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Space – the universal public good or the final frontier of commodities?

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the land of the have so
hello everyone who so this talk is in in use as a I don't know how many of you are actually not native native-speaking German but you don't care if you because it's taped fellow you recorded and the 2nd thing is that it's the result of some some research project that we have been pursuing over the last month or so and we found it appropriate to use the language that you originally uh did all research and so piece of excuse or act centered in thought that yet mentor who sold the moon and is the title of of uh Robert Heinlein's I would say the most prominent novel that it was published in 1949 and this is the original paperback cover and for but this this is a very good
book actually um highlight was a very political thinker and all goal of the thing that he sketched in the 19 fifties so way before everyone and anyone really envisioned the actually flying to the moon
is what would happen if we commoditized if the if you really make commercial use of space I and the character that he describes in this book are the protagonist of the the Dave uh Harriman and this is the typical HOCs the wrist is someone who lives from commercialization of everything and and he used every trick to get hold of the moon as private property and to exploit that an interesting thing is that this used to be I would a fantasy it's more like the the typical would pull set for criticizing the actual situation of the 19 fifties but in the liberal market economy of the uh after 2nd World all-time but has have changed we your have seen the the space race we have seen so the stock Freq age is is what's left of that have this in my garden actually that's what my children left of might be laughter the enterprise of
model and yet in the 19
eighties I would say after the the space shuttle started on With this 1 after that and uh at least when the challenge of the catastrophe it took place all space became rather unfashionable the 19 nineties but the time of the digital revolution as Peter T. lose the in famous or people cofounder of accuracy of venture capitalists in the US they always keeps complaining people talk the right term that this started taking digital for everything that is in technology and so you know all of says we need to come up with real things again and what could be more readers dead space and so nowadays space has become really popular if you see this recent Wired magazine ads on the cover page and you find people that are interested
in them the blood space everywhere disorders taking at Southwest Southwest and it's just somebody a playing in a band and very this teacher all you have a recent production
in Munich of musical here and you find space even know um also in
literature I need Stevenson's latest novel published exactly 1 year Goal
7 needs are the I would say it's it for for me it's of most impressive thing that thing that that he published so far and the set up is from the orbital space this is the International Space Station as that becomes the park where humanity survives the contest for feed a catastrophic a cataclysmic events that incinerate everyone on earth and only 7
people on this ideas s so why all women and from that over 5 calls induced time establish an orbital civilization but it becomes you knew who the humanity an orbital humanity um this law is really interesting is like 800 pages or souls so it's a sick as the Bible and of encyclopaedic in the details of space and for example and that I found really interesting is these inflatable module a diplomatic tool of to hold something like 4 to 7 people I
that's all laughter became reality you might have seen that that's the IIS S and with a certain inflatable module no attached soul in science fiction of about space that was the mold all the time that was
always just spaceships Star Wars and the like has become more like we know from from cyberpunk for example of the trauma that really deals with things that are already happening yeah all
but the of stations have been all plan for quite a while this is from 19 18 of that source all of from the i think that's from the late seventies and this is the famous of
drawing by Vodafone but also of from the 19 forties form of book or fears that was published in 1958 and you see that pollen uh maybe for the 1st orbital objects have been placed in space of envision a gigantic the space station
part that keep some kind of gravitational feeling for the feudal forces by spinning the then all kinds of benefits in all we wouldn't have Teflon saucepans result space they would probably not have the microwave of with all other large of all these uh of blessings that space has already brought to us and what could be more blissful then really traveling
there as a private businessman and that's the business of Ellen mask and must
also fond of the part of a bit more than 10 years ago realized that space was dominated by governments uh exclusively passing business to a huge on defense contractors like Lockheed Martin bowl waiting and the likes and that would be a totally inefficient business like all the things the government does all the time that he is this is what the liberal bicycles people think and what would be easier than to use private mentioned the to cut tries not by half but by 90 per cent and uh this is this is Ellen must space X Falcon Rocket um
approaching the landing platform that ball so that's really science-fiction e because muscles or the 1st 11 spacecraft again privately it was of his competitor over which if b is also the full of Amazon who wish to use of the origin of space ranger has done that before so something that is as far as I know all of all space agency so far would have
taken for totally impossible to me lend the rocket and reuse that uh has been dominant several times by private ranches that really In raises of the pressure on the governmental bodies you see here another reacts already
the Space Launch System that's a very cheap satellite-launching system that NASA starts but that's also solved by source press that was really inspiring conference this year that's so that's a rubble mole up you know like these small castles that you do for children and his group born so they're being mean it's in terms of of things getting uh I would say
popular these are President
Velma a very charismatic uh person announced nothing less than building a European village on the moon we know hold that and it's on the far side of the more likely that I could say well and but of course
of and as a friend of mine works for the lot the compare competing uh of a government organization in Germany uh that these for space that of a of a bell that
was his vision of these methods is to get all the talent from the allowable 2 is up on so that really makes some difference
whether more is 1 saving of Harriman in in the model of the man who sold the moon he brings diamonds to the moon he smartest assignments to the moon but to convince people that in the carbon rich soil often 1 that would be uh for all diamonds just sitting there to make it was quite of traveling to to that the S. steroids it's of course obvious sources all 4 for all materials especially iron nickel and all other the heavy metals opulently there is the
she salt minus 0 it's a yes seems to be the next big thing in business bond planet resources for example on collects money to stop that very soon of we come to that later when we discuss the cases I mean
the diamonds can be a bit bigger so for example in the cold and see you so we have amorphous carbon sees on Neptune uh there is expected to be diamonds the size of holes is sitting there would be really interesting to bring them back to us well as 0 mining then I will be a business or I think we can expect that and that brought us to thinking how would we want space to be what's the
space that we would like to see fall also is maybe all children to use that keeps the phrase a uh professor come on and the the because of I mean this is I would say not
so far from reality the and now we are in reality we have seen how sides fiction became a reality in a technical way and now this is legal part of it because of technical development and human development and redevelopment go hand in
hand and here you see a screen shot by the web page of the US Congress and you find the EU commercial space launch Competitiveness Act and the amazing thing is that this act was yeah was agreed upon just within half a year and there you find a very interesting provision this and it there's a United States citizen engaged in commercial recovery of an after after we resource or a space resources shall be entitled to any of this resource including 2 % 2 1 to transport to use and send it back and Senate in accordance with the applicable law and also all international articles from you a delayed output um stage and and this act there's as a disclaimer on which says that by this using the United States does not assert sovereignty them all exclusive right of jurisdiction over any celestial bodies to make sure that this is in line with international law now we fly
around the Earth that land in Luxembourg this may something you would expect but Latin but clearly states that it aims to become the space the space to be for innovative new space applications as well as space exploitation so we have not seen you 2 examples of a very entrepreneurial approach to space law the aim is to encourage private investment and this is done by granting property rights to the
actors so that companies can a secure that they can make money with what they what they are doing so we really facing a new dimension of exploration and use of outer space and as we have just a regular at all these American companies that are willing to take risks that I'm looking at the consumer they have a set of this new scene modes of thought before the new legislation but so what's actually there is a legal framework in other parts of the world army facing there the tragedy of the commons and
comments here is taken to mean any shared and unregulated resources such as atmosphere oceans rivers fish stocks may be space or even if you understand this principle underneath the governor of of an office refrigerator so if every it and individually as acting independently and rationally and to their own self interest at what together they behave contrary to the common good but this is not what you want for space and therefore spaces is is rather different by a different concept and opposite concept which is called the common heritage of mankind the and this concept is also known in other areas and then that are remote and characterize the difficult conditions for human actions that those areas that are interesting for scientific research and development but benefit to all people and these are international waters
including the International Seabed and the and article and so this content the but as is its pure version and contains the following aspects the use of the area this is limited to exclusively peaceful purposes the conduct of scientific research is free and open permissible the region is not subject to appropriation of any kind of neither public nor private neither national local branch and they come back to that later on but people I expected to share and the management of common areas and its natural resources were to be exploited to any economic benefits would be shocked internationally that's the pure version of it and it has been enacted in international treaties for the different regions of the word in different ways and having it quite clear that research always allowed and in a nested
cooperation is encouraged that access to this region this free that's also part of the concept of a common good that x is long gone then appropriation the forgot to sovereignty them man in space you know there's no state that disturbance and at at at and actiCAP never sovereignty claims in the and in the past but they were frozen and the treaty was adopted and on the seaside in that as a system of difference and so on and to the international waters are also not not governed by any servant concept on military users in and article any
measures of military nature of prohibited and in space that spent on to be used only for peaceful purposes but that doesn't mean the and that that at all the measures of attributed but it's clearly stated to that nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction after derivative on the expectation side of the law of the sea establishes the International Seabed Authority that is based in Kingston Jamaica that manages mining rights and so there's the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf in New York that decides if exclusive economic of films of 200 nautical miles can be extended With regard to Antarctica thereby some discussions and the draft of the Convention on the regulation of Arctic mining of mineral resources and that was not ratified instead there was a complete ban
introduced and the last 1 that might be interesting is that tourism in Antarctica what this and the numbers have raised in the 19 nineties there were about a thousand tourists and in Antarctica and in 2011 and 20 and 25 thousand and they all need authorization by national authority OK so that
was the background knowledge of a closer look at space what is interesting is that space not consists of basically 5 international treaties and they were all developed at the time of the cold war In this picture from the 19 68 and it's the opening ceremony of the 1st United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and so far there have
been only 3 of these conferences 1 in 1960 the 68 another 1 in 19 80 tool and 1 in 1999 and so in 2018 at 20 of the 50th anniversary of the 1st conference and they're really another conference that but then we had we just have a look at at the current states non at the new challenges so these are of the
5 treaties and the first one the Outer Space Treaty is the most important 1 and that was signed by more than 100 States the basic what it what it regulates this 5 states freedoms but I did a very basic so the freedom to explore outer space and that can be with a scientific reason but it can also be without and therefore it could also be for commercial exploitation and the use
of outer space would also cover the expectation the and then and there's the freedom of scientific investigation the freedom of access to all areas and the actors those Dodgers displays as a precondition to get to the celestial bodies the but these
freedoms are not without limits and in the back of a very important and that is the no appropriation principle the and that means that preparation is allowed by means of sovereignty occupation or of any use and this also includes the expectation therefore when companies would exploit any celestial body and they would not be allowed to to appropriate but they find the hope that a the downside
of the freedoms the Treaty of the set up some space obligations for States because freedom means responsibility of the
state have to authorize and supervise or non-governmental space activities so if somebody is a private company and wants to set up a lot of we want to launch a space object that has to be registered with the state and the state have to notify the space objects to register and also modify them to the United Nations
states have to assume international responsibility and liability for space activities so whenever damage occurs on the other the estate is strictly liable and in an unlimited way and finally the states have to coordinate the use of frequencies and all that and that is that is also very important i'm because of space object or whatever function without any any frequencies because that's needed to communicate and I might add to the frequency thing that is not really undebated of
behind that the it is the concept of freedom broadcast free broadcasters a typically I would say Western concept it is strictly your polls for example by Russia or China so it's not
that clear we have occurred in the Treaties no but it is debated and that is regulated by the International Telecommunication Union and this Union has 193 member states basically on member States of states of the burden Member States to the ITU and in the Radio Regulations is clearly mention that you may have another limited natural resources because them radio frequencies and any associated orbits aren't such a limited natural resource and therefore they must be used rationally efficiently and economically and the Member States are requested to limit the number of frequencies in the spectrum used to the minimum essential to provide the necessary services so here we have another concept of the of what you can do all of them when you have limited natural resources yeah so let's see how that applies to what can happen in space recall that cases I mean like used and the 1st one that's all quite case let's sell them on like like that they form a Harriman the so
what would happen you and then just to add to the science-fiction K the real case that they found this is the case by a US citizen he more claims that the asteroid 433 with the name it was what is private property and then when
another wanted to lend a spacecraft on it he demanded parking fees and obviously never about those parking fees because this principle but I just explained the principle of non appropriation also applies to individuals and this covers also the other cases from the book now mean not appropriation and that's the tricky thing I I mean if you appropriate but you take away all the richness there is a I mean what's that might you as an asset the length the thing and that's the next case uh what about the mining so that has different implications 1 is I mean destroying these as your audience to get the idea
to get all the raw materials from their the 2nd is it's not really results dangers because he says 0 it's that in their fly-by around of have to be brought into in both orbit otherwise you wouldn't get the of material you know and so we have 1 solution that was done in the United States that I quoted earlier in this act in the United States are the same but that's mining is completely forbidden because it's clearly stated in this treaty that I just explained but that's not how can a company this is this with commercial launch
acts but you could argue that at the time when the treaty was adopted that was in 1968 nobody really thought of the possibility that this mining would ever become possible and therefore this case was not regulated and so you would have a gap in the in the regulation and you can fill this gap I there are some even argue you can just sit by analogy to the fishing rights and ever as there there's enough fish in the sea you can also young blessed with mining and then other and so and the United States and looks book would prefer to have an act but clearly states there's also the fact that idea that's the Moon Agreement that I also mentioned earlier on that I had on my on my slides but that was the only adopted or signed by 16 no states because there and there's a
foundation fall faster rate mining but it says that the state parties have to establish an international regime to govern the expectation of the natural resources and then this expectation would become feasible so the next thing is really creepy that's satellites up again we saw that on the source by conference but this the Japanese company called is really promising name I would say and I dates cell the school shooting stars so we can all of Europe's shooting star bonfire for your corporate events for example and by
the small satellites was sent into orbit and then brought back and raining space debris don't do and a question would be how can that be here I mean that that there should be some regulation yeah so that would just be a small satellite as there are many other satellites because a lot of research is done on satellites by universities and also the start of trial working on these small satellites because they have their very cheap variables and faster develop you can just use off-the-shelf materials and so this is really part of the
what's what's called democratic and democratization of space because it's cheap and everybody everybody can do it at the moment of this there's no special regime for these small satellites so they are covered by the enormous based on that and the for the regime would apply where you have to register them and yet so so everything applies that applies tool to rockets as well and if you want to if you want to young get into this business and and but your own and small satellite to check if the pages they have to detect is what you need to do
yeah so the main thing that I'm concerned with the degree of obviously there is some risk of the satellites that we will further of clutter the orbits of its junk that's already a real problem and you you can read many articles about and they're 704 50 thousand objects of fragments of 1 centimeter or larger in the all that's and more than a million of them objects more than 100 million objects that that as more and all these where they can explore exploded they can with them and collide and then
this could use so that the term this can accord collisional cascading the cascading thing is really old some some of the thing that the that should be taken on this so there's many papers on that this is quite a recent 1 of the thing is that the use of particles of stopped for example if I if some disturbance of
cars and start colliding in a cascade of of uh all and that ever further uh fragmenting the particles and that would act like a gigantic
explosion that might destroy a whole all bits and the this obviously things that out that are fretful in that that is cascading debris and they can also of contaminate other all bits and cause you statement but more more interesting is how would you How to differentiate that from a military sabotage operations because it's easy to initiate such a cascading collision so how would you say this was not an aggressive act for example of fuel at 1st 3 and
uh as I said there is there's quite some some interesting strategic research going on I hope to prevent that that accidentally for example uh the U. S. might blame China for sabotaging the orbital objects yeah no no formal benign and uh I would say have things this is the last page of uh my my 1st print off the man who sold the moon business in uh in act for interplanetary the cation that you could book in 1915 and but you might have heard that it is not so far
off this is New Mexico all near of a tone was the nice title chores all consequences the you Mexico would not result cause you know a very nearby is told Ross of gross but is also some of
historic of meaning total tool to space of travel not only because the aliens landed there but more because it was the 1st site where the U. S. tested the that often balance uh 84 rockets so in nearby also is wide
sense of maseratis range and this building is the American space called uh all from the Richard Branson's Virgin Galactic so Richard Branson so those 2 kids of tool to go into space so this secularism is being let let's see what that means that the political side yet and just add to that we are to find an article that you can even book in Germany and on reserve as the state of the space flights and the design of the vise of divine traveller and agency is the place to address and some of the sample but it's worth flight composer
who knew more on you need a problems because it's not quite clear whether you would apply at all of space law both of them are none of them and why the international community is still arguing about that in the United States began have come out some of these questions in their act they have a provision that states that private operators can obtain an experiment permit for testing suborbital rocket launch vehicles if they want to have commercial operations they would need a license and then they are state that the space Flight participants that's the opposite to astronauts so people without of professional training and must be advised of the risks and that that what some include the red
the safety record of the launch or re-entry me because as everybody knows that it is very and dangerous or it can be very dangerous and you don't know whether you survive and folk and people want to do what they must agree to accept these rest and complied with any of them safety regulations training medical regulations and apart from the historic reasons the funny thing about New Mexico is that New Mexico exempts all companies or private companies from liability to the passage of or space like this or it plays the world you can have a company's sending people into space result in liability risks and is mn good reason to start a business that would say so no and let's see in them so that
that was also what's there already so let's see what's up to come the yeah for as I mentioned earlier the United Nations them the space conference with set up a process to have graph on these 2 challenges that we have just presented and and they were therefore preserves and the end of the 1st phase vision of for 2013 and these may be of space economy space for the development of the economy the space society the evolution of society and societal benefits stemming from space-related activities Spencer accessibility in strengthening of national infrastructures and capacity-building OntoGen boards developing countries and then stays diplomacy building partnerships and strengthening international cooperation in space activities because without international cooperation uh there were
there won't be any any good solutions the I mean you and and that's that that's all . tool to automate all apostolates of so what's it what's really that demand is a society of and that's of we have some or all of the slides than that of it to bring the and all that so so how how would we get that want to be cause society would be would be shape space in the
future and I mean the 1st objective should be to maintain these space freedoms which is not perfectly clear but because of the freedom to excess space if it is tied to economic might I mean if you just can't go to space if you can afford it uh the in in in in all put a view of that that would not be fair Saul as this all public goods and be afraid to use water for example but if we use what we have to pay for it and that might be a good regime that we might demand that for example for the United Nations um and it's very common and you have that in in in many aspects of our lives that colin coates are charged by feed why not demand from these steroid mining companies a fair share for society I mean society has built the civilization that make space flight possible in the 1st place it's not as we are told the private and the ball single entrepreneur the and so that's that's really the the the give back to society what we all and what the old to society I for that of
course we need to set up a regime for in the fall for space mining that should be transnational like for example the ITU world is for for the use of frequencies on if they have is is no almost no secret that uh addicted to be a all polls the appropriation of of common goods by private people at least me of all is the others so I would really demand that we see for about the private of the public to maintain that that of the use
of i this idea of of the common heritage of mankind can be maintained even if there's private entrepreneurship in space and a really interesting and and important point of view is to prevent that I mean there is some provisions for military use in of the in space but this is far from satisfactory of we shall fight go on fighting to prevent the militarization of the celestial bodies and of all the space because this fall
much to have so that the the now comes the science fiction part that was all that was all basic nowadays things no come science fiction and of course you all have heard about the mass mission it's up to come
so all of this scientific conferences said that the person who I do think universities dealing with is manned flight to Mars that's also nice
projects are you might have seen that the tall project that's a 15 to 20 kilometer high and so this is mild Everest in comparison so and this whole should be was used as a launch systems we can can easily launch
of objects then from this call to an orbital 400 kilometers which is your butt of the eyes as uh and uh I think the fertile source costs uh compared to launch into the vehicle from ground of these Stevens and by the way of is the main evangelist Office of project then we have the famous space elevator I mean that all of you know what we have seen that uh but I found of that that's a children's book of the 19 seventies we have the space elevator concept quite elaborate here the status issue which
of the space station induce stationary orbits so really far all there in almost 40 thousand kilometers away and from that to both sides we build a distance of elevator fats you see the helicopter platforms working and that's for the final thing we look like the launch system RIS elevators of driving people halfway up to the moon so I but
that's also nice of that's in the Planetary Society and that's a plan
that was recently brought back to people's of consciousness by Stephen Hawking Stephen Hawking all that we want to start of bringing the the coastal i that's
of like-for-like years from here and that's quite a bit and this is the plan from the
19 thirties uh single ready for the whole that we should look like and finally this is a friend of all of the Monday as for the obvious what was a Swiss architect and uh he's he's uh focusing on designed for public buildings and also the interior for example public transportation systems like trains and and uh he was commissioned to design in that city on the moon
so this is the real thing that's going on we have architects working on a permanent Moonbase this state and city really called moon capital because there's many cities to
come and this will be the main cities the beautifully shaped dorms on for people living here in space
so I think it's worth while fighting to keep the
free of so that the older I get all share of of uh of space so on adult that we that we sit here will be walking on wednesday and so on but maybe
or grandchildren also all have might have hazard but only if we prevent the selling the moon so and that's all side and all happy to tell you more if you have questions thanks
at a time the yeah I am I thank you for don't come to go back to this subject of asteroid mining of it uh I did you know there has been for
years in the controversy about the fishing ships who also can process the face you hop onto the can and now let's transfer that's to asteroid mining so you have spaceships I who like travel travel there and not just mine the asteroid but also process the materials now how would is time and because in the case with the uh with a fishing ships in this town yeah the fish are basically have to sit this has the same legal status as if they were brought to lands and that process that's a very good question the
miss the so the fish are analyzed and at passive raw materials of different from I've got a question is that it was thing is the interesting question is is the i is there are these ships regarded as sovereign territories like ships all illness it the 3 the questions I guess not yeah I guess not so but that's a very good question but it
could be that like on the ISS and that that it's not by space object but whether
contributes to it and that's under under their and usability basically so so I guess that could be applied many to the
so the the appropriation would then that take
place of on 1 side of by just thinking of the things into the ship like it's shown here so that that's authority and has pesos I think that I thing that's different is the problem the there is time why I brought up there the fishing vessels is and because there was a new them legal debates whether or not some of the process of processing the speech and turns them into something different so that
was yeah that rules would change or if they were applied as if they were brought to LANstep and Agatha vendors have tall opinions on that either you will agree it that it changes so it it doesn't that
and so that many of the solution is to be from then also at at this conference and 2018 I mean there is a full of I think that that is some of
the concepts of the use of pursuant mining companies that rely on processing the things in space so there is uh concept so that for example here are described it by by these users in 70 also but to break up the is 0 it's
to be of orbital structures so it's it's much cheaper to get perhaps these 2 radically and to to get a flight biosphere OID and and uh and divert that into in Earth orbit and then start breaking it up and the structures there like like huge space stations and of course you could never bring so many uh it's also much material of into space all that of attributes the instructions like that uh pop up with things that are already in space that's all of feasibility and of course then the question would be of the processed material but the space station sold uh Jose is it and as a very good question so far we have 2 examples we have the national of space stations like Skylab all admitted we have the highest s no that was born in the of budgetary strains of much of them in the late Reagan error was very so uh the very limited uh for NASA sold sold their house for international support at that time I mean the Soviet Union of when and it was a good time to do a cooperative things that was I will I would say that was was really lucky lucky incident I don't that we will see that easily and I have a question you
measure on the space and time remember only pay 390 1919 that's it time nature of many of the things I do you have a change of had not signed the Moon treaty there 5 treaties as you know now enter the Moon Agreement
this mean of treatment what is the status right now and to have never questioned Germany because after I guess is that knowledge of Fernando the global exploration strategy and deliver on the commitments also every national of logic Germany India China Farish alkyl choose a moon exploration and Germany also had to the national program I don't know what happened to it because of the financial crisis do you have any news about thank you to the yeah furthermore the Moon Agreement is
in force but only 16 States sign the sign up to it to Austria as 1 of them for instance but but neither the United States and or Luxembourg signed up to attend but generally where the I I have to do the same yeah and so on but the jacket on the on the internet there that you can see all the states
that have signed and then what about but they have just already frightened the so yeah this is the 2nd part of the question is also interesting
uh on the uh on the question of what is that uh German national mean program I I mean guess got everyone is dreaming of that about at the moment as far as I know there is only the itself so the program came In the end it was you and
I think it should yeah so and and the you I think that she's me and I do know that they have a national program like India mentions and more time went to the more they that commitment that you once you are committed to to show to the international community that yes the capability to do exploration to other planetary and other bodies to like the mood Germany also must link last task call as you know this is not it's University has 1 phd yours lower logically of jumped on his on that and uh I mean uh but the point is that
uh I mean implicit in all postulates of is that of course we see that there we have it all 2 kinds of competition all forming 1 is the private competition that's that that takes place of the even mask of just the source of uh Richard Branson and entities entrepreneurs but the 2nd thing at the same
time that takes place behind that kind of a theater for that is again the National Rally for space and it's true and I don't think that's a good thing but we see that at this moment sold out and for example you might have heard that uh and uh not some of and the prohibited U. S. space speakers to be transported of by Indian rockets so that's 1 example so there's obviously something going on on the national level 2 appeared in 1 year and then just corrected Germany has lots and rectify the Moon Agreement but so Ostia as the term will by Saudi Arabia as an accession country which is quite interesting in the Philippines have ratified at the Netherlands nonlocal and she now we have another question over here they
then and even slightly on fire and question and by and is there a need for food for the
discovery of any life form of complex life forms and regulations for a review for example content with 5 1 2 that's a very good question and because of
that become important risk Morris he's soul days on uh I don't know if you if you have seen that but the 1st astronauts returned from the moment that was for this and taken that ever taken into quarantine
for several weeks or uh to see if they would have carried any militias organism or other unknown stretch was them and a and of
course this is what I think
of a what everyone expects from from of Mars a fixed so that we take place I that I don't have told about that and and also the unlimited liability of States of for every damage that is done by the space fair uh I think makes it reasonable tool tool to go that that that role nevertheless I mean there is very few will places in space where we would expect life forms on that could be Mars that could be of course in the annals of so everywhere we see some kind of moisture loss soul and we haven't detected any uh any signs of a chemical imbalance on any of the celestial bodies yet you know that even from far apart everybody that every agent would immediately recognize that there is life on earth because of the uh oxygen-rich atmosphere the atmosphere couldn't be
estrogen osazone of oxygen is very reactive that it would all very short time just react with uh with other elements of the and and go away and then become for example covered by exceed again as you see in the months was for them so the mass of person might look like there's understood before plants the and and so on uh this is fear is called the it too young and hypothesis than you would notice are if you see uh and 80 chemically imbalanced like that there would be a hint of life of existing and we haven't found that yet also not on on any on that of the exoplanets here which doesn't say anything that you might not be avoided and I mean ourselves coming down to change things uh maybe like we have seen in many movies some some kind of monstrous organisms forms at this moment of course no 1 moles from on the other hand I mean the astronauts went flying back to have something like the year uh to incubate and hopefully that sufficient also as a corn times it the question of the and here and you brought
up the subject of the these for the use of space yeah and very practical question in return and how how would we
appraise the use of space 0 how would the sack of cost of all the gap quotes real estate yeah that's a very good thing you could you could for example uh find some kind of auction is
mechanism our I mean there is there's there's lots of examples of little tool of to set the price for common goods but you could you could just assign the price tag arbitrarily of I mean these are all publicly listed companies you can just look into their the valence sheets and and and and just see what profits they are calculating and just take a pencil that or something like that but so there be I would say there's many mechanisms where you could set these fees I think an auction mechanism could make sense the question of please In anybody else who has endorsed a question before you also very well what I have no no yes question actually just to my before article like this outer space the clearly defined in article 1 space the use of on basis for the benefit of humankind that the principal here and
this is exactly that's what we penalties well and anybody is watching all way and it'll another question new rules you know I I wanted just the before you ask a 2nd question that I mean what the benefit for humankind is whole at but is debatable sold it is certainly different approaches to that and I mean you could say
that uh it's a uh an approach of common that uh space should remain common good open to everyone in every detail or you could say well a private entrepreneurship is also part of the benefit of humankind case and get angry
with private and had that don't grievous militarily and I ask a few this is also the space treaties sales explicitly falls in peaceful uses anything all yeah very good and that its and me is
not being uh of all persons of high would lead to the same way that get corrected me and like that of the means and non aggressively sold for example that is of this tool of the regulations that are really interesting for all I mean tension as the sentence is also that this is true analysis tool of 2 things that had had an economic impact already over long time 1 is already mentioned the broadcast so that the blast are free to set a set of satellites to broadcast television for example or to use that for for telecommunication purposes of course that's a good business that has been set up for a long time and the 2nd is the military useful this is called reconnaissance for the spy satellites and the spice of life perfectly and as the use so
it might sound like a it is nothing peaceful about however it's not a peaceful does not mean NO military legal terms as well as you know what the weather's this interpretation was done at the time because because
the Latin 67 when the treaty was adopted the United States and the Soviet Union had already launched satellites into outer space for military purposes and and therefore they had they had to take this interpretation of otherwise and for the the contrary to the treaty that edge of the book and I
figured I'd start of threads and start from there and then if your eyes understand that because it's mentioned no weapons or no nuclear weapon that no weapons of mass destruction are a lot of so that is very clear and for the rest them yeah and you doubtedly goods and then you can do with them military is of personnel and literary objects and then and yet you don't because this is why I like these pictures a lot because this is not a matter of mass destruction of the precision having reference so you know that's the official drone warfare in
space killing 1 after the other so so I think I think about time is up and let let's say it was this beautiful picture of the moon space in this example for listening to like how
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Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Space – the universal public good or the final frontier of commodities?
Serientitel re:publica 2016
Teil 175
Anzahl der Teile 188
Autor Blumtritt, Joerg
Schmidt, Silke
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 3.0 Deutschland:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen und das Werk bzw. diesen Inhalt auch in veränderter Form nur unter den Bedingungen dieser Lizenz weitergeben.
DOI 10.5446/20698
Herausgeber re:publica
Erscheinungsjahr 2016
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Informatik
Abstract Space once again is hyped as the next big thing. ISS' astronauts are superstars on Twitter, Mars Rover, Rosetta probe, Philae lander, and the Pluto flyby of New Horizons are landmark publicity events. For the first time, we see also private enterprise in space, ranging from rockets for space transport to exploring economic exploitation of asteroids. But how do we as humankind want space to be conquered? Which line should space law draw between public good and private endeavor?

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