Mobile Activism in Africa


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Mobile Activism in Africa
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Ekine, Sokari
Miclovich, Victor
Bastion, Geraldine de
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The spread of mobile technologies has opened new opportunities for social and political activism in Africa. During the past years, the world has witnessed the spread of innovative tools around the world, developed in Africa. Crowdsourcing tools such as Frontline SMS and Ushahidi have attracted international media attention and are being used by organizations around the world today. This is a true shift in paradigm away from the classical model of technologies from the west being brought to Africa to foster development. Who are the people developing and using such solutions in Africa? What impact does the spread and use of such tools have – for instance on making information available, mobilizing for campaigns and political actions? Two experts will share their experiences and thoughts on these questions: Sokari Ekine does not only write one of the most read blogs written by a woman in Africa, but is also editor of the book “SMS Uprising – Mobile Activism in Africa”. She will present the case studies and contents of this work and share insights from her own blogging experience in Nigeria. Victor Miclovich is one of the developers in the Ushahidi team and currently developing a new innovation: Swift River – a crowdsourcing tool to verify news and information which he will present at the re:publica.
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if not when diabetes and you must comply but everything is programme point instead of searching of mobile activism in Africa pro-government through and when of and I let them giving the acknowledgment of the canadian Jacobian there was still some fun news thinking petitions action but it should everybody I k to start with I'd like to all asking to to take a moment and think of all products with the label Made in Africa what comes to mind cotton cocoa fairly until recently technological innovations when not amongst the most obvious
choices speaking in terms of development organizations donor agencies in fact technological development largely relied on the pattern of producing technology in the west and applying it in the south today I would like to argue that that paradigm is beginning to change and in this session I would like to take a closer look at how the spread of of mobile technologies and open source technologies has been able to the innovative creation of arms technological applications artifacts campaigning methods in Africa and we've invited to speak is to give their interests 1st today I like it's welcome keen on 1st because she's many fantastic things amongst others she's a blogger and she writes 1 of the most read blogs written by a woman in Africa that looks and has also edited a book called estimate at uprising mobile activism in Africa which she will be telling us more about today a 2nd speaker turns speaker convicted middle-aged from Uganda is a member of that solution he did development team and will telling us more about the news development called swift river so for the 1st entry please welcomes card but yes the thanks everybody and as Geraldine has said this some pretty good things that are taking place in Africa today with actual reality that's been good things taking place in Africa for decades it's just that the mainstream corporate media has chosen to tell a single story which is usually about poverty famine rules and conflict and so on it's
not that those things are taking place today they are that today we have mobile phones we have bloggers and so on so we also have many many different stories to tell when I was growing up in Nigeria in the sixties and seventies when maybe a lot if you weren't even around we had land lines my parents had a land line and their friends had land lines and OK access to the land lines was pretty much only in the hands of maybe 10 % of the Professional Civil Service class but nonetheless we have landlines somewhere toward the end of the seventies and the eighties I'm not sure what might happen in Nigeria but landmines disappeared and there was a moment when nobody could communicate tool on this you have a car or baths and all you send somebody on the message but now millions of us have mobile phones and there's no doubt that they have transformed people's lives and enable communication where previously there was not people and organizations across the continent and using their mobile attention they using their mobiles full mobilizing advocacy campaigns social networking citizens journalism crowdsourcing and research nonetheless we need to think about mobile phone and SMS messages and and friends in general that they're not always the most effective technology for example if you're in a crisis situation making an attempt at writing an SMS is not appropriate it would be much quicker for you to make a voice call other circumstances more traditional methods of human can be communication would be more appropriate for that want to do is 1st give a brief look at cell phone use in Africa and some of the obstacles to diffusion and secondly we discuss a few examples from as a mass uprising and elsewhere as of how health being used and some of the problems around the usage the African telecoms landscape there's approximately going on to 1 billion people in Africa today a another that is between 300 to 400 cell phone subscribers roughly about 30 to 40 % however if you look at these figures much closely you find that there's quite a disparity within and between countries so you have countries like Nigeria South Africa Uganda Kenya with over 50 % describe a rate compared to countries like Ethiopia Rwanda Gabel on that have between 1 . 6 and 6 % ascribed right some of the other obstacles to diffusion all connected it to the power supplies cost of handsets cost of their time and issues around poverty such as a language and literacy if you take a country like Nigeria we have over 300 distinct languages that's not dialects but languages if you added dialects into the equation you can see how complex and what the challenge that language is and of course literacy which is mainly and applies to women particularly in rural areas is also a problem another thing worth noting is that the subscriber rates which I've said between 350 450 million is not the same as ownership or use for example some people have 3 4 maybe even 5 phones while others share 1 phone between men and then of course the appeal of mobile kiosks which service hundreds of people so what differences mobile phones actually making to life in Africa that's been a great deal of hype from the media from technophiles and the development industry which in my opinion is largely exaggerated and exaggerates the number and range of projects in Africa and presented mobile technology as a singular driving force behind social and political change however in my own research in compiling estimates uprising I came to consider a number of questions around the use of mobile phones for example How much of activists really been able to affect progressive change using their mobiles is access to mobiles and using it for social change really more than a drop in the ocean where people are using the technology of these changes really sustainable are people being tracked and turned from being citizens into mass consumers as in the West and to whose advantage is that and for me the most important 1 is to what extent are these projects and innovations breaking down traditional barriers in terms of patriarchy as gender gender hierarchies and and capitalist systems or or they creating new hierarchies and sites of power a digital divide between those have that have access to aid and funding and the have nots that don't have access data and funding another concern I have is the lack of critical evaluation of some of the project In reality there are pockets of high take-up and this is growing but there areas in on the continent where mobile still remain silent and in other parts where they just bearing in the background to become up upon my 2nd point in the brief case studies and just going to mention I want to look at more critically at how mobile phones are being used 1 of the contributors to the book and I think he's here but I'm not sure Christian Cruz um identified 3 broad overlapping trends in mobile usage on the continent participation through citizens media local innovations around advocacy and mobiles as a tool for monitoring and transparency Starting with citizens media that's mobiles being used for broadcasting and publishing this to really exciting projects I'm just going to mention briefly the 1st 1 is called the voices of Africa project which is a mobile reporter project which enables citizens journalists to send articles audio and video reports by their mobiles which are then uploaded uploaded to the voices of Africa websites voices of Africa started in 2007 in just 4 countries and 3 years later their coverage is practically throughout the consonant that the coverage is not the same in all countries although losses of Africa is very male-dominated it is definitely created new opportunities for African journalists enabling them to tell their localized stories and which can be reached well beyond the national boundaries and borders however 1 of the problems of this project is that requires a huge amount of funding including equipment and training and it's difficult to see how this could really be replicated at grassroots level 1 technology that can address this problem is the freedom from which was developed in Zimbabwe by an organization called Kubitz on the trust freedom from brings together mobile technology with citizens style community radio and enables anyone to create some broadcast their own content the good but because the simply recorded on M P 3 and what files which is stored in the database and accessed through interactive voice response through either SMS message is a voice call or ring but call this is the voices of Africa they're freedom fries is especially useful because it is especially important because it enables us to circumvent mainstream media and government-controlled media which is important in countries like Zimbabwe and and conflict areas such as the the although it's fairly easy to use and set up I do after trying it out myself I still feel that it needs some kind of training and again funding is an issue that is power supplies another problem which has occurred in some parts of the continent is like other SMS usage their freedom fighter and could be used to spread hate and fear and this has happened in Kenya and more recently this year in Nigeria and then gone the 2nd trend is local innovations around advocacy which is probably the largest and covers mobilizing and organizing and information service provision here I'll talk about 2 gendered projects 1 from Uganda and 1 from South Africa the wordnet women of Uganda network has been at the forefront of developing ICT programs for women in Uganda including mobile for advocacy campaigning information sharing and provision 1 of the main at the axiom campaign programs has been around gendered violence they use SMS to mobilise women to attend demonstrations to protest against domestic violence and have also taken part in the annual a campaign against violence against women which takes place across the continent in these both these campaigns they've integrated SMS with radio and the Internet other campaigns
such as these raise questions about how we define and evaluate success and whether we should actually be defining be evaluating the success of these kind of campaigns is difficult to obtain the accurate figures of the numbers who participate and maybe we don't maybe that's not so important I don't know back in my view even if a few women and men have benefited in some way from these campaigns then I think that both they're worthwhile as well as sharing rights-based information WordNet has also integrated radio SMS and video in a number of the agricultural schemes which helped women farmers to access information on providing on improving their produce vessel management and so on there is no doubt about the benefit to women of these programs that how much have they led to gender equality or challenge local patriotic and traditions 1 way of addressing this would be to run the service provision along so on all sides gender sensitizing programs and building a community community support networks while still would like schemes are mainly about capacity-building and information provision the on the angle project which was running cause tell in South Africa with an interventionist scheme for rule women and men the project had 4 aims to encourage women to report domestic violence political tensions and issues around land rights and inheritance and he also had a human rights capacity-building programmes the only under project was full with many problems not least of all because it was intervention is rather than demand-driven but what they found out is that women were not prepared to use their phones to make phone calls or SMS to report incidents of violence whether it's domestic violence what to do with land rights or political tensions they were they were quite happy to receive human rights information but not not make the reports another problem would be on young go product project with sustainability they found that were having an SMS campaign was hugely but with a huge obstacle and they couldn't get enough sufficient funding to run the project on a long-term basis and if you can't run it on a long-term basis then maybe it shouldn't have started in the 1st place a better idea would have been to provide counseling services for men and women in the community in collaboration with all members of the community that's including the cheese and the elders and so on and use the SMS as a complement rather than as the central part of the project the people behind on the younger have not created a new a new project called the indeed but Africa Moby which is a social networking site in English and is assumed to specifically for Paul rule communities using their cell phones the same communities that were in the on on project he says that ordinary citizens from from these rule communities can upload and download information on human rights jobs stories whatever they want and this project is actually going to be an board a few months so be interesting to see how it progresses the 3rd and last trend is mobiles as a tool for monitoring and transparency such as campaigns research and election monitoring the 1st estimates campaign in Africa without the held by far farming back in 2004 to ratify the Protocol on women's rights in Africa for farmers who published their estimates uprising run the campaign on their website and also set up the phone number in South Africa where people could text in the word petition plus the name and phone numbers if they supported the ratification out of 4 thousand signatures they got 500 SMS messages and at the time from 29 countries and at the time there was a subscriber rate of 50 million so was this project with this campaign of success obviously if you look at the numbers it wasn't a success 500 out of 4 thousand and 500 out of a population and subscribers of 50 million isn't very much however if you look at the outcome which was to ratify the protocol then obviously it was a success 1 of the 1st mobile users of mobile phones 3 elections was organized by the network of mobile election monitors in Nigeria in the 2007 presidential elections volunteers who dispersed across the country and some 10 thousand messages were received during the 24 hour election period more recently in February this year a team of monitors in a member state which is in the east of the country also set up a monitoring project in which they use for Twitter accounts which are then aggregated to want Twitter accounts and they they they they published them on on on the Twitter they also use anathemas pulse this thing about messaging service where volunteers contexte in information I spoke to 1 of the organizers and he said that although overall the project the monitoring was that such a success 1 of the difficulties they had was in maintaining and volunteers at the time of the Anambra state elections the Nigerian government had deployed 20 thousand armed police and the police in Nigeria are known to be well like mostly suspected to be particularly hostile and brutal and many of the volunteers dropped out or were afraid not just to to to take photos and video um content and material but also to actually even text the this clearly contradicts the 2007 monitoring of project which as far as I I know did not report any any we've picked the problems with volunteers or incidents of violence from political gangs or from the police to the they have including this 1 point I want to make and 1 which is very rarely discussed in this context 1 of the projects discussed in the book is the color of the child soldiers project which is based in the Democratic Republic of Congo DRC and describes the monitoring of human rights abuses against children including extra all soldiers the region is a highly is a conflict zone and compounded by power cuts insufficient access to air time and and and poverty so this in in itself makes as any SMS project not necessarily practical it's also ironic to me that 1 of the primary components in which mobile phone which which components of mobiles all being used to report human rights abuses and in the region where cults on 1 of the components is mind and hand and has contributed to the conflict in the DRC including the recruitment of child soldiers sexual abuse of children and women the cost of people's lives of mining of coal 10 and other minerals in the DRC is particularly high it's a highly contested militarized zone where people work in slave-like conditions women and children the rates and and and murdered to was we can't turn the clock back and we should turn the clock back I think that's like other campaigns such as the fair trade campaign of some cop given the and the other 1 that I think about all the people here that use technology that talk about technology look for new ways to use the technology and this more more technology coming out every day I think about all that but I wonder whether we think about what happens in the souls where will this technology is also what happens how is it produced who is producing it and what kind of a quality of life to those people have so I think 1 of the challenges 1 of the things I would like to see from the people here at this conference who are mean experts people with a great deal of knowledge great deal of influence and so on is to think about how some campaign can be started where by pressure is put on those people that that that that manufactures of the technology can pressure and to improve the working conditions and and also possibly influence the the conflict in the Congo at this time thanks very much the thank you very much you want jointly and will have a well come on the exam for his presentation and then we have about 20 minutes on questions so get ready the wavelength of if and so I'll be giving a talk on Bush and ancestry my name is victor requirements I'm a software engineer and
developed we show I might say ties is in machine learning and applied mathematics is in what walking on so what is a set of social he did so we have the people who tried to provide a platform for of where people in light people were under a certain crisis where crisis situations that is the communicator is a snapshot of taken in
Haiti recently so this is some probably Chile the this is
a bonding in by but this is the violence in Kenya
but can see how terrible things are sometimes the the other 2 come what are the main things here history the present and the future the history of this which here the was founded during the armed violence In 2007 in Kenya by 3 people lawyer 1 of the he calls himself a white African is called a consequence the so we also do doing want to call
crowdsourcing trying to get information from people yeah is overlooking the kills within the Haiti to really and population the so but now now what are we supposed to do osha hit the recently embarked on developing a platform on history of due to the false which are going to look at knowledge the we usually provide mapping features the following is someone talking about not to this and the next so you will learn about things like how to plot are areas which have see the hidden morning or there isn't I'm that kills most of this information can be uploaded and also downloaded from median PDA's mobile phones on and any other device so usually was
developed to model what's environment Newtonian markings of is supported by people usually could embedded in microblog microblog could be a text to get it up status the this is the deployment of Shahidi in biology 0 on the wall on desert this is what's happening in the the
DRC Congo the 2nd elections and most people tend to get quite violent on the Internet to disseminate information what journalists and any other users so this is a common it we also
designed mobile applications a by Google that's is a form for the noxious since not carries the prevail after conditions were developing countries so
this is what we have done assignment are usually the use that you can see and the number 1 there are given in public the for the phone number so those usually start sending is like sending a tweet on most of the forms and so complicated or very advanced enough Africa so we look for a common denominator on which is this and this can be supported for what's TGI 3 G mobile phones on the technology is very very basic the just have to syntax everything's is uploaded to ahead the viet frontline SMS suddenly you may not have a token from sentence I reports are passed or by rated by volunteers from all over the world of my volunteers who develop websites but at this OSHA heating the also all our main problem is that everything is done manually but people I'll be introducing our new products but faster from cover to cover the the importance of sharing of data Open Data this is a more the Haiti
after In the 1st few hours we had about 20 thousand reports coming in in the following days are averaging at around 100 thousand reports most of them why Creole Creole is the common language and Hayden Of course there are few foreign pieces of text from a major news from CNN order 0 reporting on Haiti and home and the people who walk on graph so we cover different kinds of texts coming in recall them reports that could be treat messages but it could be e-mail could be just find the support must be verified by a human being passed to this is a continuation of the all kind of what I hope to leave messages that is but this is the a within the Tufts University that's in the USA where in a couple of hours after the Haiti think a few volunteers sat down and that sifting through many many pieces of texts on tutors and all it was mostly to help finding within the UN is but kind of up to to get 2 times with what was happening on ground in Haiti so most of gave verified reports the red that cause treated is designed in a way that anything comes from so we usually like looking through the such trends within at the well within the teacher framework but more most of all the stuff that is so meets the tends to get dirty and we can't really find for extracting information from them so the
question is how to separate the signal from the noise signal is the time we get from engineering whereby the noise to the analog to be solved here and probably but or a quiz coming so training we're trying to get out the importance the most of it a small what from German separated them which from the which can be done the assessment of an accident but if so we're looking at
having a a fast response and in many cases it's just an oxymoron which just means that
we don't really get there fast the most of the sports pool could probably have attained that could come you like to
ask so fast response is something we're trying to achieve much faster by listening to the people on the ground rather than waiting for CNN descendant of cruel we can easily start receiving reports from them
so there's always someone fast the person on grounds the injured person someone is witnessing the corrections come or his so there are 3
questions no what if you listen to the crowd but if you listen to the people but but it was listen to the victims of in that house unexploded becomes called we trust that crowd would do we In the crowd mathematicians
engineers and if you will allow explaining stuff graph so I Texas to a few different cases away from Haiti and Kenya and tweets from a hotel bonding you can see that in the initial phase is now being on that country is not the topmost graph is something that happens during the Mumbai bombings dysmetria before the bombings on that particular report of countries and you can see the size of data coming up during the next centered on the so long as you like explaining
Peter using graph theory some more practical terms and everything there that comes only links God mystique refers to a connection a relationship everyone has predefined was the the problem treatise and all that nevertheless sharing information so
sometimes the graph gets complicated the can now
under public talking about how do you manage this kind of data the many platforms have been developed for handling and aggregation of digital data to aggregate data means to put it in 1 place and you probably used to and you can see how things are at abbreviated or plotted as columns but we see
people designing whereby questions that with links to
fulfill take your Everything trade some of of
summarized thing that's happening when treated from using treaty example but it that it was suggested that to become a farmer nastier when using the text messages cost people have different ways of communication but when using but it is a far more receives the refined
examples like notified where you have streams from the fecal apart from you choose from some real looking that quantum RSS feeds from tutor places a common example for the Mac users
today a so Our solutions to 1 of these
data so noisy and so that is to use the process to the product within walking on for the past 2 months but actually involved for lots of machine learning a few advances in computing so what is
officially having reports coming from all of and Syst revolving just have to filter it up I can see some robotic images that just means we are implementing things using machine for machine learning or artificial intelligence on the top of their means that using the crowd to do to help us futile data front also contribute to generate the data this data the blogs that could be creates an efficient thought the to this is just a quick overview of the filtering process that parts information by the filters and you can see with that noise and a bit of information then from the field so we have the final results coming all and finally we have waited every kind of results with given its value to verify the
results so is an aggregator we've entity extraction and search for using extreme Thomas Ovid explained aggregated to some of the things people put them in 1 place no entity extraction probably reflects the picking up the cream of your information unit of this of text of example uh we should see how these results in the next
slide take a look at us in your body of such a sinful by on the the highlighted the need we're looking for particularly important pieces of that text so in this case of those words summarize what the article is talking about and in that way you probably either be more interested in reading that whole the news the Lord just getting rid of so swift can help
determine the authority of the text of the treaty of the reports using items the so all of those artists have time by promoting the noise from the data but identified and rich sources and to however phase noise but we also want to help Nurit curation just means now I usually when the mother is being made I hope persists the kind of removes about toxins and all that although it's toxified by yeah that's what happens publishing video now it's about 4 minutes could I can make it fast have from the meaning
of this should summarize everything went on and on and on on the opposite ends of the and what frightens yeah getting
started with during the research Haiti quakes which he which match ports visited during emergencies was lot of data tens of thousands of reports came in from Twitter
e-mails blogs and the way each reported needing to be
verified by human we were swimming in the river
of information clumsily inefficient number of
tools greater displaying large amounts of data but that's
a great limiting how much is there is look through what if we wish to the crowd and what is the crowd was built a problem then becomes cool in the crowd to listen to a wall
using a number of core technologies with can do this
supposed rivers so but reading the accuracy of the common
currency used in our fight and how these new results let's take a look here we have this with women aged on
the left we have incoming data to the right we have our channel filters arrested lighter don't worry instances in the data and this is because we have a new feature to start walking the default username
is added in the default password is also after
walking in which take into here we have a graph to the left and a quick that's the right in this version of this with the number of these options are stable have no effect so let's take a look at the functional select the option for the when you click here take control a panel
where you can have various types of these Twitter accounts blogs e-mails phone numbers for us that the more the use of the native data types what can handle for Twitter accounts just answer the users name for blogs and other websites into the URL to feed itself as a personal e-mail 6 additional configuration that we will cover every these here results in showing up on the main page if you check the box the right of the input field you're trusting that the and giving it a higher authority than others this means that by default it has a variety of these 4 4 100 per cent knowledge click on that so this is where administrators control most of the functions of the site the site name tag line language default e-mail addresses and other options are displayed here you can also control the number of items which for are page you can turn user submissions on or off and more importantly you compare with the entering the URL of the instance here automatically since the symmetric constants were so she pre verified for heavy users which he might immediately see the benefit of not having to verify reports quite this allows the human curators we call the 1st to use the 2 platforms philosophical works relating to page him
cover a few more details the 1st day of rest later
allows you to filter content based on if you don't wanna see constant that predicted to be less than 60 % accurate just such a spiders selection click submit during this allows to focus on the source you trust all removing anything that that qualified finally it was like a closer look at the individual the the reservation about the lack of trust by clicking told you was that the attached constant is accurate and improves the sources of course if the constant inaccurate noise or crushed you wouldn't the click-through rate but with the X the right that would decrease the score of the source and remove items from view clicking the newspaper right next to the Spy taking to the original content itself you may have noticed an area that has had this is for an contextual information to the constant to help story on the I don't talk about text can e-commerce in business because that's what users messages about those things clicking the next most of in future builds the search will be all populated but so this was language competition for user-generated content is really the results of system that sort thing by accuracy in authority as opposed to popular popularity so it makes it easier to wade through fast
reversible formation in the hopefully you have a better
understanding of river ancient that from the also
today thanks to understanding into you could join and as
mentioned yourself and you need to have events yourself you'll be holding or what tomorrow to explain in more detail house with event functions and especially for all those we inject technological questions I think that's a good taste to tomorrow and the columns also touched on so many very critical and
very interesting issues in your and and the card will also be holding a workshop tomorrow on the topic of political blogging in Africa and in case you want to deal with the band with those today we can pick them back tomorrow with that session I like to point out further attention is enactivism like consent rights you mention to that's also taking place in none of these overlaps inconceivable which is testing again and we have a few more minutes after about 10 15 minutes to answer questions if you have questions please do come forward and I do want to start by asking you have at said she was originally developed at the idea came from Kenya after the outbreak of violence elections 2007 2008 and has you 1st become involved as a programmer and what is your programming community center where the people come from work together to show it is stated in 2007 led to thousands of them I got involved in social media should he be Li 2009 that's 2 years down the road which is a very very fast the open source community and with every open source project usually have the the ringleader so there after about 20 25 that gave the directions but many of the resource developers common images of the same methods with is until a new innovation but it's connected to show he had using the fact that these these tools and applications 5 frontline SMS initiating a built with open source technology on has a contribution to world open right and social something that will help enhance shading using some very very common technologies so we're just having been used the feature known as natural language processing which help automated feeds cause unit prices you need to have verify and fast real-time data and in our case where the made of 1 to make things like faster than the it the and I know that next year's elections are due to take place in both Uganda and Nigeria some way you whether these tools of you know it mentioned last time elections in Nigeria and find interesting is that what you think these tools are going to play in the context of the next national elections I think will play a much greater role than they did in 2007 because people are much more aware of have the technologies that are available and dimensions and recently in a number of states they will use their and to a lesser extent in another state in the West and already and civil society and and pro-democracy movements have started to put things together in place to monitor the pre-election period on the election period using these various technologies and you also have I thought that was really important point and he pointed out that and the technology itself is basically it's an dividends there uses of it all hi and their use is it piece on what you have it what is already experienced in the in in the in different lines and have witnessed those developments taking place and yeah I mean the the 1st was was part of a what what would have been picked up by he did was in the post-election Kenya post-election in 2008 when I messages of hatred being spread In Kaneohe and in that instance the the the president I think head but also Safaricom to close down the network and they have said no we're not going to close it down but what we'll do is we'll send that countering messages and that's what happened and recently in Nigeria we've had to really and the horrible incidences we've had riots which I'll just make it simple but it's not that simple which are between religious religious ethnic riots in the middle belt in an area called jobs and over 100 estimates messages so identified spreading hate and campaign and mobilizing people to commit and the hate crimes and then more recently In labels the surrounding areas a messages being sent messages of being circulated which were supposedly from NASA saying that it's going to be acid rain falling between 2 particular days in Lagos and the environment this thing is that I know it sounds funny but people went into panic and their messages also said that you would get skin cancer if you out at this time and so it goes a lot of chaos and so on and then in there was a similar 1 in Ghana where they put out messages saying that there was going to be an earthquake this is following the Haiti earthquake and lots of people again went into panic and many people slept out our tools so I do think there is a huge challenge and something that doesn't bode well for the forthcoming elections in Nigeria anyway and possibly in other countries and so that's a challenge for the the mobile service providers and the government to I mean like with the acid rain that the the service providers could have just sent out a message saying that this is a hoax like Safari yeah exactly that's exactly how and and utilize the fact that these my multidimensional and not just yell and 1 way but they didn't and that the government has prosecuted anybody or taking it out so I think that's 1 of the challenges that civil society has to take on board put the pressurized the government and the surface of know other questions G that Western I have here is that you have some there's a question questionnaire journal we think that the and thank you for the human might question is exactly in these instances where the host messages going out where there might be some misunderstand what kind of education or awareness programs you have to get out and explain to the users and how these technologies function how journalism functions that we don't always accept everything that we get every message we again with taxes education and in doing that and that regards to increase awareness among the public you me what kind of education is in place at the moment to train the train and the awareness process among the users among the people who are utilizing this these resources policy not only and not as far as I know but I I mean I think that the natural awareness is that you know when you're sending out message to mobilize to go and kill people that you know that that's wrong so um want resolution of the entire Congress the and and that's what we think thinking more on the recipient and there's a lot of like I mean on the other hand the arrows student media training on the inference programs supporting media Cheney taking place all or is that something that really so needs to happen no there is there is anything I mean these the incidents I mentioned although people happened since February since February this year so it's a fairly new you think that is taking place but I as I said I think civil society and pro-democracy movements are going to take those challenges on board having seen what happened in Joss i which is pretty horrendous and hundreds and hundreds of people were killed including a lot of children so I think they will take it on board here I was thinking a questionnaire speaking of my in engaging in civil society groups and has to and yet further to promote media education and it is not you spoke about when we spoke last year she can't you told me that there was an increasing awareness on the government side for critical of especially Nigeria whereas in other countries the government has really caught on that that is a critical voice speaking out in Nigeria there was a growing awareness and they were also more formal campaigns from the government society silence those critical of his voices I wanted to ask you if you have any updates on those developments and whether on on the other side like the city center campaigns that he was showing me whether that has grown to counter any any repression from the government side decided and yet the last year it was reported by an open and online news cycle reporters that keeps us all in Nigeria on autos and they reported that the government had recruited 700 people I paid and read the full page 700 people to blow positively about Nigeria to counter some of the criticism coming from political bloggers in the country and in and also the diaspora well it's pretty easy to know who these people are hard because they they will leave comments the very positive for the government and that I have actually noticed any particular blog but I have noticed quite a lot of people making comments on blogs so I'm not really sure how true we live on rumors Nigeria it's 1 of our favorite cost times and we love it and then so whether this was true or not I don't know but I would say that the blogosphere in Nigeria Over the last 12 months has really really changed and there are far more political bloggers people would be far more critical and people bloggers and a working together and also the the online news media at the traditional and the print news media has will have also come on line and that also kind of change that designed to to incorporate comments and Twitter and Facebook and so on so there's much more interaction going on between the mainstream media the bloggers and to address and so on so there has been a huge huge movements and from the Niger in political blogosphere yeah I think we have time for 1 possibly to more questions and then we questions from the audience we all plant compactness setting in which there 1 of them but I have a question concerning the motion the project I was wondering how do people know it or knowledge so crawling about running and how the people of the usually local usually the telephone number of the the 2nd question is now how effective is Europe this is your back to use you about all of the occurrences uh uh what way it didn't help people diversities thank you the 1st question is on the number the telephone number the we obviously it's not Lucia he that will set up your software so let me give you an an animal a comparison of the Microsoft Microsoft will never come to your office to set up your office suite for any software of but of course we provide services to that from it can be any number and the usually use FontLiner SMS and clear-cut but we don't quite robust and very easy to set up the this the numbers are propagated within the Haiti community you if your sulphonic in Germany states to be quite some time before you actually get the number to you and they're very many faces all over the world that probably useful Shahidi and M 1 customer can go every number so I don't know the hated number it's a consistent with what how effective has as been what can you do say what the effect was using it for heating and well try give you my personal thought about it but I prefer to a flare about what we see in the media of the times the you obtain useful and reported that was a is quite effective in the earlier-mentioned from 1 to know what's happened to their loved ones are in the crisis and trade has been quite good with that of which the maps and trade them global my other the information is quite accurate we usually map we the limitations of the text message probably I think heard have some reports that gays in the rubble or underground while texting they needed help need to get out will keep and all that and I mentioned earlier that such information tends to be mom was quite large and that's where we are working on and NOT systems that will is the sport things human beings could me solve yeah so the accuracy and the efficiency is only as effective as the human being reading the report similar that I consider 100 % effect but it's quite efficient and that's important point like the 1st point and that was just as ask for 1 made now that sure he is a platform and people can use it for many many different causes just as you will be the 1 user swift river but you're offering it as a platform for different users around the world I think that's about all we have time from today so I'd like to thank you all very much for your attention and hope that those of you who are interested in these topics will have time and space to join us student what tomorrow and I hope that we get back here next year and had lots of interesting always a swifter has been deployed around the world so thanks very much to you about until you have


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