to Estonia never even heard of I barely heard of Estonia up until about 6 years ago when I read an article in The Christian Science Monitor that's said that the story had declared Internet access as a human right and that just blew my mind and I started reading up on on Estonian I discovered you know this type of minerals and stuff and I was that was
pretty amazing I get a little bit history in the Nazis so sorry but I don't know as I was reading that is only for those of you unfamiliar way up in the north of Europe not therefore for Helsinki in Russia and they were invaded over the last thousand years by basically all of their neighboring countries at various points of the Baltic Germans were very active in the 19th century and in Estonia Poland Denmark Sweden all kinds of other countries you know came and went in Estonia by 19 forties not disrupt and they're hanging out for for a couple years and then the Soviet Union right and Associates and they said OK Estonian we want you to to learn about you know liberal arts and social sciences and so we will you be
technological we want to be scientific and so what they do they they established in 1960 Institute for cybernetics and establish right in Tallinn Estonia and they were doing exactly with other cybernetic research and stuff like that which which I think is critical and in 1967 this guy really a hammer was
born for those of you been to so you'll know as I said there's free Wi-Fi all over the place you can think this guy for doing that and really Obama has become this kind of Wi-Fi evangelists just kind of preaching how great free Wi-Fi isn't so as a result there is free Wi-Fi in the airport and the port in the bus station in farmhouses in all kinds of places all over the country of became independent of course at the end of the Soviet period 1991 and and historian Kenneth woke up as as best as I can tell you and and and ends you know kind of a rebooted itself if you will and and so there were all these ideas like coming around and 1 of them was was this tidally project or a TV you but in Estonian and the idea was let's wire the entire country let's put the internet
access in every school in all Estonian statement that began country 1 . 3 million people as somebody said earlier I think that's the size of you know a decent size German city of American terms that would be like savages spoken in Berkeley put together they way so they you know they want this and ambitious project and the connected all the schools and they spend a lot of money and they you know and was this idea that again that we can have the forward into the future and there are other ideas to like a digital signature that can and the digital ID card act that created these digital ID cards but the
parliament this system where if you were so the Estonian governments as best as I understand it and they have a cabinet ministers and and they propose bills on anything you know transport defense economics whatever and they discuss it and then once they agree the that gets sent to the Estonian Parliament and then a vote on it becomes law but so they said well it's stupid they were
printing out these bills egoistic paper so well we don't do this online right so if you go to to talent you'll see there's this kind of online interface OK we're gonna put all bills online and if at the end of the ministers don't discuss them online before that the physical in-person meeting passes right the idea was that if it's not worth discussing online is that we're discussing in person so as to streamline this process and and that's that's did in life like he was established this is it this is values of website and the catalogs all of the Wi-Fi hotspots all over the place and 2003 the 1st step of state prototype of was born and was actually created the very 1st office is the name of their own officers but I find it
interesting that the very 1st officers were actually in the Institute of Cybernetics and this is what the somebody's Wi-Fi
hotspots look like but there are that's actually a public park and but that mobile that wife logo and you see it very it's very common and you see just like you see on a restaurant and you'd see a restaurant in a Visa MasterCard you know a Eurocard whatever bank card you know for at a bar a restaurant or something and then you'll see little white plastic and and and then destiny Estonian ID cards look like again there about the size of a European bank card there that will check and so we do is you plug that into a USB card reader you go onto a Citizens portal and you have access to all kinds of government services ranging from you know paying your parking tickets your speeding tickets for checking the university admissions or paying your taxes
or voting in national elections and and that's that's pretty cool and I wanted to adjust the spacing up there because of you know say this is from from 72 and when you get to Tallinn Airport splash page of of state comes
up and says that you know spent is sponsoring the light at the end so yeah and and and it's so it kind of progress
in this way as well and and I guess you could say that really I think kind of 1 of the moments that the of arrived onto the world stage or kind of you know yet is have landmark moment was when President Bush received as a gift a Skype from the same premise unresponsive when President Bush was visiting Estonia in 2006 but he doesn't happen of Estonia had started this program of online voting again using these digital ID cards there's 1 of digital signatures encryption is an old stuff people I'm sure anyone who's read anything that Estonia oftentimes at least in the American press they call it the Estonian enough In 2007 I you might have heard there was a little bit of a cyber skirmish attacks cyber war history of but there was a statue of a Soviet soldier in in talent and that was that was in a
park and the student government had decided to move it to a different part out of town and a lot of Russians still living in Estonia got very upset and and as a result a lot of Estonian websites that attacked as a form of political protest and and you know there were Russian-language website not like kind of traditional underground hacking websites but you know I think we still have a similar thing with anonymous where people have made it very easy you just like a page you know follow these steps and you can you to can join the cyber attacks against Estonia and because they moved our statute so the
government websites were here these were the DOS attacks these were kind of hacktivist like defacing you know putting up false statements on the prime minister's website and stuff and you know it wasn't wasn't very common kind of threatening of but I don't think but so and investigated a day you know trying to figure out who did this of course everybody in Estonia pretty much believes that the Russian government either implicitly or explicitly was behind it all only 1 guy was ever actually not even convicted he pled guilty on this guy Dimitri Galicia energy is a ethnic Russians but Estonian citizen living in Estonia and he committed the admitted guilt so as
to participating in attacks and he was fined 17 hundred dollars and didn't serve any jail time and Estonians basically felt frustrated because their Russian counterparts would not give them access to any kind of data records and stuff as a result of the cyber attacks the Center for X of the cooperative cyber defense center of excellence logos appear in the top and was established in in Tallinn in in 2008 this is part of me that this is a research center that is devoted to cyber defense and some security and that they created in the wake of the attack and in fact going to actually proposed this idea way back in 2003 and but you don't need it was like 0 cyber attacks that never happened and then did and the other side I am 1 of the cool things
is that in 2011 and this year they you can now use your mobile phone to authenticate yourself for online voting and so you can register and you get a special SIM card with some special encryption on it and putting your phone and so instead of having to put your ID card into your computer or into a card reader to authenticate the identity when you want a vote you can now do it by itself you can't vote of your but haven't the last country run and I remember guy on the memory on users of online journals and bloggers knowledge and services go and he has become a part of a group of people including my own father and who have are basically prominent exiles and from here on Germany has a large Iranian community as well and anyone actually has a really interesting history uh when it comes the internet I think Iran has 1 of the highest and their penetration rates and in all of the Middle East that's something like 33 35 % and anyone and then on the internet appealing time actually back way back in 1993 of your own was able to connect to the Internet through Austria through an academic network called us and slowly grew again similar story to to some of the places that I mentioned and by 1995 there was 30 thousand people online and by 2000 it was a million Ionians online by 2008 that number jumped to think like 20 the tens of millions 20 million something big number and again you know it's important to understand the history and the politics I think because as I said this is about kind of what kind of emerges out of the out of these countries and by 1987 a guy by the name of heart and he was elected president he was the president before the current president of the John and ammunition was elected in 2005 hot was president from 1997 to 2005 he was viewed as a moderate as somewhat of a reformer as he had spent some time in europe action during and and the really pushed for some reforms within the Islamic system he
opened up and media the allowed newspapers to open on the allowed a civil society to kind of open up he allowed for and nonprofits non-government organizations to open up and there was a moment there was a few years ago where there was kind of a moment of opening up a little bit of uranium of Burundian society of course in there were certain what they call red lines that you couldn't cross right you could couldn't say anything bad about the Islamic Republic you can't say anything bad about the Supreme Leader Ayatollah called harmony and so forth and by 2000 as you know more and more your ideas are getting online and we have the 1st instance of the Government pushing back against what's happening on your own into and there was this guy called Ayatollah Montazeri was a reformer I reformist Ayatollah against the government he had formerly been really kind of
part of the Iranian government he had been associated costs associated with title harmony that the supreme leader the leader of the Islamic revolution and but during the 19 eighties he kind of fell out of favor disagreed with some of the brutal policies that the government imposed during the Iran-Iraq war during the 19 eighties so he was basically under house arrest for the rest of his life in the 19 eighties until when he passed away just a couple of years ago In 2000 post them memoir on his website Montazeri when i . com and and he posted this memoir and he described you know what he had done what he had seen his relationships with the governments and set all kinds of you know bad things that the government and want to get out and so when they do they
have started their own Web site they started Montazeri with the y dot com so they would be you know cybersquatting kind of and and they were trying to fool people into going the wrong website and it didn't really work but you know I think that kind of interesting you know that that they cared enough to like create a fake web page 2 to 4 people from the readings this stuff but fall 2001 as blogs were starting to come about in in the US and Europe and the 1st year large we're coming to an end I don't know if this is still true but there was a period when the curtain was like the number 3 or number 4 language but number 3 number 4 language amongst blogs in the world which is kind of surprising given that it's a relatively small language with respect to the to the whole world and there's a guy called host interaction also known as holder and who published a guiding Persian teaching versions and how to blog in their own language blogger
. com started supporting the unit code and as a way to and uh you know teach it as a way to make it easier for people to come together online in learning various people were arrested and so I see no mortality the 1st guy to be to be arrested was arrested as he had published some articles that were not saying some bad things about the government as well but he was a journalist and he
was talking about how that there were things in in that the government was doing and had enough to fight for example of unemployment which is a big issue and other things like that and and he was arrested and there was a whole series of people including all means whereby profile in the book and the guidance pictures were arrested at the end of 2004 and so for all you bloggers and Twitter is in the room would having spending most of you but you are in company with happened in a giant and supreme leader Ayatollah harmony they're both the blogging and wearing a Iittle harmony and has a Twitter account here using the following the tweets in Persian and English and of the divergence but you can read read that there so yes
this was assigned a came up during the protest 2009 which I really like which is you know God is with us so you filtering into the of course the internet in Iran is filtered and censored and law and so on so I'll just move quickly through this so I
can finish up and get over questions in as you know we can talk a little bit about this earlier there was this and the movement to you know there were there a whole bunch a series of protests Twitter Facebook were people were pushing videos and and things like that and the government was also pushing back I I was having conversations with some people earlier that there was this website you about that i r and which use these photos and of the conceit little red circles around people's faces and on that web page the governor's basically asking people to identify protesters yeah but recently they had this bloody competition it was only open to the regime lots of interesting and and I guess he those people than asking me like all have you know the thing here on is different than than Egypt and Tunisia and what's going on and guess for me like my kind of gut feeling is that it is is really different from you know 1 of the main reasons that I don't like the term we're revolution is because revolution implies that things have dramatically changed but nothing is dramatically change politically speaking in here on governance of their you things are going on gathers a little bit of protest and stuff but I think 1 of the major differences you know is that running government has shown that it's been willing to use you force right is it sends out armies of guys on motorcycles with clubs and and these people up right and what what's different about
that in Egypt is that the Egyptian government and you know even with all of the people coming to Paris where all this stuff you know the Egyptian army didn't firing people and I think that's a really big difference you know say multimedia right there wasn't and that same kind of of the use of physical violence against people so I figured that's something that that again we often lose sight of anywhere well
on half of the results