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The Holography Business, Display Holography and Creative holographers

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the so the holonomy business display holography and created a lot
1982 the 1st International Symposium on display holography the vision that I think those of us in this room who were there was that holography would give us full parallax color low-cost holograms there would be used within you know few years within a decade or so the domestic call for advertising and promotion the illustration voltage that holography would be told to regulate in schools as part of physics and science and maybe even optical classes it would be established as a higher education subject it would be available to amateurs and hobbyists and there would be a strong international market In our tolerance 24 years ago that's what I think we were looking for we were expected here are
2006 and what's the reality well the log holograms are ubiquitous if you come from yeah you've got God knows how many holograms in your wallet and your purse depending on how many bank knows you've got in your in their everybody probably has got a hold on their passport on the credit cards on the driving license hollow-gram John product packs there used to give fraction greeting cards they use the packaging the used the Balkan magazine cover art for for the used to store data for and highlighting just look at how that is different to the vision of what we had who in this room who was involved in Lake Forest in 1982 imagined that holograms within 20 years 24 years would be used on banknotes and possible to put your hand up if you 24 years ago for the holograms of beyond embankments to and don't how many of you here in where the Lake Forest in 82 but it's probably about a 3rd of something like that to people with vision to see the way that holography would go but what I'm going to discuss it is how this has come about how the vision does not meet the reality but perhaps looking at things like this we are closer than ever before to realizing that vision now but you know just
explain who I am a bit more going to get me a very flattering introduction but why I'm giving this paper yes holography nuisance 1987 hot high color print the industry conference dealing with the commercial aspects of holography we run that every year since 1990 and we've published 3 st surveys on the holography industry and its markets the the 4th the nearest we just about to launch the survey will be sending you questionnaires in the next week or 3 and me personally when I got into the log the soon after I joined the Gulbenkian Foundation in the UK is the arts director of I was inspired their use that word by the light fantastic exhibition of the Royal Academy by the Gulbenkian Foundation funded the establishment of an art holography studio at Goldsmiths College we funded and some scholarships for holographers I made my 1st telegram at that studio thing prevent 78 by then left and founded 3rd dimension limited working with just applies to make volume reflection holograms ancillary light for a couple of years irony Museum of Holography in New York but with the board who didn't share my vision of how to stop the come the museum from going bankrupt and then from 89 aspect in the UK in working with reconnaissance and became managing director of reconnaissance International Ltd so I've been around lot of for a while and is going to puts it I've been commenting on recording the activities of commercial holography and to an extent are photography for nearly 20 years so what I'm going to
talk about is the lot of the business today identifying some of the historical landmarks and looking at the statistics that comprise that business I'm going to look at a specific part of that business commercial display holography and I'm going to conclude with a brief discussion of the role of the creative holography so
last year 2005 a holography business worldwide had direct sales value all of this you hologram's in holographic materials of 1 . 6 billion dollars US dollars and that's an estimator figure in the last survey the reconnaissance conducted was in 1 2 so we've been tracking since then and we recognize this is not about the the dollar value of direct sales visual holograms last year the finished sales value of those holograms it is plus or minus 6 billion that's a factor of 3 4 or 5 multiply between the direct sales value and the finished cells value and just explain those
terms but direct sales we take to be the factory door invoice value what is on the bottom line of the invoice From the hollow-gram produced what is your holograms all those hologram's which are intended to be seen by the human eye they may have other aspects or components to be seen are examined by a human instrument but the key thing is this your tolerance and simple way of differentiating between those adopt display hologram's and others but all intended to be viewed by the human eye so that doesn't display holograms authentication holograms and packaging materials does not include Holographic optical elements . storage display enhanced and devices doesn't include uh hologram's produced within education all by hobbyists because they do not self their products at least not often the 1 usually the Finnish sales value has a which is what the final buyer will pay that final by maybe the consumer rarely these days the cut point I come back to there's a packaging by or it's the price of a hologram laid down and fixed to a credit card or bank note or whatever so there's a there's added incremental value at each step of the process offer the horror and leaves the holographic produces factory so the total contribution to global economy you could say from holography industry about 6 billion US dollars but and we're not moving on yeah what's gone
too far so this is milestones and the the growth all of application markets the holography and I had dinner with Gil Colgate the other day in New York and Gil was 1 of the very early pioneers of the use of holography for security and authentication and he showed me gave me in fact they're 1 of the very early if not the 1st holographic used for security which was on a the Gulf area possible that was 81 83 as probably everybody here knows must argues the hollow-gram for 1st time in 1984 the ET hollow-gram appeared promoting Reese's Pieces 84 also the National Geographic cover 1986 the 1st use of a hologram for product protection of brand protection Johnnie Walker whiskey nectar label 1988 the 1st use of a hologram on a standard issue bank note with the Austrian schilling I use the word in this case I use the word hollow-gram In other layman's sense the Austrian schilling did not use a hologram used a candy gram but I define anyone to go to a person in the street and show banknote with a Canon grammar on and say is that a candy gram grammar model to you as a whole I am I saying standard issue there had been commemorated by most before this with holographic diffractive optical devices but the Austrian schilling was the 1st to be a standard issue banknotes and in 92 I Reynolds packaging Reynolds aluminium produced this ecology gift box in 94 the gift box binary was was a seasonally was a christmas the festive box but in 94 aquafresh toothpaste whitening toothpastes the 1st to use a holographic for oil laminate as possible of their brand identity not a seasonal promotion but the key component of brand and leaping forward for years but in 98 it became compulsory in the People's Republic of China little table salt sold had to have a whole dominant in the 1st case all of a government mandate to use a hologram on any any product and putting
corporate terms masters clearly uh around 1980 the founding of spectra taken like impressions 1981 American bank setting up my combined holographic 86 the 1st as far as I'm aware the 1st Chinese hollow commercial hollow-gram producer can doubt Ching dealt the main images so I apologize to those of you here who speak betterment during the nite and a joint venture where but with the West with a western company uh what a plot global images and of course there are many subsequent joint ventures established in China and India and so on that was the way those industries in a sense got like a call by now of course there are much fewer joint ventures and many more and holy Chinese or holy Indian and companies then in nineteen of 1989 the 1st of a series of mergers and acquisitions when US bank for ABN American bank note and thus acquired American magnet holographic so and I think is particularly notable that in the USA especially but there's been a whole series of mergers and acquisitions the latest announced just a week or 2 ago but yet to be finalized but with W. buying CSC International um and certainly making effective through make uh ITW certainly the 2nd largest possibly even the 1st largest hollow-gram produced in the world by value of products sold the 1st instantly is curves which is far and away the biggest supplier all of tolerance to the euro banknotes and indeed to most of the time I'm so that merger-and-acquisition history in the US and has really so taken the of industry their full circle from the initial corporate ownership by companies such as McDonnell Douglas up through the trend of holography are entrepreneurial founder owned companies back to holography producers being owned by billion-dollar corporate cooperation 93 the Indian voter ID card gave a huge boost to the industry in India and others going to set that same year the international horror Manufacturers Association was founded and technological
technology milestones mean this is really just as skimming not even showing the one-third to the iceberg but just a handful of technological innovations that really have taken the holography industry to where it is now obviously the impact the invention of embossed holograms then recruits 2 D 3D which made those hollow-gram so much easier to see in ambient lighting conditions the development of Wide Web soft embossing to make packaging holograms possible and 85 durable on setting up gender products and producing whatever here called off the shelf because they went off the shelf but standard uh buyable holographic production machines as opposed to previously when everything in the custom-made 93 the interaction adopt matrix of or computer generated holography 94 DuPont introduced its 1st omnidex photopolymer for graphic arts and in 95 I think a significant development especially in terms of security and I believe that something will be seeing more of in the static area metallization the ability to produce transparent semi-transparent or partially transparent holograms and just to have a say just a handful of key key technology points there were others complete list would be In it would take up this whole paper but would be an interesting exercise actually
during trying to identify what was the key developments technologically that have pushed the holography industry if or so the 2nd part and and look at the market and the industry to statistics and as a
said uh here we are in last year with um sales of about new 1 . 6 billion dollars and had a fairly steady growth and down here of that here we were seeing growth over 30 % Random global themselves by value that slowed down a little bit in the beginning of the 21st century that seems to be picking up again and certainly with growth in Asia and where
is that market well still North America the red line is the largest single producer and the consumer of holograms by value but followed by Western Europe and then quite a long way behind you can see if you have a big big that here with the black line of the China Pacific Asia and the smaller regions down but I want to introduce you to the
concept known by economists as purchasing power parity PPP which is isn't adjustments that economists use to compensate for financial exchange rates currency exchange rates and the use of PPP to adjust those figures of exchange rates for actual purchasing power salary levels wage levels and cost of goods and so on but in the countries and in fact the Economist magazine is taken PPP 1 step further and has developed what it calls the big mac standard and this is based on the fact that the big
mac is probably available in practically every country in the world the way mcdonalds work and it is a consistent standard product across the world the only thing that varies in a big mac from country to country is the price when the price is set you to be able to sell to the people the mcdonald's wants to sell to so the economist has developed a table which he publishes regularly which
compares the big mac prices country-by-country and from that derive it's an actual measure of relative currency values against the US dollar and if you apply the big
mac standard to that same chart all of the global holographic regional hologram sales what we say is that in fact by value in local currency In other words also by volume of material made and sold in 2003 so I haven't done this beyond those 3 in 2003 China became the biggest region for production of hologram's anywhere in the world it overtook North America and and overtook also Western Europe calls the other thing that shows is it is Eastern Europe has gone from being the smallest up to now 4th largest in the last couple years is probably got even higher so um adjusting the prices by the new value by actually relative costs in China is the world's largest hollow-gram economy where this hologram's
is sold what they are sold for a here we go this this only goes to 0 1 so it's a lower figure than the 1 . 6 billion but clearly security sprinkling of various types far and away the largest use of holograms brand protection the blue is next with packaging next and this just shows that a
little bit more graphically in in 0 5 now but as opposed to the previous graph which was which was growth over the period 2 3 and 44 % in security printing 29 % in red protection so you know something like 75 the same by value of hollow-gram sold also sold for the protection of the authentication of documents all products and that's the nature of what has happened to the whole organism history that's the measure of what has happened to the whole order of industry in the last 20 years from the 1st use on that but a possible in 80 81 and MasterCard 83 where
are the producers where all these produced as well and S. or holograms surface relief holograms I try not to refer to embossed holograms any longer because a lot of the is the mass production the holograms now no longer embossed they are cost using UV technologies but clearly most of the hollow-gram sold and therefore most of the producers surface relief hollow-gram producers and you can see here the nature of that means China has something like 50 serious commercial holiday produces quantify that statement because I believe they're probably something like actually 150 or more producers of surface relief holograms in China but a lot of them are small person companies mom-and-pop companies all um University sidelined companies there there are about 50 serious commercial producers in China uh in in India and during day sorry this is indeed there is there are no over 35 36 37 that's the Indian subcontinent and the because of the merger and acquisition activity in North America and in their now something like only 10 or 11 companies serious commercial producers in in North America so they are large companies but the actual number of companies in North America is now well down and looking looking at the other categories produces a volume holograms I mean you can see much the display holograms a few more that and the that's a volume organs for authentication much lower display hologram's again lower a few more than the the authentication producers and specialist origination studios just literally naked measured on on the fingers of 1 hand but in North America Western Europe and Eastern Europe and not certain not a phenomenon that we see in India and China of the independent originations so how many
creative holographers are employed by those companies well it's difficult to know because you know what is a creative phonographer I don't include as a creative log refer the person sitting watching watching in embossing machine uh for quality control I do include the person shooting the hollow-gram master and on the table and you're taking a rough average that most of these serious producers have at least 3 creative holographers then you come up with this number of holographers in employment and again you can see that it's slightly over 200 in China and so on obviously directly relates to the number of companies in each in each country in each region and it's interesting that looking around here noting noting who's here but despite the very few of you who were identified at yourselves as employed in holography and a little exercise at the start of this morning uhm interesting to think that all of those the holographers who have graduated from holography course especially stenography courses and a lot I actually working still in holography whether it's freelancers artists on employment are clearly being in the UK I know the Royal College of Art graduates best I can you look around and identify and at a fairly high proportion of RCA along graduates of postgraduate working in holography which I think is is encouraging and again point that I will return to looking at the future of holography and the role of creative holographers good I think sort about 10 minutes late so I'm going on to the 2nd but the interesting thing
of course looking at these figures and there is something missing men I identified a number of display holography producers but really display holograms hardly register in the market downturn in the production . 2 and the reconnaissance is being recording from 1989 to 2001 and now and this is that there are there are well over this out over 140 surface relief produces around the world the average sales of 10 million dollars a whereabouts there something like 22 commercial display hollow-gram produces around the world and again I stress I'm talking about commercial and not talking about um artists sorry I don't mean to be an artist of commercial that enable people people individuals and studious doing doing 1 also limited editions and I'm not counting commercial the display produces trying to make holograms in multiple editions and sell them whether the clients or in a fairy tale about 20 but their average sales I reckon are just about 3 and a quarter of a million dollars come so big a big gap here between the the average sales of the surface relief produces an average styles of the display produces and there are only 5 large commercial producers of volume holograms that I can identify and all of them all are producing surface relief hologram's sorry of producing volume holograms on photopolymer for authentication DuPont obviously token and dined upon both in Japan for ocean on in China and pride in Germany a set 5 out of 140 otherwise producing holograms for authentication security
so let's have a look at this commercial display holography and again is wanted look at the milestones in the history of the display holography business and clearly the 1st use of a a silver halide reflection hologram in commercial quantity was the 1967 think about in 1967 and World Book Encyclopedia and then in 72 there's a Cartier window display sure what everyone has seen the photos during the 19 seventies the committee gelatin jewelry developed and they act 1st started selling silver halide fulfill holography previously only Kodak had been producing film for holography but Kodak only ever did holographic materials on special order whereas actually realizing that it's high resolution X-ray film and aerial photography film could be adapted for the log of the that started a new keeping inventory and and selling from stock at least that's what they said those of us who were trying to by the time would argue that point sometimes 76 again in the very moment we hear the display holography business Museum of Holography opened with its gift shop and in 79 the Hollis Gallery opened in sample Cisco and there were other galleries and other gift shops that actually predate Hollows's and in Germany for example Mateus flouts museum in Paulheim evening Jonathan Ross hollow-gram place in London predates whole loss but actually think that that whole was was the most significant in that and Gary was in the right place at the right time and set up a mail-order business and so on interesting to think that I mean how many retail outlets how many specialist retail outlets can you identify can you think of now for holography and I don't know you know I don't have any when there are a few places that still managed to sell holographic trinkets and gifts but alongside all sorts of materials no specialized elements as I Gary mentioned to me the other day how disappointed or is how he noted that coming out of the whole of the exhibition of the road and and very nice little gift shop but not selling any holographic mementos also the natives they don't exist anymore this then in 93 and um agent in Germany starts making so the high halide plates Yang DuPont I mentioned already that relevant here to the the display holography business 97 the bad news accuracies production the good news us logic Slavich film from Russia began to be commercially distributed in the west by spiky order and then color holographic but in the UK by HRT process and I think is taking it very much further In the last 5 years or so we've seen the development of digital large-format display lot such as these that was sent from xyz dealer and uh zebra and then just this year refugee hunt launching its commercial range also film plates but I just want to take you back to this set of business
milestones for the soul of the surface relief tolerance and I think it's interesting to note that all these milestones all representing you know the 1st time that this this sort of of business application has been developed these all still happen and happen in in a big way often see that many magazine covers book covers but you do see them all of these activities dating back to 1st use for a possible in 1981 still happen if you compare that you just back with that list all display holography
milestones then a number of these were dead ends they haven't yet gone anyway and there's an important distinction between the the 2 areas of the business between the surface relief and it's very lovely business and number milestones in display but a lot of them 1 not gone anywhere not being developed as you know the current applications the display holography ot wall decor still some not a lot of stickers info integration again specially in Asia where you can buy the Fed upon holograms to put on a mobile phone there's still some emotion MPI on advertising and we saw all those wonderful 90 holograms here mix and also called security and authentication I wonder
whether what we are now seeing what we are approaching is indeed a turning point the watershed for all display holography I think I believe that this kind of thing from xyz Deodhar from uh zebra from color holographic in the UK but we are we are close to commercialization you many years R&D with these companies the color holographic certainly selling it is 60 by 40 whatever size transmission holograms commercially these companies is beginning to have a commercial product we're seeing you still the highlight materials y was saying you photopolymers why you know what is it that is taking a large companies such as few G such as into introduction all of new silver halide new for polymer materials for holography respectively what are they seeing in the marketplace that is leading them to invest and to go forward with product for display holography so we may be but that turning point where the 1982 vision could at last be close to coming a reality but there are still problems we can't afford to be complacent about the future of display holography I mean look at look at this or if you prefer because something this is a complex set up for installation and lighting this is still a problem for large-format holography and there are competing 3 D display holography is is some excellent lenticular photographs laden ticular photographs lenticular prints that spatial imaging has been showing in the room a couple down the corridor also stop displays there some excellent moving you know display screens that give 3 D display install in exhibition it is the we we've got to be aware that no matter how good thing is new types of large-format display holography the there are now alternative color large 3 D display systems available but what about the
displays a lot of this is after all the International Symposium on display holography on display holography well I
shy away from the use of display holographers I use the phrase creative lot because I think that a good lover can produce different sorts of hollow-gram large small display authentication whatever but I think it's very important to remember a fundamental and the good design is critical to the success of an industry did that depends on the visual impact of its product and good design stimulates growth in holography customers like they're holograms to look good because it reflects on them and the better design the better the whole does its job where there is no authentication security hologram or promotional or packaging good design in holography requires an understanding all the esthetic of holography and the techniques of holography and the ability even beyond that understanding of esthetic and technology and ability to turn a customer's specification the customer's request into our hollow-gram that preferably delivers more then the hot and the customer expected you want to have a customer who walks out 9 inches above the ground because what they have got is more than they thought they could get good design need not be complex it can be very simple and just give a hand fully of examples here of holograms that have endured through the decades because they are good design them not complicated designs necessarily but they could design these adults in the white the cracked ice in the product design the total the toothpaste sensation packed design which is still being used about 10 years on and the Chico authentication on Turkey there are many more suggest a selection from different parts of the industry
so creative holographers on needed within the holography industry don't have to be in employment to be contributing to the holography industry in here that we employed by a given company but every commercial producer needs at least 1 holography with the design skills with the esthetic understanding and the ability to turn that clients back into a good hollow-gram the maybe 3 for half a dozen on a commercial companies holography staff but at least 1 of the needs of good training a good grounding a good understanding of these factors those who love is also needed to push the development of new techniques and new esthetics scientists as shown Johnston has shown so well Davis holography but the development of the holographic is setting the making of good hologram's that push the envelope of what a holiday and can do what it looked like looks like needs creative holographers so there needs to be a continuing supply of new holographers and remember that we just for in this room under 30 years old and this seems to me is a real issue for the whole holography industry display holography and
surface relief producers we have to do something about education and training of holographers surface reproduces name them display holography perhaps on the cusp of commercialization needs good law professors and we have to ask where these call or is coming from where all the training courses the art myelography courses in the apprenticeship schemes where it is they know what is the 2 thousands of Lake Forest well we now have this as a symposium but where is the equivalent seminar-workshops training courses that happened in Lake Forest before this symposium around the 4th Symposium where's the equivalent of the Royal College of Art postgraduate courses of where's Richmond holographic studios type um costs further people in stockpot times faster the wears Brown University what's happening to the equivalent to now penis dependent passed on but what's happening at MIT well some of it's happening Cologne School spatial started courses again in Richmond and we know from discussions here there are some schools with holography courses but it's not enough and there are not enough of you there aren't enough of us half my age half your age doing holography seriously as a full-time commitment for Korea so the challenges for the industry and for creative holographers display holographers to do more to ensure that there is a next generation of created will refers to work within the expanding display hollow-gram sector and the surface relief sector because without that injection of creativity this will all stagnate and if you don't you don't stagnate you go backwards summary
holography is now global industry with a typo sales of 1 . 2 billion should be 1 . 6 billion globally primarily you 98 % of that or something and service we follow GM it's employing over 600 creative lovers across the world and it does have continuing growth prospects but we need more and we need more holographers and we need a new generation the vision of the early 1980's has not yet been realized but maybe now we are as close as we have ever been to realizing it and that will in turn require more demographers and my closing question is where will they come from thank you wanna be would welcome
discussion and without so thank you for the interesting paper and answer some questions to Mr. Monk those who are here yes 1 important question lost people like study based on a new pair bond and you could do this was which makes a kind of following up you you mentioned the educational of all and College of Art but there is no much fighters following research where they are and what they're doing and exchange of information so when we have to take the patient of the words as well as that of training and John Williams things up and major and yet in the discussion and there's no pulling out who has been in 1 of the and nobody knows what they're doing so whole we want to solve this problem it's a common that perhaps will lead us to add a question to our forthcoming and because I think you're right there is there isn't any um comprehensive dot on that as I said you looking around here I can see a number of people who completed the the Royal College of articles who are obviously still in 1 way or another involved in holography it's also noticeable you those who want here so I think I think some research on where all those people now it certainly well worth it but and you talk about this so of the congress that you can see you think it might be possible that the future of along these lines with the non-visual holograms programs that at that you can't really see and I think there is a huge potential for um functional holograms holograms that perform a function in controlling Lytle or something similar but this is form for display holography so focused on on that area I think 1 of the challenges for the commercial industry is going to be whether it can adapt its production processes to word to make holograms that are not designed to be seen with which are designed to fulfill a function and because I see that as 1 potential route of expansion for the industry and there would be an irony in holography of expanding more rapidly with with functional devices and the individual devices um given that I holography is I think everybody in this room would agree is actually the ultimate means of reproduction of a solid object of a 3 D 3 D object or 3 D space and despite my comments earlier about competition from other 3 D visual media did I don't think any of those actually achieve the quality believe the veracity the fidelity also number 3 in capturing the 3 D space and producing a 3 D space so I do see the new there's still that that function of the frankly we have to bear in mind that that customers public you don't care that much amino maybe scientific value in being true to capture space we produce a space that's not the same thing as a promotional value or customer value and the irony is that would you go right back to the balls motives or intentions when he was researching what he saw that's a better type of microscopy mere maybe maybe this your holography is just an incidental over 20 years 30 years on the way to finding other applications for homography the Christians intellectual the is question thank you
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Materialisation <Physik>
Mailing-Liste
Überlagerung <Mathematik>
Biprodukt
Quick-Sort
Quader
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Ordnung <Mathematik>
Punkt
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Turing-Test
Zahlenbereich
Kartesische Koordinaten
Computeranimation
Datensichtgerät
Metropolitan area network
Flächentheorie
Digitale Photographie
Datentyp
Produkt <Mathematik>
Mixed Reality
Punkt
Installation <Informatik>
Maschinelles Sehen
Bildgebendes Verfahren
Touchscreen
Materialisation <Physik>
Computersicherheit
Datentransfer
Physikalisches System
Biprodukt
Dateiformat
Integral
Flächeninhalt
Authentifikation
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Subtraktion
Total <Mathematik>
Prozess <Informatik>
Prozess <Informatik>
Trennschärfe <Statistik>
Computersicherheit
Datensichtgerät
Total <Mathematik>
Mereologie
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Biprodukt
Quick-Sort
Computeranimation
Wellenpaket
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Stab
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Gesetz <Physik>
Wald <Graphentheorie>
Hinterlegungsverfahren <Kryptologie>
Computeranimation
Datensichtgerät
Metropolitan area network
Staupunkt
Client
Flächentheorie
Datentyp
Softwareentwickler
Güte der Anpassung
Systemaufruf
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Nummerung
Teilbarkeit
Generator <Informatik>
Injektivität
Client
Ext-Funktor
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Wellenpaket
Datensichtgerät
Abgeschlossene Menge
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Raum-Zeit
Computeranimation
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Maschinelles Sehen
Gerade
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Lineares Funktional
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Routing
Biprodukt
Arithmetisches Mittel
Objekt <Kategorie>
Dienst <Informatik>
Generator <Informatik>
Flächeninhalt
Zellularer Automat
Hypermedia
Wort <Informatik>
Maschinelles Sehen
Wärmeausdehnung
Information
Sigma-Algebra

Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel The Holography Business, Display Holography and Creative holographers
Serientitel 7th International Symposium on Display Holography (ISDH 2006)
Teil 54
Anzahl der Teile 61
Autor Lancaster, Ian
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung 3.0 Unported:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
DOI 10.5446/21299
Herausgeber River Valley TV
Erscheinungsjahr 2012
Sprache Englisch

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Fachgebiet Informatik

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