Nickel electroforming

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Video in TIB AV-Portal: Nickel electroforming

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Nickel electroforming
An essential tool for the holographic industry
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Nickel electroforming: An essential tool for the holographic industry
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Nickel electroforming is a manufacturing technique that is closely related to nickel electroplating, employing very similar technology. Both of these processes were invented and developed, in parallel, during the 1840s; so nickel electroforming is by no means new. Despite the fact that it has existed for over 160 years and has a host of wide ranging commercial applications, it remains a process that is not well recognised, even by experienced scientists, technologists or engineers. The applications of nickel electroplating, on the other hand, are much more familiar, since nickel electrodeposits are an essential part of what is generally known as ‘chrome’ or ‘chromium’ plating. Both of these terms are unfortunate misnomers since the coating system that is known by either name actually consists of about 99% nickel. The chromium is present only as a very thin top-coat which accounts for a mere 1% of the thickness of the total deposit system.
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well the morning ladies and gentlemen for those of you who are are more artistically based and not so technologically-based but it please seen a lot marvelous physics in some of the papers today that's electroforming technology is really not anywhere near this complicated even a simple it's like me I can understand it a little bit anyway but he does form a very vital part of the um holographic industry and like the previous speaker the those here who I'm sure no great deal about it and so my remarks are directed to those of you who heard of it but not quite sure what it involves right from the page down to anyway now
what he's nickel electroforming well there are 2 very closely related technologies nickel electroplating and nickel electroforming a little electroforming is a method of manufacturing article it's not a coating now you probably rather more familiar with nickel plating
but this is difficult the example you probably saw or in your hotel room you probably calling chrome-plated well it's an unfortunate misnomer because what is you would would call Cromwell chromium plating is in fact that 99 % nickel with just a flash problem the surface so all the chrome plating you've ever seen is really basically nickel plating totted up a little bit with Chrome to stop at uh tarnishing and of course the
that's the most familiar example my father wide issues of middle electroplating because from electroplating across medical on bright trees which is always been the biggest market but electroforming forming these different what is it
involves well when you take something like that uh object the well of the the objects in the bathroom the the taps etc. what you do is to clean the surface it completely free of oxide and then you electrodeposited nickel onto the surface and it here isn't it is very very very strong With electroforming what you're trying to do is to create a new object and therefore you have to do exactly the opposite what you have to do is to make sure that the nickel does not stick to the surface and here we have the principles of electroforming demonstrated you can see on the left we have a stainless steel mumble mumble being a common term for the object onto which little is deposited the Nicholas departs on the state still Mandel because then still has an oxide film on its surface the nickel were deposited onto it it electrically conductive we wanted here so at the end of the process you can take away optical conical shapes which is just obviously demonstration shape and you've got an object which has an existence in its own right so it's a manufacturing process as I said the decoding process that
was the basic differences between the collective forming the more common that electroplating well if your object has to have and existence itself it generally has to be thicker electroplated coatings for your tax you're probably talking of a coating in the region of 20 microns of nickel all maybe 30 microns for severe external automotive exposure but where they show those of you are aware of the use of the collective forming in your industry you're probably talking around about 100 microns of optical so you've got something which is mechanically robust which could take an ordinary factory type handling the point of no already mentioned it must be the must be no adhesion to the substrate you must obviously be able to seperate the 2 because if you do get adhesion and it does happen if you don't you preparation properly sometimes if you do get adhesion then you end up wrecking your lecture form and in your case particularly of course you could have very very sensitive surface you can't afford to miss it around it all by uh mechanical handling now finally there is a very important factor here and that's the is the deposit internal stress understand as much about the physics of stressing metallurgical deposits as I understand about the physics of holography nothing so come to be widely posits that why they are stressed but elected
the position where you putting your growing the metal film but the position of individual atoms into a structure nearly always has some form of stress involved I cannot be a compressive stress which you can see there insert from right there if you get a 0 stress marvelous financed by straight line or a tensile stress which will a hole in the opposite direction and of course the course you don't have any adhesion between the substrate and the electrodeposited policies this stress who actually pulled the metal off the surface the iterative falling onto and those of you who have been and electroforming then have encountered stress no water and next despite because the deposit comes off the surface you're trying to play on 2 and then some moderately high didn't say that a horrible succession of little leaves of nickel on the corners the edges it really is a horrible mess so you've got to waiting for a process which gives you 0 stressed automated 0 stressful job will the
apparatus for doing something so much simpler that all these wonderful uh uh piece of apparatus I've seen on the screen this morning you need a time in which the container solution you have to have an an unknown because electrochemical processes off a balanced situation where metal results of the unknown and deposits on the Catholic you need some form of heating and particularly with um electroforming you need very efficient filtration to start little bits deposited on the surface error detection is demonstrated on this slide I need to renew the slide because that is now becoming unpopular for various reasons there are methods by which you can achieve the necessary level of agitation the solution because you must move it around the tank in order that you can carry on the depositing nickel quickly but there are better methods of doing it now than air agitation so I apologize for using a slide it a little out of date that's
what it looks like not the most evident perhaps of them in the face of operators but and you can see that on the back row there all titanium basket in which the nickel metal and this is the the they Front Royal here is the cathode ray along which you would put your your lecture form you would be putting your it you must choose silver-coated or metalized in some other way on there and the last plastic track the apparatus over on the left there is the overall control system that controls the heat is the pumps and also within the housing you tend to have the uh DC rectification which is necessary obviously to drive the electrochemical reactions this in fact is an installation which is and we put into Bangor University that binding off well some just 30 miles of up the road here about 2 to 3 years ago and it's a small experimental units that you can use tanks of this size for production but part of quite frequently people will be producing holographic shims in tanks which are not much bigger than this which is roughly agency 2 4 2 4 2 6 where what the basic
electrochemical reactions well again nothing terribly complicated at the and of the nickel metal is oxidized to Nicolas I'm supposed to electron at the cathode is a little bit more complicated because the nickel reduced from a little while back to middle little but but also there is a very small amount of hydrogen involved because hydrogen ions be much smaller than nickel are much more mobile enlightened getting to the surface but it quickly and so there is a very small amount of hydrogen evolve which is quite significant in this
situation the consequences of that because you hop um involving hydrogen at the cathode is small and you'll get a a small rise in the pH of the solution when it's working perfectly natural nothing to worry about because you actually can dissolving more nickel download newly positing the cathode then your concentration will gradually increase have to dial the solution and not something that's gonna come quite frequent basis now if these are
absolutely the factors the solution pH and the neckline concentration a carefully controlled so if you're ph goes up a little bit which will you put some sort some accident to bring the ph back if your solution concentrations authorize unacceptably you diluted if you can control is properly then the solutions are effectively self-regenerating I know the solution in use in Coventry a big 7 thousand lead about not for holography but that solution was installed in 1977 and so that's no 29 years old this has never been replaced and it's still in the operating conditions and there's no reason why it shouldn't be operating in another 20 9 years time as long as the commercial interests of the company and allow that to happen so it's a solution which is of that that has been in the light of all and you don't have fall into some of the tracks if you can do uh which can ruin it what sort of solution we
talking about then will be the workhorse of the NIC electroforming industry both holography and all the other very many applications essentially is nickel sulfide light and the reason we use nickel sulphamic not cheaper nickel sulfate is that middle sulfur solutions have a much lower stress are stress and stress the importance of stress which is an awful plant on the earlier on but the nickel sulfate solution is to use because they have low levels of internal stress nickel chloride is used but I have a thing about this I don't believe you need to use it anymore but I don't want to go into the technicalities of what and then boric acid is always added as above but as the solution pH and the pH is a nice moderate 3 . 8 to 4 . 2 nothing to a nasty like and present solutions well why you
use little electroforming will assist stressed already this morning originations are going to relatively soft materials into photosensitive like and you've got to be able to make something called resilient and tough corrosion-resistant wear-resistant in order to be able to carry out the multiple reproductions of a holographic image at the end of the line and forming is proved to be the only method of producing a mechanically hard copy with the who cried level accuracy which is quite phenomenal if you think about this as a bonus point compared to the other so the stuff you guys have been buying and lot the neglect of forming equipment cannot expensive OK now
here I have to go on and on a parallel track because I don't have the same sort of detailed information in relation to holograms as we have in relation to the prom production of compact disks and DVDs which should also totally dependent on so the
origination this is the surface so that your producing into which you've uh created you a holographic image onto some form of of substrate not that surface has to be coated with usually a thin layer of silver which can be done on the uh by the position all there is a chemical silvering process which is used in in the holographic industry you then put that into the collective forming tank when you
grow your master this is a positive image of the original negative now that could be used for in Boston but it tends not to be let loose because factors notorious places for messing things up and they don't want it messed up so what you do is you need to for
electro form what in the record industry is described as a mother from clinical must and
from that you can then reelected form the final working tool all the finding working shared as it is in the electroforming industry now that this is a common way of producing audio disks CDs DVDs and Holland the the basis is very very similar and if we go back a little
while in your memory to 12 inch vinyl says there no described this was what the record stampers it was called looks like and that there is a of like micrograph of the uh of the groups if you had a and any defect greater than 2 microns in the surface of that older fashioned LP it could cause an audio distortion and we fantastic in those days we could actually do this and not get to my problems distortion that of course if
you're more familiar compact disk and the lecture formal from which that produced
now if you look at the surface of the CD it looks like I'm letters tablets I have but pursuit of this morning that a table look a little a little bit like the that they are in fact this indentation in the surface of your average compact disk and if we look at
the statistics the track which is about 0 . 6 microns Franklin 30 kilometers number of pits and obvious the CDs 30 thousand million it gets point to the micro it with . 5 pitch lengths . 5 2 2 microns which gives the CDC now you're achieving a similar level of accuracy or maybe even a greater level of accuracy on your holiday on July I'm afraid I don't have any comparable figures uh to put forward is if someone can provide them to me would be wonderful about having some having to use the CD DVD as another analogous situation which I think is a fairly recent thing to do that these the sort all old-fashioned CD if we now
look where the industry has moved this is just a visual representation here the top 1 shows the information density on the typical compact disk music only the the the is where the industries that got I there actually how many applications of this and of the technology yet because this has a far bigger capacity than your ordinary DVD with your television film on that but you can see from the surface just how much increase in capacity has been achieved and which increasing in definition has been achieved all using electroforming process and the debt but I don't know quite what the limit is but you can see there that the capacity is gone from . 6 5 gigabytes to 15 gigabytes and that the there is the you can see that by comparing the pitch with plants depth how much more of a small part all the and how many more of the little indentations there are within the surface that's where the CD industry and it has and as I apologize that I can't give a quantitative thing is like that for electroforming polymer and
finally marvelous thing about it was that this was invented in 19 and all claims that it was invented in Birmingham which which what products that Midland thank you for your attention Thank you think you can only use those impressions checked the yes on the movement of the world and because you should look at the root of the problem should be to used for women's view the world national if it's up to show that to you said that after the meeting because that that fall in it would take about 5 minutes response was already has already and we already know that you have lots of people who the period of the questions that actually used this should thank you operation again might think of this as just wondering the nickel self-made is considered the spontaneous these days the thing at some point people are going to have fun and I know that because of the way in which you because corrosion resistant because it has a very good properties and because the electrical processes think of all of this and the information is available on what you are moving around the you know we know that the lecture the so what we wanted to do this is to go to the additional problems with the class of really with that but it already the we have have to which is far off all of and so that's already to do this you impose an additional constraint on and on and additional costs all the usual 1st reported the use of and there's no there's no to to that and all of is used to live put the and so you know there actually no talking about what can use that mentioned that the light of the things that allow the you to of the word for all so of this is question of the fact that it's usually more control of the the he was have so 20 century much facing the report on the other