Digital Citizenship in an Age of Mass Surveillance

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Digital Citizenship in an Age of Mass Surveillance
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What have been the implications of the Snowden leaks almost 3 years on? How has regulation around surveillance developed and what have been the technological responses? What has been the nature of public debate on the topic? And how do concerns with mass surveillance relate to broader questions of social and economic justice? Based on an 18-month research project into the implications of the Snowden leaks for policy, technology, civil society and news media, this presentation will discuss some of these questions and reflect on what this means for the meanings and practices of citizenship today.
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my my tongue my means what
it has been almost 3 years now and that this is a that this links have massively changed actually our perception of the mass surveillance and digital citizenship and as there has been a lot of news coverage on this topic has also been they and 18 month research project that dictates deep into the implications of this nominees for policy Technology civil society and and the news media and I'm now very glad to announce to uh Linda Dantzig and Armenians from Cardiff University the
thank er the high and a densely again this is on hints and we both work at Cardiff University in the UK where we spent the past of 18 months so
looking at working on a project that's called DCS as project which we also have a website to find out more about cities is project . net I'm where we look at the implications of of mass surveillance for digital citizenship and um are starting
point for this project is set was known and there's no leaks of 1st published in June 2013 their reveal the extensive and intrusive nature of conserved reforms of surveillance and that really implicate all of us as citizens as they are rooted in our everyday communication platform so our farms of social media activity or browsing history and so forth and also we are based in the
UK and we also decided to focus on the UK in this project so that will be the kind of framework that we're talking about today also partly because of the central role that UK was revealed to have in this broader some surveillance machine use known as said that the UK have done more extensive forms of surveillance and even the US has done so what
we did so in our project which is this vertical Digital citizenship and surveillance Society UK state media citizen relations after this node needs is a collaborative projects also with other colleagues at Cardiff University I'm as as Oxford University and researchers in London and we look at the implications of this node needs in 4 different areas so news media civil society policy and technology and what will do in this half-hour which is going to be pushed on is we're going to give you a brief snapshot of our research findings for each of these um areas so looking at the media coverage um and looking at public knowledge and also impact on activists looking at the legal regulatory framework in which policy reforms was seen as well as infrastructures of surveillance role of standards and developments enhancements tools and we started to want to think about this in terms of its implications for digital citizenship and we're looking at in terms of the
use of citizenship because we want to recognize that are interactions with society as citizens are increasingly mediated through digital tools and platforms and has also been widely promoted in discourse around how digital technologies are providing us with new opportunities to participate and liberating influence decisions that govern our lives and for that to be meaningful we need to therefore also somehow trust this infrastructure needs to be secure and we need to have some kind of policy framework in place that enables this form of citizenship and also that allows us to enact citizenship like being able to express ourselves freely or to practice descent and we need to understand how this infrastructure works and so we can interact with it in a way that both informed and transparent so what we want and we want to look at is what to this node links and the aftermath of the makes tell us about the state of digital citizenship in these terms so if we start by looking at
and how the story is I to being covered in the media and how public knowledge around mass surveillance has been constructed we looked at the mainstream media we also looked at blogs and actually resource encounter narratives but what I'll focus on here is the coverage of British mainstream press and and
this is a timeline that we put together where we sampled all the stories relating to use known on gchq and essay and this design and this is the number of stories and then this is on the timeline for it but not to narrow down the this sample we had to sort of focus on particular we decide to focus on particular pertinent events both with their peaks as well as events that we felt had implications for some of the issues that we were interested in so we looked at the initial Snowden revelations we looked at the events of the revelations around embassies snooping and bring on world leaders we look that they that David Miranda case they're Miranda being the partner of playing green or 1 of the journalists who publish this node links and the man was detained at Heathrow under the terrorist act we looked also at the case of Lee Rigby reports which found was a soldier was killed in the head you can report came out arguing that um Facebook shirts and the role of Facebook or those discussions around what the role of Facebook and social media companies should be monitoring communications as a result of that and then we also looked at the Charlie Abdo after enough and this is what we found and we did our analysis so it it was loaded features in over 60 % on some of the stories yeah and and actually he's clearly prominent therefore the media coverage and is generally covered using neutral positive language so things like whistle-blower and ECA however what we also what we see is that his revelations haven't really been regarded in the same way and they haven't actually translated into significant media concern about breach of civil liberties which was 1 of the aims of of him uh revealing these because if we look at how surveillance
actually contextualized in the media coverage we looked at the issues around surveillance the prominent themes that emerge again and again by things to do with terrorism use with the role of security services and UK US government responses to believe and this is really in contrast to alternative ways of framing debates around surveillance on things like human rights for example or personal privacy or freedom of the press or what we might think of as rights and citizen-based perspectives on surveillance debates these don't really feature very much in the media coverage and perhaps 1 of the explanations for this is when we look at the sources if you look at the sources we see on that it is the dominant frame by politicians by far the most dominant source in all the news coverage this is actually pretty common when you do analysis of news media content often politicians get to frame many of the debates but we would sales this this has particular implications for how mass surveillance gets framed in the media and because it favors those types of perspectives and those types of opinions and we see that also when
we look at the actual opinions are expressed by these armed sources and we see that the most frequent opinion was that surveillance should be increased or it's acceptable or necessary followed by the opinion that this node a compromise the work of the intelligence services and then also that social media companies should do more to fight error so when you look at this you see that the overall pattern is that opinion surrounding individual liberties are not foreground it's and and not presented as significant concerns so just to sum up the
media coverage of this is that the based on surveillance of frame by elites rather than citizens consequences and extent of mass surveillance of citizens are largely invisible there's a dominance of discourse and state and corporate responsibilities for surveillance framed around protecting massive security and the link between surveillance and fighting terror and therefore we would argue media content coverage contributes to justification for mass surveillance never look at the still society research which is on the 2nd aspect of this of this we wanted to find out OK what is and public knowledge and attitudes
to visual surveillance what have been changes in the gentrification practices or self-regulating behavior and responses known links and what has been the impact of this node on activism and advocacy and the this we conducted focus groups with different members of the British public on getting a very dense so different demographic groups so it according to their ethnic background according to socio-economic status according to age or putting also to um location in the UK and then we also carried out interviews with political activists who were not involved in tech activists issues or digital rights issue specifically but more broader sort of social justice issues like environmental activists anti-war activist labor activist community activists to get a sense of what these these groups actually think about these issues so what did we find answers of
the focus groups with the British public we see that actually digital surveillance is not as prominent in people's understandings of what surveillance means as more physical forms or I'm more obvious forms of surveillance like CCTV for example so data collection of such didn't really come up in people's minds necessarily initially when talking about surveillance but with promising and when we started talking about these issues it was clear that most people feel that the collection of data and even metadata so distinguishing it also from content constitutes surveillance but there's a kind of alone knowledge really of this node in uh but this node makes Annals of known himself and there was actually quite a lot confusion with Chelsea Manning and with WikiLeaks in people's um knowledge of this which I think is kind of indicative of how whistle-blowers and security issues translate into public knowledge and although it's difficult when people talk about this to isolate their concerns to a particular actor who conducts surveillance so people often would talk sometimes about government surveillance sometimes of our corpus surveillance sometimes about employers surveillance sometimes about peer surveillance these things kind of flow always kind of fluids it's difficult to isolate state surveillance pesetas as the main subject there definitely concerns in how people feel about these people who are uneasy about people also feel that there is particularly a lack of transparency they don't really understand how it works what is being collected and why it's being collected and and also what is the regulatory framework in place to try and achieve a regulate this and and also there's concern the lack of knowledge or transparency around how do you actually opt out or how you circumvent so these practices and had you resistance and I manifests itself actually suggesting that there is an awareness around this so there's an 1 he's about to it but it manifests itself more in terms of people being a bit careful but not saying things that are too controversial or changing privacy settings a bit on on a social media platforms and so forth but not shifting actual to tools such using encryption tools or anonymization tools we saw very little if any of that's being mentioned and that she would also happens is that people tend to internalize these justifications that have dominated also media coverage particularly around things like nothing to hide nothing to fear on in order to sort of perhaps I suppose be more comfortable with that situation I get I would say that there was a she variation here and demographics and so when we did for example focus focus groups with young Muslims which we did they problematize disposition around nothing to hide nothing to fear much more than other groups did so this is obviously also related the bits to the position you have in society and how you feel more generally but I
think you are you know we want to make that what comes out of our focus group research is predicted to distinguish between we're not talking about public consent to these practices were more talking about public resignation so resigned to the fact that this is what goes on and actually some of these themes were also continued and in our interviews with
political activist although we might expect these to be more on resistance to wars or more vocal and outspoken about these issues but actually again was some understandings of surveillance of dominated by more visible forms of surveillance particularly police infiltration which is and has been very prominent in the UK on the activist seeing these are much more prominent in people's initials understandings of surveillance then things like and digital surveillance but actually also there was a general awareness that this goes on in a widespread expectation that these types of practices have being carried out which is confirmed for them when they're in the events intercepted or a police turn up when they're there and they're organize something and so forth and so therefore online behavior wasn't particularly link directly to Snowden's so there wasn't that much of a direct response to changing communication practices as a response to Snowden's except for in the news you with Greenpeace who didn't actually particularly responses and change the communicating condition infrastructure but predominantly this known least 1 surprising this is what was their expected was going on and also that wasn't there for much use of the encryption partly because it was seen as a business of question around convenience and so forth and technical and ability but also rationale that using encrypted tools within an activist organization is somehow hidden your hiding your practices so you'll be exclusive and this strides against activists pursuits of transparency and openness on and this is also a link to the 2nd 1 where it was of many of the people we spoke with sort of felt that where we can to mainstream to have to worry about surveillance we only need to worry about that if we want to to engage in more radical politics I'm so in some sense is we could see this as kind of keep in the mainstream checking that surveillance only becomes an issue if you do kind of radical politics whatever that might mean and for that reason also concerning themselves with act and with surveillance was kind of not seen as being part of their agenda rather this is something that and other organized or other people do like take activists or digital right active this is what we do so it is not an integrated activist practices such on integrated activists concerned and is not in in most of the interviews that we did just to
summarize on them I still society stream we kind of said that we could see it we could think about this as identifying it as a particular kind of condition which we called surveillance realism which draws on uh mark Fisher's concept of passes realism which she wrote in 2009 in the wake of the financial crisis where sort of saw that the prevalence of capitalism and the inability to articulate an alternative even in light of radical failures indicates a particular pervasive atmosphere this is how he described it that conditions also are thoughts and actions action and perhaps similar to Fisher's characterization of of social imagination in the wake of the financial crisis to look at these 2 1st sections of our research public debate and response in attitudes to mass surveillance in the wake of the snow and it's also can indicate a pervasive atmosphere and that conditions are thought and action where becomes increasingly difficult to imagine an alternative to the existing system rather we see the normalization of surveillance but also it comes to advance justifications that are then used to negate evidence of fallacies of the system for example invasion into privacy civic rights suppression and discrimination on and then instead citizens kind of continuously negotiates at their activities their views their background and in relation to surveillance as a necessary everyday practice rather than questioning the system overall now when was on
the thanks so we heard about some come near coverage and civil society
on the 2 more strands to research uh areas that we looked at 1 policy 1 ecology and evolution of digital citizenship of course on depends also on the legal and regulatory framework policies created by governments and also Internet businesses are crucial and either enabling or restricting the various activities of all non-citizens in the UK this solid revelations led to on on institutional reviews of surveillance legislation for example by the Intelligence and Security Committee of Parliament the IIsi war the independence of and review of the Royal United Services Institute received uh and also the independent review of terrorism legislation which led to the so called and report on and these did not fundamentally exposed oppose surveillance but criticized the legal framework and demanded a more robust democratic debate and also democratic control a democratic licenses the rules the report called it for the SurveillanceActivities of intelligence agencies and they're also legal challenges most possible side to organizations for example before the European Court of Human Rights for the British Embassy proposed a tribunal that did not take this avails unlawful in its entirety but pointed out parts of its that actually are are unlawful and so as a result there is now a new draft legislation develops and currently discussed in the UK Investigatory Powers bill which is to regulate a wide range of surveillance practices and basically puts it all into 1 law on our research then we talked about how we talk with many different
stakeholders and experts that participate in the policy debate from DC is due to the
National Crime Agency to Google to Big Brother Watch to parliamentarians all kinds of people and these exposed a substantial controversies over where to go with surveillance policy while the industry proposed bill was being discussed by including just mention a few points here that the main but that the question of public debate
and of the democratic licensed security agencies would of course typically say well it's enough now that the public should have just trust in the services and the police and digital rights groups on the other hand I would say we really haven't had a proper debate yet and also and industry representatives what most assailer specially no serious review of what level of surveillance is needed and wanted by the public on the very definition of surveillance this on mn yeah as is contested most interviews would say that the data collection as such is surveillance but security agencies and some politicians some industry representatives uh would say that becomes surveillance only at the point of analysis uh so when somebody reads the mouth and they were focusing actually on humans interacting in analyzing the data ball collection of data has been a big area of controversy of course this node and also the focus on it quite a bit and is revelations of law enforcement would say it's necessary to investigate crime and civil society but also on the wall and to the rights organizations but also uh tech industry with mostly on the opposed to that encryption strangely
enough surprisingly perhaps was the issue of these disagreement among the different interviewees that we talk with uh even though at the same time we saw the apple was the guy case but in the UK and it seems that law enforcement doesn't really want a wide public debate about this and some is pretzels with concerned about the backlash as we could see with what's up on going to end-to-end encryption and so on instead of state-sponsored hacking or as it's also called equipment interference or computer network exploitation is what many of our interview said the future but there especially of course ball powers of particularly problematic inserting malware and on and software can affect thousands of U. of users and that's especially than in the context of the Internet of Things of wearable smart homes smart cars and unsurprisingly uh representative of enforcement to interviewed said we're getting quite excited about the Internet of Things and so they're very different value systems that that pen and
underpin understandings of security of state security or human security and so whose voices are heard and who influences the policy debate
moles turns out as security and
intelligence agencies were involved in policy development right from the outset and were able to shape the new law in detail because they enjoyed the closest access to decision-makers so society and adtech business were very vocal and contributed to public debate and consultations and they've actually anonymously rejected the new law more more or less anonymously but effect on actually more or less every submission statement to consultations over this past year has been critical about the new proposed law but these voices have not had much influence so far so it there is new
legislation legislation in your legislative framework has been developed but we don't see an actual revision of surveillance powers different levels of access to decision-makers and specific institutional settings have led to unequal degrees of influence or policy reform and an imbalanced in the voices and interests that are represented the current national security discourse that prioritizes the state's role in protecting against physical violence all of our citizens of privacy and civil rights has provided the context for this imbalance 1 of our interviewees said we need to flip the switch from state to citizen-centric thinking now briefly on
the on the final part on of our research we've seen from the snow the leaks
that's conductivity of security and surveillance agencies has gone far beyond a mere collection of data and towards as I said before computer network exploitation I the weakening of security programs of
encryption systems and associated infrastructure as such has become a contested field so we're particularly interested in the standards bodies and the organizations that regulate standards and protocols and thus the proper functioning of the infrastructure this surveillance the normalized the through the infrastructure or or their attempts to counter act surveillance and in our research what this research team that that looked at this and interviewed participants and standard making bodies and associate institutions such as the Internet Engineering Task Force IETF or the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers icon or the American Sign of organization this a or the World War broke World Wide Web Consortium and others and what we saw there that yes surveillance to some extent is enabled through that's there on the prior experiences how intelligence agency uh members participated standards-making man as a people attend to bodies like guys all IETF and so on sometimes to become vise chairs which shares of working groups and so on in as a also uh collaborated with Miss uh to weaken and undermine strong security standards they created a back door and this cryptographic standards they proposed extensions to an ivy IETF standards and so on and moreover security agencies and large companies often push for the development of complex standards which are then difficult to implement securely but they have also been some interesting responses to the Snowden revelations and also quite some some shock uh among the standards community of things the IETF for example as declared on pervasive monitoring as an attack so this this this means there is a consensus there to mitigate this attack uh it has become a new priority for the work of that institution of divorce establish working groups to address the security of different protocols on technical standards are designed to rule to him hinder mask surveillance their development at the moment for example to expand encryption although they haven't actually address the issue of and as a participation in the working group so there are some some issues there perhaps uh other organizations like for example via the Internet Research Task Force on narrative and I can have created working groups to explore how on human rights protection can be more effectively incorporated into the protocols on the World Wide Web Consortium has intensified its work on Tracking protection guidelines some other bodies like for example Global Certification Forum apparently haven't we debated that there's so much so there are different different findings here we could say overall that's
certainly standards are political they're not just neutral tools there is an increased urgency to incorporate privacy into some of but there are also issues of structural and accountability and complexity of some of setting it has been difficult apparently so far to change the role of security agencies in this process and the question of who influences policy making is certainly at the core of the issue due to not just an army national policy-making consists of before but also in standards bodies and at the very least uh we think there there's something needs to be done in terms of enhancing enhancing openness and transparency better close what does
all this mean for digital citizenship what can be said about that of course but just very briefly if we think back at the requirements of citizens that digital citizenship that we um brought up at the beginning and but we can see there is a lack of knowledge there is an insufficient public discourse that focus is often on security and terrorism rather than civic rights and there is no more transparent law in the UK in the making at least but no overall review or revision of of surveillance there's also struggle over the integrity and stability of the infrastructure of the Sultan leaks have crystallized the ways in which citizenship is moving towards more monitored form in which the relations between state and citizens or read negotiated but our research actually shows 2 stories perhaps on the 1st 2 parts the media part all-sided part there we could see that surveillance really is justified and normalized to a large extent uh in the other 2 parts of the policy aspects of technology aspects on there is perhaps more attention must struggle and but of course also there we see how difficult it is to challenge dominant interests despite all this it also shows us some possibilities for change their loads of course but just from those few points that we mentioned so far going on this posture minutes and we could see there is a wider information through non-traditional media that's the other part of the media resource that we didn't really talk so much about and there are new alliances for example between digital was organizations and tech business and there are efforts to incorporate human rights and technological standards and so on and so on so that some things are certainly happening here and that these were just a few snapshots from our research are thank you for listening and the cycle website we will
publish our research results are on the website in the coming months and in order to find a few a few things there are things like
have little began and