Early work and influence

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Early work and influence
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some of you may know me story in science and looking at the history of philosophy for about the past 4 or 5 years so that's why my face here now I initially founded on top of it I will give you a bit later on but has asked me to give a couple of brief overviews of you readers of an event in the end you read and is the 1st of at early career
began over half a century ago most of his contemporaries stopped long ago with their careers and much of early career was classified so most of his early career isn't very well known about final so it's appropriate for me as a historian to treat energy as a historical figure FIL less much what I know about him came from his own mouth I spent a couple of weeks with them in an opera a few years ago and much of it came from his file cabinet and his boxes of files at home and at work and at the university records so I know him as a human being but also as a historical figure why
remember and it was during the 19 fifties he played a crucial role in synthesizing new subject from previously quite separate ones during the early 1960's he dramatically extended the possibilities of wavefront reconstruction and with equal modesty publicized his ideas and competence inspired a generation of colleagues many of whom went on to contribute to the modern subject art and science of holography and he displayed uncommon coherence in his own career in his own intellectual interests although his own career mutated from classified work to popularize addition to academic thinking this account a partial 1 it focuses on the 1st 2 decades of his life and it's not meant to indicate the peak purity quite the opposite and at least had a viable fruitful career from beginning to end and he worked unusually long for about 50 years as an academic and scientist that was born in Detroit Michigan in 1927 and he grew up there and the age of 18 just as the 2nd World War was ending he enlisted in the Navy you didn't see active service the obtained a Bachelor of Science degree in a master of science degree at nearby Wayne State University and as soon as you have a 2nd degree he began work at Willow Run labs in Michigan
this is will run laps today and it's spent 13 years of his life at this place near the Willow Run Airport and it was a branch of the University of Michigan dedicated to classify research it can set up in 1946 to do classified research and only classified research and his 1st 13 years were spent they're doing just that it had a large budgets to develop infrared radar computing and other technologies for the battlefield for example and building in the foreground and building on the 1st ruby maser was developed not by group but by another group In the building circled the very 1st synthetic aperture radar research was done and he spent about a decade in that building and then moved further west to a separate building where he did holography that later on 1 of the
areas under investigation will run was the development of a variant of radar called synthetic aperture radar SAR and the SAR system there it always will be posted as in conventional radar but both the time of arrival and the frequency of return echoes would be mad at high from this data a radar image could be reconstructed various schemes relied on electronic processing quite crude electronic processing that leaf and a handful of colleagues conceived and optical method of treating the data the bright area at the bottom of this image is and who will run laps themselves where the system was developed now he volunteered
philosophical processing project because he taken more optics courses than any of his electrical engineering colleagues he taken for courses as well as an undergraduate and very gradually from 1954 to 1958 he began to conceive generalizations of what optical processing could communication theory is familiar to all the electrical engineers at will run and it could be combined with modern optics 10 he came to realize that sophisticated mathematical transformations and correlations and spatial filtering could be done using optical systems that was a new idea in the 19 fifties no 1 had done at 20 degrees and this group took this idea and ran with it from the 19 fifties right up to the 19 eighties by the late 19 fifties the group developed this article processing system and give you an idea the lenses are about this diameter and the system is about this high it was set up on steel rails still optical amounts holding large format defect-free very expensive lenses on top of this was a coherent optical system it was it use monochromatic Mercury light converges synthetic aperture radar film images into an optical image about 1958 these had conceived generalizations of this idea to make it more powerful and more compact he tried using chirped radar pulses and suddenly the work began to look familiar to us because the images produced now look like distorted Olympiad call and around this time you realize that what he used was producing was rather like what Dennis category produced a decade earlier so he began to see a similarity with these worked quietly
away 1 variants of the optical processes right through the 19 fifties and began to work out deeper principles by 1958 he knew about this guy was work he had ideas about where you could go with it and hope that he might be able to take these ideas a step further in 1960 lead was had risen to research engineer and at that point you receive packets joined as a research assistant the 2 of them together as a side project with the ample military funding decided to try out these ideas and see whether they could use their synthetic aperture radar experience away from reconstruction so they began to reproduce within this category done and this is the very 1st reconstruction with a near copy of what got watered down by 1961 they
produced a couple of papers but important In the 1st described the off-axis geometry from a wavefront reconstruction this was produced by diffraction gratings or prisms mirrors dividing deviates separate sampling reference speeds for the 1st time the schemes solve the conjugate image problem but about the gap and workers of the 19 fifties and the solvent the solvent very elegantly and very perfectly very high quality images resulted In the 2nd paper there they formalize the connection between wavefront reconstruction and communication theory something that hadn't been explored by any other the thing tactics combined theoretical elegance with meticulous experimental techniques this was not a breakthrough discovery this was long hard slogging worked for several years now this was an accidental discovery the project reports indicate just how carefully the extent of the work with their expertise in synthetic aperture radar into from reconstruction and none of this had anything to do with lasers they were using lasers at this time but the the project staff MIT 1961 heuristic Catholics decided to take military leave any work in the military for 18 months and the projects simply stuff round this
time the optics group moved to a new more secure building that they called the block the block house as you can tell from this image is a radiation-hardened hardened windowless very secure building in the middle of the Willow Run site that was ideal for pyelography strong foundations and the like perfect conditions block has had the nerve center for the bull market anti-missile the anti-ballistic missile project a few years earlier when you tablets returned
in late 1962 they resumed project by attempting something new they thought of trying to record all the grounds of grayscale transparencies now get day up to that point it only looked at binary images black-and-white images this was a step forward they struggled with the dim light from the mercury arc lamps and they became the 1st really good result at christmas using a helium-neon laser the paper on the work showed the 1st high-quality reconstructed images of 2 dimensional objects and these are the very 1st examples they produced the top picture is a then we start the bottom image is of years you can explore the love you joints this
is how the the work was 1st reported in public at christmas time 19 Sep 1963 the American Institute of Physics thought this would great story for a forthcoming conference and they publicized under the keyword lenses photography so the American Institute physics thought of this term lensless photography and it took off like wildfire suddenly newspapers around the world reported that these grayscale two-dimensional images could be produced by a laser beam and by very arcane process it seems logical and it made headlines around the so and this is an image of a hologram left and Kimberly from the right and is the
very 1st publicity photograph taken at the 1964 the apparatus that turns out was never used and it was a kind of hologram copy so it was a kind of uh but it's sold newspapers lenses
photography seemed amazing newspapers were full of it because it sounded like the next generation of holography itself it created an image from a seemingly meaningless negative and without any lenses at it could recreate the image from any part of this solid but it was publicized mainly in photographic features so this is an a Michigan newspaper in the photographic section on a Sunday afternoon but at the same time the lenses photography was being touted leaving a products with extending dramatically during 1963 they tried diffuse illumination with transparency and that may not sound very dramatic but it's fundamentally extremely similar to 3 dimensional images by Christmas 1963 they have managed to record three-dimensional grounds for the 1st time and little by little 1st colleagues at Willow Run and then around Michigan and then around America and eventually further afield the word leaked out and by April the next year but OSA meeting that was held they suddenly found themselves catapulted into frames this was the object
of the claim this is the 1st widely seen three-d hologram reconstruction of the toy train each new body of spectators have the same startled response the National Electronics Conference in 1965 18 months after the discovery 1 magazine reported reaction the spectators once said it's the most startling thing I've ever seen said 1 nuclear physicist from Argonne National Labs and navy captain said it's fantastic and don't see how it can be done many of those who viewed and and touch the picture I want to assure themselves that it was indeed flat and mission exhibitors were not trying to pull a fast 1 publicity by
companies to up as well this is 1 of the 1st efforts to use a holograph by spectra-physics the company that allow them to use their legs used to make the and they got more more
publicity they began wearing ties they began going to conference is selling the idea is to engineers around around America it wasn't too late 1964 the American Institute of Physics began to talk about 3 D log so word really did take time to see that so after 4 years of very quiet very methodical research the patents were suddenly catapulted the put into the public world now at this time we had a master's degree in physics he never published openly he published in military conferences about military issues and quite unknown and in fact he wasn't allowed to publish in combination with sigh research because no 1 wanted the secret to leak out the research optical processing so these research was very much cubbyholes into an arcane area that could not be publicized so this was something new From a 1964 he was in the headlines and for the next 2 years he gave papers that Engineering conferences around America telling every variety of engineer about what this new subject was and what it promised I won't run through all of the
kinds of things he came up with but his group proved to be very fertile this was a group of about 2 dozen optical engineers and scientists who had spent about a decade working on Article Processing ideas and very rapidly indeed they came up with many new ideas of how to use holography so for example holographic contours holographic interferometry complex filtering color reconstruction ideas angle multiplexing things that we don't give much thought to today were brand new ideas in 1964 or 1965 we
found himself in a curious position he was balanced between ongoing sorry research not go processing was classified and the public world of what was now being called pyelography given this new
public emphasis the optics group was more was moved to the University of Michigan campus for grad students could now show holograms to visitors off the street so the aim was to to publicize this research openly accused the teaching postgraduate students and for making publicity as well this gave the group a much wider agreement but also aggravated some existing problems this building the Institute of Science and Technology was known as Fort Apache the some of its residents part because of neo Aztec exterior but also because of some endemic problems was a battlefield
1st problem was that it brought will run and especially the optics group face-to-face with student protesters during the Vietnam war that has to be said that what the optic slide was doing was certain classified research but just as much research was being done across the road in the electrical engineering nevertheless the university decided that the solution was to dissociate from will run laps and they were moved to just off campus in 1972 to what was euphemistically called the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan at least as chief scientist of your faced occasional protesters late as the 19 eighties so this was a man who who faced pretty perennial student protests there are also
problems because of run-ins with arriving at the University of Michigan professor George he is a rare photo of the thin George stroke at the same table this finding stroke would join the university is professor in late 1963 just when was this photography was leaking out eclipsed leaf during the 19 sixties when we went to engineering conferences around America stroke went to scientific conferences around the world stroke claimed that the advice and research that he that he had given at founded modern pyelography now having spent a lot of time talking about these issues with them and a lot of his former colleagues and quite convinced that he was quietly dismayed by this for the rest of his life the rest of his career he kept a meticulously organized parts of documents relating to these run-ins episode by axis episode and he could recall quite accurately what the document set and talk about documents he hadn't seen before years so given his account given the account of his colleagues in the documents of the University of Michigan I'm convinced that the stroke affair was entirely one-sided and then it was essentially doing and affair nevertheless strokes account carried great weight it had a great deal to do with how the history of what was presented that almost certainly costly and then is your local prize
stroke left the University in 1967 and a subsequent conferences the status steadily here is the 1st Gordon Conference in 1972 proposed by John Caulfield and here is a
decade later now from row center note least clearly
won many awards most them from his native country from America but he became a very award had the individual and the highly respected later in his career he didn't win the Nobel Prize the certainly 1 just about every word going for optical physics link was 1st
and foremost a scientist he he told me 1 afternoon and the paper writer I have no interest in reducing ideas to practice but he did have interest in popularizing the medium and some interest in part as well this is a hologram created by Fritz coral of Life Magazine which lead to new packets in 1966 and is the earliest attempt to make an esthetically pleasing hologram no no and called it a lot but it was meant to be esthetically pleasing at least until that point the standard hologram in chess pieces knickknacks watery objects micrometers and so on so this was a step forward this
is the same model 40 years later and this is then looking at it for the 1st time in 40 years later until a few months ago was buried in as you can see in the back use lab at the University of Michigan I hope that has been
collected by the use of tactics others at the University and they kept a chaotic assortment of holograms and documents in his office and lands and still more at
home when he died last December they remained disorganized but fortunately not lost and as far as I know his colleagues in Michigan had been pretty scrupulous about collecting up all these objects all these archives and putting them in the proper place and I hope that's a general feature of all scientists careers it's not just famous scientists likely but every scientist you should think about archiving work in this way and we conclude with just a personal note I 1st heard underneath and as a boy in the late sixties reading an article in Science Digest magazine
never imagined that 1 day it actually meet the man and the man I met the density of the age of 76 was very unlike the Scientist magazine mysterious young scientists magazine was something rather different from the very affable friendly energetic scientist and that in his late seventies both scientists are productive for a few decades Leith remained vigorous for over 50 years and watch them swim at a local lakes interact enthusiastically with his grad students over coffee and seminars repair humans a car and shuffle papers ineffectual even then it was too busy working to think of himself as finished be if the