The history of holography: Multiple visions

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The history of holography: Multiple visions
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I was going to apologize for sure my face for the 3rd time the federated easier so I don't feel quite so bad so we've heard different views of what histories about and obviously my view of history probably is the same as each of your individual views of history somebody give you my count as a relative outsider 9 a physicist and optical physicist but I made a career transition about half a career ago but for history of science so since that time I've looked at this from the viewpoint of story and more than as a scientist so perhaps I
should begin with an obvious question why concern itself with history tall who cares well for me holography is not just another subject and that's not because I do a high school student it's not because I have a particularly love it I do that is because holography is a very unusual subject holography is not like other aspects of physics it's a subject that's attracted a wide range of people with a wide range of Goals each with their own personal perspective on what it is that it's about this has a 60 year history this involved about 20 thousand people 20 thousand people now you don't know what those 20 thousand people you probably can count about for 500 each of the but each of you probably cancer different for 500 it's grown up from a fractured classified labs to car factories from artists to businessmen completely the science fiction writers there's never been a technology with so many groups that affected so many groups so differently and even more importantly the subject is attracted competing meanings for some it's a fertile scientific tool for others it's a unique medium for esthetic expression the other is a promising commercial nation and yet for others a metaphor for understanding consciousness for the nature of now as a historian and fast and by the different versions of history that have been constructed by different groups of you involved in philosophy it's been a symbol that's been assembled an inevitable progress for some or moral tale to others about triumph of so under 1 term holography we have a science technology and part of product and understanding of the world even visions of the future short phenomena wrapped up in modern culture but we introduce these
ideas with an historical artifact this is a page from 1 of the notebooks kept by using tactics no 1 talks about years you have things that he was the coworker with and at least in the early 19 sixties who made this field happen he still alive he still has notebooks in this aspect is still very active and he's considerably younger than idiot Emily this notebook shows reconstructions of diffusely holograms and three-dimensional grounds this kind of document really clarifies how people were thinking near the moment of discovery how understood it and how they forecast it's possibilities so this became the
1st famous fall and the publishers of the book that I wrote decided this would be the appropriate picture for the cover
so I began looking at the photograph on computer screen trying to see whether it was good enough quality kind of resolution so on but this food rations something more as a nice illustration of what historical research is about when I examined on computer screen I enlarged it brightened it for reproduction a solid look like background noise and then with further
brightening aristocratic states that he took this photograph 40 years after he put into his notebook you can see in holding the camera above his head and it's a very nice illustration of the man behind the whole graph so it shows the person behind the hologram literally and figuratively as a
visual metaphor for history itself holography was shaped by people working in distinct environments priority in patent disputes have been a chronic feature of this field but they promote a very artificial and troublesome history if you're trying to defend the pattern if you're trying to defend priority the history write a very peculiar history history that has a point of origin and history that has a point of origin in 1 thought and that's not reality that's not the way holography ones
libraries is the story of science and technology was to try and understand how a new subject comes to be hasn't materialize has its content stabilized at a specialist like you come to see yourself as a distinct group as a distinct tried it has all this depend on where and when it's done while for historians these are the questions of deep interest or they may not fascinated with the fascinated me I argue that the news subject to holography wasn't three-dimensional it's 4 dimension 1st there was an intellectual dimension was a collection of jostling unsettling matching new concepts 2nd it was a mercurial dimension all grounds were a new medium that can be used for official purposes and many other less obvious uses 3rd pyelography has a social dimension it created new kinds of specialist and new kinds of audience and for that have an economic and popular dimensions so holography created concepts and the and an identity and the proper response we can't
find a moment of origin for this we've talked to me about this guy for you neurogenesis in that leaf and others he grew gradually from at least those 3 separate groups late 19 forties to the early 19 fifties Dennis got worse concept was what he called a philosophy that's some were very well known today but that's what this guy believes you never sought to exploit the principle merely its application for microscopy and his collaborators called not philosophy but diffraction microscopy or even gavel roster the 2nd word was varied as its work at the Battle of institute which produced wave photography nothing like generosity and 3rd group was the Willow Run that research on lands this photography which was nothing like the other 2 was until 1966 so that people began to see that these were 3 aspects of more-or-less the same generalized subject by the end of 1965 the term holography had been calling and barely 1966 we don't know where holographers came to the so that's where they came from the we can't quite see who thought of it or who was the 1st
to call himself or herself I think by the time a lot he was named Dennis Campbell and retired he was the trigger for that 1st way leave and then is your were the 2nd way so everybody who came after that was the 3rd way so it didn't start in the 19 seventies of even start 19 sixties it is started 20 years before that in a very small scale very rudimentary scale that's 3rd wave where the people who call themselves for so who work well
if I'm sure it's obvious to all of you at Lake Forest conferences this kind of problems in particular that philosophers went 1 type of person there were these 3 3 types in retrospect we can pick out 3 distinct strands scientific and esthetic and we should just a few photographs to illustrate the these ideas and to fit people the categories is a
picture of the event in in 1972 1972 the pattern wasn't very well known he was a junior researcher he didn't have much of a reputation he wasn't broadly known around the world he didn't have acolytes the 1st philosophers and by far the most numerous were scientists and engineers like and the thing about work was after their work publicized in 1964 pyelography exploded this is a picture of part of the crowd of
a Gordon Conference in 19 72 here's the whole and all these groups were scientists and just about all of them were American so this was 1 of the 1st groups to define themselves as a coherent group of people through a coherent group of scientific a lot of and these conferences with the means of of making that identity very robust but
they were the only type blowing across effect was the founder of a new kind of tried and not central From this homogeneous clusters another popular type emerged artisans 1 the 1st understands was low across crossing the research assistant research associate at will run so he came from the very same kind of people that are employed in the the very same place but part of the screws but part of the the picture on the left is 1 of very few people see its crossed as a good orthodox scientist working in time and cross was 1 of the 1st thought is always accompanied by a company called instruments in an he went to university in Ann Arbor he worked in the left and he met Hobson ABA became interested in holography and he himself got interested around 1967 and he began taking it up with artists who founded in art studio he made an art show and they gradually moved around America from New York eurozone sentences and
act sentences going artisanal tried flourished he Jerry Catholic the man on the upper right very few photos have been found founded the San Francisco School of Holography 1971 was a counter-culture technical common as for the best description we can give it sought to create holograms with low cost who made equipment and without any of the connections and military funding so this is a group of people most of whom had no scientific background cross was in effect belongs scientists most came from other disciplines most have parts school background many was simply inspired by the zeal of holography and cross the school given the chance for the 1st time to take up sphere artisans would like scientists another way there were women among the 1st time women into the field of philology in an important way the 3rd try the
3rd kind group were artists and artists word artisans and they worked scientists use with 3 separate immiscible groups of people women were even more involved as artists they made up about a 3rd to a half in some places artists began to take up a lot of the around 19 68 69 to the best known early ones were market opinion on the top left and cast in silver on right working in Boston by the late 1970 s there were several dozen part waters around the world and by that time probably several hundred and several thousand scientists individuals
had an important role here the separate groups remained largely separate right through the 19 seventies you can think about your own backgrounds your own experiences how it was here again no individual actions has significant and it's 1 of the 3rd wave of philosophers was Tonya come join PGA is 1st summer courses on a lot held in 1971 72 at Lake Forest a year after the sentences go in courses like that opened up the field of partisans to hobbyists to people off the street the 1st late for
symposium was a different kind of conference that hadn't been conferences like this before it happened in scientific domains that were inhabited by artists and artisans and entrepreneurs this was a new field of very unusual field even today it brought together these 3 separate tribes the problem together for the 1st time quite effectively in 1982 these works social events and of all the people I've interviewed some 60 people many of them mentioned the lake force conferences as being important in their careers support in their lives this was something that gave them a new CEO for for the subject
what he was also pretty medium best by holographers was that they were creating special ways of doing things special equipment and to my mind my historians minus is the most interesting aspect some
illustrated with a picture this is your is your pattern X at a Willow run optical table around 1965 there will attract William will run had a culture of heavy equipment had a culture of Samples funding the culture of lots of money lots of heavy equipment lots staff to get the job done the equipment near the environment equipment near the culture itself the physical stability of equipment matched the social stability of the teams at Willow Run compare that to the
sentences school services the school they popularized sandbox along that differ from the ground table both sandboxes could be made cheaply they didn't they didn't demand budgets they didn't demand long-term exposure demand long-term involvement and you could pack up the sand Table 1 afternoon and between other into garbage another basis so just like the equipment the social environment match the equipment itself there were nice matches for each other and from
it grew by the late 19 seventies what could be called public access all the thanks in part for an understanding of the you was also a
4th dimension to this and was creating a market and popular appeal fluorophores proselytize they exhibited they produced the called the forecast the future and all of this had unexpected results let me just show
you pictures of economic experiments companies even large companies like IBM and CBS had been trying since the mid 19 sixties to create a market for holograms but the main economic interest was from military funders not until the late 19 seventies the commercial market began to look like that and it was spurred by large popular exhibitions a hologram 1st company developed pyelography in a big way was conducted on corporations in America so the same city have groups for artists and scientists and entrepreneurs conductor on produce a half-million holograms in 1966 World Book Encyclopedia it looked for markets in advertising displays it developed pulse philosophy for the 1st time it made the 1st post portraits it may the 1st artist portraits it was with Bruce Nauman this was a company that tried everything it could to find work but all of these early funded these well funded initiatives failed quite quickly and every single fluorophore conductor on ended up doing something else most open ended up engineering courses in Detroit while big firms were
failing to attract much public attention exhibitions in galleries and the seventies late seventies especially with a decade of big exhibitions on the 1st organizers with policy Jackson who we heard about this morning she was the 1st director of the New York Museum of Holography and that using like Lake Forest conferences played an important role in bringing together different groups of philosophers she subsequently founded the shearwater foundation that funded generations of art lovers
and exhibitions during the nite 1970 attracted literally hundreds of thousands of people and spread the commercial production of display holograms for individuals to buy and display in their homes this
wasn't just an American or European phenomenon was around the world it was as important in the Soviet Union as it was in Asia as in North America galleries came
after the exhibitions galleries required small-scale entrepreneurs for production and was a chain of activity for the 1st time it was self perpetuating it big business got
involved again in the 19 eighties hoping to pick up on the same idea but the gain a lot a large companies failed to attract as much interest as expected products went from hi science to esthetic hologram's standard children's comic books was kind of devolution devolution of products and today as we all
know none of us here think this way that most of the general public think of holograms into quite incompatible ways either is the embossed product we see ubiquitously on security products around the world or as a star trek creation a kind of mythical hollow-gram that most a lot of don't ever hope to achieve these to totally different bifurcated visions of what holography is and neither of them correspond to what we're doing here so neither of them is that much involved in display kilometers so it's interesting that lost took a very sharp change of direction in the 19 eighties let me just finish
with a few trends looking at history we can begin to see some large-scale trends is the rich story of people places and products but there have been some very notable trends 1st of all applications and products have always been elusive we've got a 40 year history of looking for products 40 year history of trying to find the right age and the nation's don't seem to last as long as we call 2nd the reason for the poor financial return was the forecasts were usually wildly unpredictable corporations the sixties account of holograms as a futuristic technology that was difficult to live up in fact only the science fiction writers of today continue to portray holography in quite that 19 sixties way they took the prediction of the 19 sixties from conductor on and they create the structure but the trend is the forecasters frequently misread the public reaction to holography during the 19 eighties polygrams finally entered the public awareness in the form of embossed reflected images but ubiquity have price fine art holograms found themselves competing with a cheaper ubiquitous alternative as a result of perception of all grants by the public remained very different from what they need to log reference
such trends tell us much about the future well over the past 60 years that the forecasts have usually been wrong so if if nothing else we should distrust for we should expect that we should expect the field go in new unpredictable directions but all of the continues to enthuse people it's a magical field that continues to confuse people in
completely unpredictable ways these enthusiasms have had an unusually potent role in shaping the subject they've pulled and pushed it in new directions that continually redefined what holography is and what it's for and based on the past 6 decades we can expect more of the same or the same creative chaos what has long interesting past and as the titles of the paper this conference suggest it has a fascinating future too thank you