Who will be smart in a smart city?

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Who will be smart in a smart city?
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With a growing interest in cities that respond and adapt to changing environments and citizen's demands - often referred to as Smart Cities - we see new challenges arising for free and open societies. Smart cities promise to create the perfect urban space, a more efficient, greener and secure environment. But at what cost? In this talk we would like to explore the current risks with smart cities and discuss technical and legal steps that are needed to protect our rights.
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I would like to and welcome you can from the shift in life unfaltering where she works in open data and 4 and in the Open Data Privacy program pardon and Avon View intermontane then she's a research officer at private international Richie is Mr. Gates the surveillance industry come and have fun with the talk thank you yeah think about it you were trained to
always on time I never tried it a city where traffic jams or a foreign concept think about it 0 waste city where everything is recycled where be intellectually for Fourier you're right that's the wrong place the think about a city where you would only pay for the electricity used the thing about a city where you can only civil servants about what needs fixing in your streets and you can monitor them in real time to they get the job done think about it if you west to on possibly waiting for the next elections I had to make their voices heard that a full-fledged actors who decide what's happening in the cities using the small phones think about a city where internet access is available in every street and were even the most deprived the longest in excess it for free think about a city where elderly citizens then can the few remaining their home thanks to a system that lets medical authorities editions sign of uh blood drops all or a heart attack think about a city where climates prevents it before it happens
the welcome to the that companies like IBM and Cisco Oracle he tashi Google and Microsoft are trying to sell your local governments you will notice some of them are here anyhow as so we've all
heard the term small cities are the what we mean by the odds is the use of technology and data collection gene prove the CC
and provide provide tailored services for the needs of citizens now it's not cities have been focusing majorly on 4 aspects transport health energy and local governance don't various ways of collecting data but really go to emerging trends 1 is of course the use of the software and the other 1 is sensors and actually it said said that we're moving on um an area of sensors where deer placed all over the city but also in your homes and most definitely in your smart phones so yeah IBM actually has a helpful analogy I the comparison the converge to the nervous system where do sensors are actually dinners but while and there's relay information to the degrade and fortunately I
and that definitely 1 of the major concern of lecture ready point to uh the slot each is that it's not entirely where what the brain is in itself a g not every day which we produced a
book I close can In the elderly who was need it reproduced U . 5 quintillion bytes of data as which is an enormous quantity of information and data that can be collected about us the as we all are
actually entering the internet of Things the era where the objects you carrier like to watch or the objects in your house like you freeze your your children's stories all themselves equipped with sensors and connected to the Internet and therefore I relaying your data and information that can be accessed by private companies and governments it please not by Europeans the attempt up continent in terms of of small cities and our I live in London which is really at the forefront of some for this initiative and so just to give you an idea of what it means to assaulted at the end
this is nothing new this is something that has that been going on for the Basel 15 years now out when you when you take a public transport the underground old busses you needlestick God and knows to God is equipped with EasyCAD I which
means that every time by you enter public transport every time you leave you have just waited and this data about where you going from and where you going to as is collected by our Transport for London again is accessible by the government but
it's not just public transport of that are being monitored it's also just you know cars as well when I when you driving through London you need to pay congestion charge so in order for that charge to be our for that tax to be paid I did City of London has a cool idea and you set up the system where a calls a constantly monitored based on there are number plates now also said this has been going on for maybe like up to 15 years and small cities all there'd be already exists and they're there to stay but you do we want tell you um about the risk of smart cities to maybe hoping to see how we can mitigate them as well as spoken about Europe but it's in London but is definitely not so only limited Europe are actually it's a really a growing trend in transforming countries as well um with China and GDR our developing our 300 hours starting the pilots because the more megacities or or popping out the more the injured urbanization trends leads to small city developments so we are very aware of the fact that there was a lot of bottom-up initiatives as well that are popping up now in the discourse about smart cities and there are a lot of interesting civic hackers and projects for instance and Open Data
projects that we really want to focus on this very much technocratic and top down approach that we see promoted by and the big tech players M and we want to focus on the the questions related to power and control and the challenges that we see for open and free societies especially in the context of privacy and surveillance and why do we want to have this conversation because we have the feeling that right now this fight about smart cities is very much a fight fought by an oven plan on who have very much fighting against and the the big tech companies and then the tech companies on the other side and we believe that actually the crowd here to the public and should also be engaged in these discussions so that's that and with the question of who is in
control and power of smart cities and who actually benefits from smart cities and so already explained all the players and there are more who are interested in really pushing and promoting the idea of smart city and but there are also um cloud service providers
application platforms device manufacturers data analysts always some of these companies of course they provide all of these services at the same time and this is really interesting book by researcher called Anthony Townsend written in 2013 where he's analyzing the advent of the smart city showing that around the year of 2008 the
the the the notion and the project and that the whole enthusiasm been behind smart cities um increased and this is for 2
reasons 1st of all because for the 1st time more people were living in urban areas than in rural areas so and we are facing more and more challenges in the context of urbanization like poverty and traffic and and M. environmental issues but at the same time 2008 and all of you know it was also the year of the financial crisis so 1 of the big the players that weren't able to sell on their services and solutions to other enterprises anymore because they ran out of money or had a lot of budget cuts so of course these companies were looking for new markets and trying to sell their services that were actually designed for enterprises and so indeed and
these are this is the estimated market and by 2020 for smart city technology is estimated to be at
around for 408 billion dollars and M. which is trying to explain that to show you on how much the discourse was driven by and the private sector and I'm actually shaped by these providers and also
promoting the idea that technology and and data-driven approaches are needed for cities to become successful or efficient and I want you to look a bit close I for which is why we think that is problematic so 1st of all and the problem was cities most often is that there is a lack of resources no and this is especially the case in developing countries are in the global south and ever already mentioned that especially in China or India cities are now getting very engaged in the in the smart city projects but many times there's just no budget so they very much forced into private public private partnerships because they couldn't afford with public money and so now I mean
use those are 2 cities that are that have a lot of budget but here we see an announcement um from all um York where the City of
New York as cooperating with Microsoft and setting up this new domain awareness system which is the really elaborate elaborated law-enforcement system and using data from and surveillance cameras using data from an automatic license plates Plates rates and those on long-term contracts where
Microsoft is getting engaged with the city at the end of the year on the other side we have the city of Handbook of signing a memorandum of understanding for around the port in in humble to make it more efficient um and use transfer data logistic data etc. so at the problem here is just that
these and contracts there really long term contracts um that binds um that the cut of the cities to these a special providers and a but the other thing and this I find even more striking is that 1 of the problems that is that well generally in
the government and especially local government you have on a lack of capacity and knowledge to accept assess what kind of technology is actually needed to um tackle certain problems on the city level so this is from a blog post from Cisco
which I have kind of funny because it's the trash talking what is the city's Digital Transformation Q so this notion that the city needs to have a certain IQ and to be inoperative and and that probably trash or smart trash systems and the right answers while I am I agree that sometimes treasures an issue probably for we should ask the question whether this is always the biggest problem a city is facing so here we really have the the providers shaping the agenda and also providing or providing the problem and providing the techno technology at the same time while some people on the government ever cannot really act as a sort of smart clients
assessing and the problems and then assessing the the suitable solution the other problem that we're seeing is that an in a smart city context data government and data management becomes really really important and here we have the fascinating example of real so real applied for and the well cap and um olympics and
Willis finally announced that both of these events will take place in real all of which are present as a lens in Rio and and of course they're realizing that there are a lot of issues and problems the city is facing so ranging from poverty and over traffic jams and over a natural disasters especially in the regions so the mayor of Rio turned to IBM and ask for a technical solutions and what he got was this control room and I think it's a very
impressive example of showing the idea behind the smart cities so you have like a centralized system and off
data of all different sectors so here you have data of more than 30 agencies coming together in real time and you have the city workers um having screens and the real-time maps using sensors on and all kinds of other data um and really controlling or at least this notion of being able to control the cities and probably even the citizens and because
of the really important in smart city um is that you have to use and sectors and the data flows in between the sectors so ideally the energy system knows what the transport system is doing etc. but um
this poses certain questions because if you have this kind of centralized proprietary system and a set earlier you'll bind to certain contracts you need 1 and service provider and some hardware provider and providing this kind of control rooms and this of course and neglects any kind of bottom-up approaches but also for example the idea of sharing data openly or of engaging with start ups or other more Innovative some approaches but you really and forced into the systems and the other question and so we talked about the lack of some resources and capacity the data management question and the 3rd 1 is the 1 about data ownership M. and I think this is a very crucial 1 and
ever will touch upon that and the 2nd as well so the whole idea of who was actually owning the data for a long time has been neglected and we see that now in contracts on between on the by the public sector and the private sector that many people haven't really thought about this question and now the public sector 1 7 access to the data or maybe even wants to make it openly available but they can't because of the data belongs to the private sector and and this is an issue for several reasons 1 because this data could be made freely available more for it if it's and non-personal data more for the for example of the use of citizens them as as part of Open Data projects but the other 1 is also and this is from and a quote from a white paper of the Department for Business and Innovation skills in the UK whether the they're really promoting this idea of selling data that is generated in smart city context for advertising purposes so the idea of fun having this perfectly tailored advertisement for people commuting in the city for instance and if you have a approaches like this you can already imagine the next step and that is probably that this data is B. S. um used
by on the big data brokers who was sending the data and they can sell them to the to insurance companies and to the banking industry etc. so you can imagine well is on the data is maybe um um allowing Taylorized advertising for people commuting to about this kind of data will also be used to know OK how often does a person go to about sector and I don't know if you want an and now the last point out that I want to make about power and control and no I think most of you know this this building or the city and and actually it was Walt Disney had is really really and elaborated idea of the smart city and so he had a very technocratic approach it was called Epcot which uh the city was called quot his original idea which is
called a which which movements and experimental prototyping community um off to log on and see if you really wanted to have technology in place but more importantly he also had the idea that you
don't need any local government anymore but you have the the private companies so in that case will Disney and the corporate partners managing the city so am in terms of democracy and free and open societies I think there is a lot of reason to worry about this and we heard about on the problems that it you will when you just have technology and algorithms ruling in designing a community and we heard about this yesterday with Kate Crawford and but also today there were great talks explaining why it's really really important that we do not just have algorithms and data and sort of designing the society but that we need transparency about that I was in Peru algorithms that are used about potential issues of exclusion and and biases in the data because an otherwise we cannot hold our government of weather and controlled as to account
so on I'll give over to ever again to talk a bit more about the issue of
algorithms and surveillance in the smart city concept yeah and so I think actually to soccer below more about privacy because I actually I have 1 thing you notice when you hear on people from local governments and other companies the wrestling small cities are what I would call the small eventually this is that the complaint our friend about ID issues around privacy and data protection and how uh that protection laws get in the way of progress and how we need data such as the of children's lawyers and so basically procedures getting in the way really so before we move on you from the right to privacy before we dismiss it as a right from the Old World I just want you to take a minute and think about what he needs to leave in a smart city basically warnings to leaving the world we live in now with the government's news when you go to bed when you wake up in the morning if you take a shower about half an when you leaving your house where you going to uh policing in a world where the government uses social media pose to assess whether you happy with the service they're providing
not a data protection historically has always been tied to the issue of consensus I when you using Facebook and Twitter you have to take a boxing you consent to your data being
used and if you don't concessional happy with it you just on user services that were not on Facebook for example not all obviously in a small city the issue of consent appear when the moment you step out in the streets of moment you drive through the you'll data I is being used in being sort of from your father and order you don't get to consent to now I think 1 interesting example uh is uh actually through the small being Finland so what we're too small to be basically they were just being was broadcasting of the documents not the trick is that uh they were equipped with sensors are there were gated a getting data from your phone when you pass by and based on the data that way get getting which is essentially you like address but the we target the advertisement for you not when people what people weren't aware of this happening I told the just fight with random advertisement did you realize that was targeted advertisements when people find that the like a proper outcry in London any was the newspaper that expose this and people while demanded to predict stop and eventually was stopped now I think 1 of the thing that was interesting is the CEO of renewed distorts up that had um purposes small being says I don't see what the problem is non cancer regular Seville in the world why did people suddenly care about this I think you choose 1 thing when people get angry you can still get a say asked you what they sell our being intercepted so it's never too late even if you're in the most voltage in the world not a smart cities is in just about are the constant data collection I we've talked
about regular readily and often it's a good example to show the other side of the problem which is the centralization of data in you you get data from 30 companies from sensors from the CTB all in 1 place and all used to create like real-time Lobsang graph to predicts contract crimes so traffic Jolyn's uh and um and now i natural disasters now I
think this is a really interesting words from a the media radio says you press the operation centers the loosest you have people looking into every corner of the city 24 hours a day 7 days a week so I think the real issue is the extent of the problem not really not the
exception I and actually to be fair it is going to become the norm is small cities keep keep on as they are and other the example is a is the future of the Singapore dairies and and precedences projects are currently being said laid out of nowhere and and a similar number of sensors and cameras are being placed all of the is the key to monitor everything from cleaning methods public spaces she density of pride and precise movements of every locally registered vehicle not all this data filled into 1 program called spiritual Singapore and what he means is that the government will be able to run experiments for example to see how people would react you an explosion or a how infectious disease which spread now letter you find with this let's you find with government civilians because after all you've elected to governments you've chosen it maybe you trust them do still an issue that remains to be solved which is the problem of uh of cybersecurity
let's think for a moment what have been the big airlines lately telecommunications company like talk talk have been heartened all the data have been leads everyone has heard about idea how are asking that Hough actually even government solving hide the Turkish
government's the Filipino government demand Mexico governments have been fixing all of of hiking and have did they tell you so Hawking we trust how can we possibly trust pacemakers sensors everything that we rely on in our day to day lives that we let's an interest in to when I actually we are not even capable of securing the most basic system I not this is actually an example of the Wi-Fi of London
In the Wi-Fi of London is actually is specifically in the City of London which is the financial district you would think that in the financial district where all the banks and all the major headquarters of company all concentrated show you would think they would manage to how to secure network now we've actually made research on this we've like been studying the networks didn't want is completely insecure you connecting wanted the London Wi-Fi begin very easily interested communication and Internet traffic from other people connected to this Wi-Fi the and let think about what it means actually each you have censors everywhere when you think about it like sensors for example that all place to recognize that there is this being gunshot for examples and news sensors are normally designed to intercept sounds what if someone maliciously
I get in the way and you know use them to intercept conversations that are happening in street for example the now I'd like to conclude of thank and I'd like to you actually conclude on the issue of force participation in some in
small cities on because I think the reason you keep in mind is that when the right to privacy was going in 18 nineties in US by Brandeis and warrant it was defined as the right to be left alone and this is exactly where we're losing in the cell 60 we are losing the right to be left alone because we are in constantly either
said like you they local because being used but also more and more what we see projects being developed where are your government is expecting you to use up for example or to report graffiti's or holes in the road so if you don't wanna do that if you want to stay away from those out for example each user so this is you get from the city or just knowledge good you're being penalized for not participating so by since you war being constantly requested expected to participate the reason there's a picture of
all the field screen is to go back to this idea of this small city that's so that will be if we had envisioned because there was a fleet side to it is that yes it was the most efficient city of possibly using technology for everything from like good that your kids to school from where you work everything you do would be facilitated by technology that a fleet side to it that it was a city where you couldn't retire at the moment you're retired you would be kicked out of the city because the the expected you to be efficient and that's what I wanted you ask yourself as well you we want to leaving the city where we're constantly forced to be efficient the and not just to give like a more positive outlook with him at the at the end so reclaiming the free and open city and so we talked a lot about real and is the control room and the partnership between IBM and the government in real time OK this is not so positive and unfortunately a bit blurry but this is from this March and probably you forget about all the protests going on in Brazil at the moment in this section in Rio so here we
can see that well real might be a smart city or whatever uh um however you want to define a smart city but we see that like the biggest issues and challenges that we are facing at the moment um like poverty like
social injustice like corruption all public education make probably there aren't really technological fixes to that but of course we need a human interaction and the democracy and and collective human intelligence in a way and we definitely need to involve the city's day-to-day cities them everyday citizens
in these solutions that are developed and we had this yesterday from Senate where he explained well the best cities those are not the cities that are very efficient but the cities that are very dynamic and that have a lot of interaction between communities so this as another example from Latin America
as a city of magazines and easy maybe you have you forget about the city because it was on how a lot of time in in Colombia by the way and it has a lot of problems and with a truck were of war and a lot of issues with the slum areas in these mountain regions and the solution that they found to these issues had nothing to do with an apple or smartphone but what they did is that they are and had publicly funded sports facilities for people in the slums and people in the central area and they build these cablecast connecting the slums where the um the center of the city so in the end it was the interaction of these different communities coming together that made the city a better place I've already said that we know that the idea of smart city and technology driving these
developments and is nothing that we're going to stop this is just happening at the moment but we really see an urge to to shape these developments and to get engaged in the debates and if there at a technological solutions implemented which is not necessarily a bad thing we need to make it more transparent and open and we need to think about where we can go work with open source technologies and especially we need to think about policies and regulations on who owns the data and what will be done with the data because in the end there will be always inequalities and in in a society and there will be always inequalities in the city but this needs to be made transparent and we should not believe that just because we use data all algorithms will find the best solution but we need to be able to hold and companies and the government you using this kind of data to account and then why if some people say that now the Internet of Things
um and this will be like the underlying system of any smart city will be like electricity and then we should certainly think about the question who is in charge of this new infrastructure and who was in control and and doesn't really serve free and open societies so and we hope you get engaged in the discussion about these issues yeah things such things


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