Embossed holograms from Silver-Halide masters


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Embossed holograms from Silver-Halide masters
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Pizzanelli, David
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It was June 1981, when I was a Director of Hollusions Ltd, that I saw my first embossed hologram, “Skull & Rocks” by John Caufman.1 Shortly afterwards, I set up a meeting with technicians at the PAT Centre in Royston, near Cambridge, to make “Pierrot with Ball”, one of the first photo-resist rainbow holograms ever made in Europe. Nigel Abraham, of SEE 3 Holograms Ltd assisted me in making the laser-transmission H1 used for the “Pierrot with Ball” and he subsequently joined me to make the H2 Rainbow hologram master at the PAT Centre. Throughout the rest of 1981 he and I were both working independently to research surface-relief holography, with a view to setting up a facility in the UK. In 1982 I was invited by Nigel and Jonathan Ross to join SEE 3 Holograms, so that we could combine our findings and establish a system for making embossing masters.
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this was some reason up in Friday's business section and perhaps because people assume that it was about embossing it must be in the business section of this paper is really for the benefit of artists who call I think it's for that it might be a useful technique it addresses some of the problems that we've already heard about longevity of the image of and it's basically a paper where I've tried to put down everything member from the notes that at the time of what we didn't see 3 I Nigel Abraham was a very important part of that I thought you might actually be here but but I think you have turned up and it's the what you see here is really a slide show in support of the paper would nitty-gritty is In the paper which I'm embarrassed so some of you been forced to purchase as a separate component although you think you have on the CD-ROM as part of the symposium the so understands to review of the historical aspect of of C 3 and how it started and how and why the secret was a secret and why it might be useful to office in the future and the 1st thing you might say as well why haven't you get in this paper a long time ago and I discussed we draw from when we were selling C. 3 hologram's whether we should let the cat out of the bag and we thought it probably wouldn't be appropriate at that time pretty quickly Agfa stop making the emotions we were using so it would seem a bit of a tease to tell you how to use Agfa emulsions which didn't exist and all of to use to master also organs now with the new Fuji emulsion there is a huge new possibility of resurrecting this sort of work and taking it from what we did and and looking again at the chemistry and perhaps really using it a fresh so the story
begins with just the and myself are still at Cambridge University of teaching and writing a book and just introducing me to holography and in ways using me into a completely different life we were making like the most of the the space shuttle holograms like that 1 which were is a cottage industry contact copy method and we we try to make a business of it seem member working for a whole year not getting paid but in the interim but it was a jolly good fun and every 2 weeks we would also we drive down to London to sell always to the initial will simply find musical parallax in Covent Garden run by somebody we knew as Hamish goodwill and he would buy all we have to make and 1 day I saw a acutely
nude sort of holographic but have just been brought over from New 90 States of America and I suggest that's amazing is to always rainbow colors in it is fantastic what are we doing this it doesn't it doesn't sort of have to bother about it must be some plastic it's gonna be really cheap and so bought 1 of the strong rocks and took it back to also studio shall for them sort of started to get the glue offered because there's obviously some kind of impression and just suggested ambivalence that all that about that wide and iPhone somebody act the past and and they were doing 14 inch disks which of these sort of grandfathers all of the CD-ROM and they had massive great lab with future laser millions of pounds by the effort being spent on creating a facility suffering the mountain said why don't we make a rainbow hologram and work together and
whilst I was making that arrangement 1 of our other clients were buying a little so I have a lot of GM Nigel C. 3 said of if you're making a rainbow hologram you need me on hold and I can help you because you can make the laser transmission with me at studio in lots from which I didn't realize at the time was owned by comparison the arrangement users and so we made the H 1 in London and took it up to Royston and make
DH and as far as I'm aware that is the 1st photoresist hologram made outside the the USA and it was a little model that I've made in class scene and coated with stupidly to keep it still and put attended of table the ping-pong ball sorry in front of it as a sort of the globe now if you know about stereo photography and you know how to free view I think this is far enough so that if you visually dragged those 2 young adults together you should be able to fuse the image by parallel viewing and see a 3 D image only people probably practice to doing it will be successful but it should be possible I try to work out the distance to the throne and to make that do the next the image of the very 1st photoresist hologram that we made together Nigel and the technicians attacks and and although large holding working on I'm trying to do the same thing the boss them had part or all of us and police spring 1981 makes that the 1st thing that there wasn't mass produced we
then decided that we I would like to build a steel ways waste time and so on and so on hello I'm working on other projects which were a bit of destruction but I came
up with things like this so we have light ship which was 1 of the subjects we used in all trials to make so overhead light masters and
we gave up and raise some money and then made a lot in London and these derivatives Jonathan's recall what the day that the table came so if you can use those stops together you see a freely image which is actually a view from within the garage the besides the building of these people delivering 6 ton metal slab
into the building and that was our main table and it was
healthy this they they said they go bought train that was on rate to do 6 tons and it was starting to bend in in the foreground you can see the a and Lori isolated that we used to to float the table
and that's a studio Johnson artistically out of focus on the side the and we're using an interval a suit you just see at the back and logical culminating there um we placeholder in the middle of that's pretty good summary of our of the equipment using
and 1 of the 1st modems we really short was the appear this time I took away the pole because it seems like a big black balled and nobody could focus on it engaged in steel rings which are actually the child's bangles and the innovations here was that we use overhead light plates to make the age to master because we figured out that although the photons this was probably the ideal material we would no way going to raise soft money that center obviously had got hold of to build their land and we wanted to do relatively low-power lasers and on the cheap if we could and this is really a story about the success of that technique for at least 5 years and we made commercial holograms for lots of different plants whose
1 4 forward where the image was larger than the standard 6 by 6 that we work with the industry was offering the industry at the the moment at that moment in time will consisted of about half a dozen embossed holograms Stephen cruise company was the only place on the planet you combine both holograms until we started up but there was a parallel move with and Lawrence and the lab in left breath and they actually just to give him the 1st commercial job which was the year before the album cover and bizarrely just as solutions paper I gave on to call and e-mail a copy of it and that includes the type and see what we're doing is evaluating the same thing when you and it turns out that they were also using silver halide and in the initially to do their masters so the very 1st grams in that case the very 1st commercially useful grammar boss told them outside the US of A. was also possible highlight emotion and of course they were bigger we were able to use 6 up to 10 inches and so this fault card is actually 4 inches by agent place
and we did a number of other Commission work for example for the hologram companies and this 1 for a hollow GmbH walls from a pulse master B H 1 the models too fragile beautiful delicate model they provide us with we couldn't shoot it with a continuous weights so it was done with a pulsed laser with John Webster and I think that's probably 1 of the 1st if not the 1st hologram to be mastered using a pulse but apart from that 2 kinds of the light bulb we so 2 D
3D and we very quickly did or we saw the ET and we within weeks not days we were we were churning out 5 color 2 to 3 days multilevel but the 25 there is is actually spelled three-d hologram with stacked wiring in the background a
biggest commission was without doubt American Greetings was a series of 58 different images and unfortunate grant the person commissioning it was parameter which led to litigation so part of the history of we did 3 D dual
channel and we even
tried optical recombining by using Cohen's and this sufficient to align the place
as time progresses we was suckered into doing security work and C 3 was probably doing more security what the hell's by the time the Nigel left to join applied 1 of the
things that we did was complete 1st was to get silver record in vinyl and it was the 1st time this has been done in record in black vinyl might foster book grating images but by putting a label on the press at the moment of impact or just for the moment of impact and we were able to get the music and the the whole in the same moment of something and basically all
the the details in the paper and the paper so we're going to a mile pixels the size of place in the being ratios and things but put of all in the main
innovation was the chemistry of I've assume had a library card to came to university libraries so I could look at all Russian papers which Americans slavishly translated and Nigel independently done a lot of research and so 2 think probably the chemistry was as good as it could be week didn't just keep it locked down were we're continually trying to but is it bigger and brighter that
they use the things we use most of the time that we're in business and more details are in the paper the key was
making H 3 because we found by trying with the ship hologram that if you have you try to metallized vacuum flies motion it just sort of orange peel them and when incredibly them so you had to make an intermediate and we used a visible light curing residence rather than a two-part resin the problem two-part resin city as you mix them together you get air bubbles it's almost inevitable and and some of those air bubbles so small you don't notice them and but they'll they'll end up being pinholes in the final shit little black voids which when you see it and should you which the minutes so we were keen to use something was a single solution keen not to flood the place with you the so we eventually came across the solution which is provided by stock beta which was visible light cure single residence and a bank of of spotlights basically and was illuminating at this which is a 14 inch disk standard size using the record industry but as a perspex distance that a and it is my job to cost these things and and expose them clean them up before we send them to encode for electroforming which gave us the
huge 14 inch size metal master we were keen to keep what we were doing secret so most of the time we kept ourselves to 6 by 6 because we figured out the obvious if we use the full 10 inches and that we weren't using voters it's and although the brightness was good at the clarity was good it probably was never be exactly as good as the the good saturation and quality in going from inferences which is why I say good for officers who might not have a choice but to use low-cost materials it does give you an avenue for using the red laser instead of expensive blue or green ones and it gives you the the chance to either make some limited editions of castings for limited editions of Shannon's so the longevity of the complaints it is is obviously much much greater than any emotion based plates and 1 could make up a single complicated piece which you then get and lecture format to run 50 copies of and I think that this is an opportunity which as far as I know and with the exception of of character did assume addition and I have always thinking of doing a shame addition it isn't much has been greatly used and I think it could be in the future much of much better use to use uh silver halide release holograms To make limited editions so that's the
conclusion really that we were in business through to 1989 I did in the end turned to fight resistant and gave up on silver halide and I think Nigel when he was it applied and struggle for a bit too to continue using the the system we were using before deciding the fate of this was way to go but these days people who shooting ordering small warrants more images for security the 6 by 6 standard is not come down from a 3 by 3 because of the large image these days and so it's a very different world and if this was again revival body using the yields the of the food you materials so I think it could see again haven't a you promise and that's why and and boring you this paper because I could see no point in in in providing this information when there wasn't an emotional to use when when I wasn't supply and that's it and compute
fj Due to hands of hi of there did you ever measure the how small structures could be in comparatively resist or adjust how small structures were or what they look like where there was a science soil loaded with his job size the aspect angles of wondrous Samir something and yes we we removed it's is quite sensitive to do axioms of of work but we we did get some done especially early days to see which direction we should be going With the chemistry that I I think are feelings were that the result file in the embossed piece was what counted but that is our goal to produce something of a commercial standard the world as close to or better than I mean there's in bad holograms voters we we were continually trying to get up to the bar the the standard was coming out of light impressions from California at the time uh so if you like what are studies were concerned with who was what it looked like an impulse as opposed to scientific analysis we did some of the but it was less interesting to know what shape it wasn't it was given to the number to get 1 of the prime take it of each tree was context the interval reasons that you know I think it was a a cast resonance and the stock beta product that we using isn't properly available these days but and as speaking to create and use Shoreham you over a lot of UV resonance in the the years since we solve the 3 problem that sort of technology has improved and I haven't even looked at the so you need just something which will do 2 things 1 intimately take up the that the profile of the hologram 2 it'll survive being lecture form so as long as it meets the criteria you you can use any of the incidents in your age to directly influences yes that's we then turn the lights today but you only want to cover budget by a much more expensive laughter and then perhaps most artists could afford last he said again that they were used once that was sent from forming and and and then we were cost the grandfather let me just and the processes that we were using I had to clean them up at the edges if I wanted to make an additional and then get for the vacuum form vacuum coated with Aluminium I think that would have been perfectly doable the ones that are that I still got haven't degraded as far as I can tell you you there would be an upper limit to how many apples he could get but probably it would be because you broke the Plato sports fractional something as opposed to yeah put it on silicon mold that would that survive that form what work not that I can have a sort of small making material yes that works too if you want to hold multiples off the shelf and would that survive vacuum coating with aluminum that all the resident of stars OK if I use a number of them that work on the other of the mass so all of the and that is that liquid when it's we you that you pump energy in the whole of back to front right and I think it is i'd unifies researchers further might be looking for a raise in which you could pour all on class and then not expose ideally and in some ways no no we haven't stopped later told us that there was the a catalyst the solution we could use to accelerate the process but because we didn't want to part solution we never used it I just lead to things to kill with white light for hour for example for all of the but that would be a white really from the movement right right and so that's kind of I'm trying this to 2 year 2 2 then come back next time and and tell me what's good with the Fuji emotions and and what what is the during or or other residents of compounds are good to make the H 3 so I want feedback thank you things I


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