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Keynote VI - Harnessing the potential of geospatial technology & tools for poverty reduction

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Keynote VI - Harnessing the potential of geospatial technology & tools for poverty reduction
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Klaus Deininger (World Bank)
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the hell out of hi which OK we
already have a keynote number 6 so we are closely approaching the end of that conference
spots we have 2 more highlights 1 is closer to finding out from the World Bank and I think he will introduced to his talk anyway so I don't have to do you thank you very much at the
great pleasure to be here and to talk with such an enthusiastic about what I'm going to talk to talk a little bit about this if I can find the the most common things and it's
about how we might think of course I mean this is an entity OK
and so I think we at the blood bank our main goal of course is to reduce poverty and you're doing that through a variety of options which you may have heard about that me on the 1 hand and provided the portfolio of lending but also all analytical support and research and experience sharing and I'm actually in the research department and of course in order to do that effectively we need to know what the poor are and where they are located how to protect them and to their assets and how to encourage that they manage the sustainability and how to minimize exposure to shocks and disasters how to create economic opportunities and also chops in urban areas and give them a voice in these decentralized organ institutions I think all of these uh geospatial developments effect that fundamentally especially observation because I think you can also have them and that in countries can do when the warrants but they cannot treatment people came from above expanded computing power and talk computing and connectivity they can connect individual people and that I think it allows us to do these things than those of other things that were previously out of reach to some of this in a participatory way and be transparent about it so I'll
give you a couple of examples of how we do we go about that and what that means and very can collaborate having 1 of course is a house that poverty is about people but of course we need to know what are their through household surveys how much do they consume what is their incomes and assets held go educate the kids and what how the women fare relatively to men traditionally I think that has been done very laboriously through paper-based and lengthy processes now of course we can do that much more effective by having
company and the electronic data into data collection on tablets and everything in a much shorter period and I think also that change is completely the nature of the information that we can collect because we can at the same time also connected to the as they
can get the geospatial information on where the interviews take place there they
can monitor that in real time and
I can see the things in Washington but people are uh on in the field and we can identify what are then we can use a measure of water quality we can do anthropometric measures so as fertility and of course property which is key for the estimations all of this can be done much more effectively but of
course what we want to do it eventually is not only to count the poor people actually make them come and empower them and give them a basis to improve the livelihood and of course that means that important asset since most many of the the poor are in rural areas and the key of the asset is land it means determining rights rather than just the the counting and interestingly enough in many countries the legal basis has been established that our community-based processes that allow community mapping but of course because of the high cost of doing this on a paper-based system that is not digital it has been in the implementation has been extremely slow and that has been done it has been done in the rate has been considered given technology changes is completely because it allows to actually and monitor who participates it'll also proved to be participatory process put the documentation in the public domain up on the left uh identify help people identified the resources to make planning and provide the basis for additional investment but also importantly comply with legal requirements for example in India and the Forest Rights Act that was passed in 2006 uses Landsat imagery and all that goes back for 20 years to document whether the occupation requirement that for 20 years that was in the law as actually been met or not and of course that allows to completely and allows to speed up implementation significantly and I think the India for example has certified in the last 2 we use more than 3 million hectares of community land rights for forest management by local communities I think there's some of the process is sort of this should be a little bit faster here and it's what it
was like I what and for but I think so an I had just a couple of pictures that are showing that iteratively room and welcome to this so I think you can I can go it and I I think that ends OK end so I think that allows to link it to natural resources in terms of the actual boundaries that are being drawn by the villagers
themselves and of course the this can then be picked up also by the private sector and for that let me give an example from Brazil and they uh the forest called similarly has been in place and i think it requires that every property uh has between 20 and 80 % depending on the location on the forest but of course if you don't know where the property is located at the energy challenge that you can actually implement or monitor or whether this is this is the forest the requirement is actually uh done or not so clearly that couldn't be enforced so I think the 1st thing was to actually draw the property map that was the environment and and then link that to also Landsat based at that time in real time monitoring of deforestation risks films and of course since lands that is not precise enough but the advantage is that in areas of high school they had submitted system that the precluded that review of the government enforcement agency then visited the and the and the property owners and the 2 of them into the threatened them over lot of administered the necessary the punishment and of course that was then transferred to the private sector by identifying a black list of municipalities very many properties of compliance and both in terms of the belief and the solid podium the private sector is no using that as the basis for integrating that into a afforded determining their they buy and where they they determine that supply chains and that they have their supply chains and as that picture here shows that had to not taking place impact on deforestation that is the deforestation of about 3 million hectares year in 1996 and that also there was a peak in 2004 it is reduced to half a million us in the most recent years 2012 was being and I think much of that despite the fact that both sorry productions where production is a yellow line of planted area which is mostly in as an adult and the couple have also the increased significantly so clearly I think that was a much better utilization of existing users and of course that you can only do it if you can actually enforce you
a view of the regulations but of course unfortunately as some of you you sitting here may know many countries such as trees look like this but it is so that things are overlapping and so you don't have any clear into because people have found on the paper based system uh and that tightly and given the rights of people on time and over and over again so of course what you do in a situation like that you have a
problem and again you need to digitize and with digital solutions you can actually go about that in a much more effective way of analyzing the lobby this picture is from is an example where I think 10 years ago there has been 3 million in something spending a study on utilization of land and states that it is not applicable anything significant but now what we actually did this digitized all of the pieces which were about 60 thousand and to be overlaid that the thing in this case it was done this part imagery and to find out that a significant part of the and of course this is a significant line and the least feasible from the this for the government revenue and of course there is lack lack of productivity because many of these are not productively used and then they may be encroachment smallholders who then also do not invest and have fun and to do not use the land effectively so what we found is that about one-third of that was over and I think this is not insignificant believes that the police there is about 1 . community so about 20 % of the total national area of metabolic valence we look at this with the remote sensing they found that about half a million hectares is actually used and could be transferred to smallholders for intensifying the cultivation which is something that the government is not going and of course even if it's cultivated the productivity is always a relatively low low and the you know conducting field modification to see what these ideas states that you're doing and also discussing the government about options to actually establish land taxation and effective system for collecting these land leases just to see what we're
talking about here is 1 of these estates in more detail so to give you an illustration of
the area this 1 is about loss vectors and the other 500 and of course this is the from the image here there's not too
much happening and then this will mean that that always and what you see
here is the house and they pay somebody who got the property so that nobody encroaches on it and of course that means if you have some effective land taxation you could actually do
that much more effective could encourage more effective use of that land of course and the bond is rapidly urbanizing and again that is an area where geospatial technologies can help us immensely of course I don't have to tell you an 1 example that we have been working on recently is the Kigali organization this 1 is based on uh uh on analyzes digital image that was 2006 and to see that and uh very automatically as a justification the blue ones are residential neighborhoods the are informal neighborhoods just based on the density and they're also working on this picture there are no and no industrial bonds but uses
the same picture you 4 years later you see a significant expansion of residential neighborhoods and I think in that 1 you know and that is why the industrial complex that is that the that and so I think clearly that a lot of things going on very rapidly and unless you have that information you cannot really effectively plan as the local government and not
effectively use that and I think the let me a few times and you 1 example and that means that most of people and informality and the so I think giving them secure rights to their land is something very important in Tanzania and that a longitudinal experiment there via actually and of course that is 1 of the things that governments of having very very complex regulations of the source of the problem rather than the solution because the regulations are so complex increasing the transaction costs it makes it very difficult for people to actually document their rights but we can help them using modern technology including as so what we did in recent years the reduced the cost of a set of common good issuing the title from about 400 to 500 dollars 500 dollars to about 25 dollars which is in line with what even put people in informal settlements were able go really into and the did combine this with event is comparing their the especially mobilized the women in order to make sure that the people in the title and that had this very significant impact because but if I understood it a household survey that as well and what we found is that the compared to 20 per cent would have put the woman uh on the title without encouragement after had about 87 per cent and of course I think this
1 and of course for the government that is interesting because once you without having properties map to Canada to Texas but once you have them you can do that on based on the matrix then you can actually collect some revenue which people and begin to pay
if they get their have rights recognized uh let me just to show that this is actually possible in relatively quick based on that we just give you the example of where similar processes as the ones that I have illustrated for British land in India have been implemented and I think the pictures here where the event is contained in the field education where people demarcating the boundaries in the field based on the satellite images that you see there on the right and the uh property then the rights of of public good and public notice and the process of documents of process what they did is they lived in a period of support and talks about and half years based on the pilot medical because pilots they issued documents to about 11 . 4 million which is those country I think the totally registered about 3 and 10 2006 kilometer of courses as well a relatively small country and again this had a very significant impact on investment reading sustainable land management and cheese and other and investment was particularly high end up being the the attribute for female heads which means that female-headed households were under the traditional system more insecure they and those who had than men and I think 1 interesting aspect of that is also that would be found in all the pilot evolution is that for those who actually will not be limited and they had to leave it there was a slightly negative impact because the regulation was not supposed to put them in title and that was changed and that was also significant activation of land
markets but of course the benefits go well beyond the household because as I mentioned earlier it facilitated higher collection of property taxes I think we didn't have equal in the past that was based on self declaration of course now you have a complete property maps and the difference is about 5 . 9 million hectares have 4 9 million and you as well as you know that the the city only in Kigali not counting the outlying areas just from the from residential plots and of course that means that such a program is actually a relatively good investment also interestingly enough enough and people of there's a lot of debate on whether they're having secured rights can actually facilitate credit access at the phone based on administrative records and of course that is the advantage no because once you have a base layer of property information you can then link that not only the text search history but also give online and links to the banks to actually exist property right history so we can at any point in time to identify how many marketers there have been so I think in the US in 14 15 that about 50 thousand more marketers focal point 6 billion dollars so I think that is also not insignificant and of course this is relatively equally distributed throughout the
country and I think that clearly there is an important aspect here of interoperability because and and I think that some of of the working very strongly that having the base layers and there have been governments make sure that the space layers are in place but then ensuring that there are uh that the central bank is maintained by the government that can then be accessed both by the public sector and by private agents who can use that for their decisions and 2 that provides the basis for an average then actually per provide significant images and potential for value of it
of course in order to do that it is very important that there is the process is transparent and that these issues are properly monocot I think that the quality illustrated in the case of breast CT um therefore of what we are trying to do is to combine the level of the attention to detail in specific countries and projects with a global monitoring according that in about hour doing business data with numbers business program which is a very powerful tool to overcome political interests because of course the problem is and I didn't mention that earlier that in many cases these large is the concessions and large land holdings and seeing here uh are owned by some very powerful people so clearly you have to to provide an incentive for people to reform and that is something if you give a global ranking and show country that you actually not doing that well in terms of fewer neighbors that is a very powerful incentive and what we have delivered to looking at that in this context is the true goal is of the indicators related to reliability coverage and transparency and in the table below uh and about the of the of combining that with the focus on transparency in terms of public and State Land Management safeguards in case of expropriation effectiveness particular interoperability of his banks courts and land acquisition and also so the constants and because all from this there was significant events generated through excessively as stringent standards and of course what we have to do is to compute fit-for-purpose model as well as inclusion which is the recognition documentation of group rights as well as gender-segregated monitoring I think this 1 is something that's quite an actionable and that has generated a lot of demand and of course with and complement this with administrative data and those that have the advantage of being available in nearly time that can be connected to a close to 0 marginal cost and that can be used by Governments also pulmonic that higher level of granularity and to manage their programs and these can be of course publicized regularly in aggregated form and I think you all linking the 2 integrated as a MySpace customer feedback so that countries can figure quickly fix the problems before they become a huge issue as some of the features from that doing business illustrate that there's still a lot of work to be done because of what you see here is that I think this 1 both of these 2 problems are for the world and for sub-Saharan Africa so even in the main city you have only 22 per cent of countries in the globally and 4 per cent in sub-Saharan Africa that have most of the plots of register and uh some the little bit more haven't map but of these only 17 per cent of the records of digital and 44 per cent in the bond and 81 per cent in Sub-Saharan Africa and you still rely on paper maps than on digital Maps and of course that means in an environment where urbanization of over the the population is expected to w the next couple of years it is impossible to avoid men to properly plan to put the appeared infrastructure in and to make sure that services can be provided to these people at the low cost and in an effective manner that actually allows them to develop their livelihoods so clearly I I think there's a lot of action and a lot of of activity needed in order to make sure that these countries can actually you come into the digital age and utilize the advantage because as long as the on paper only I think they can actually make sure can build on
the advantages that that are coming about because of technologies such as the 1 discussed here and that implies that instead of digital dividends being available to these countries so that they can be broken and make the and immediately go into modern technologies that will actually be be left behind and that would be the digital divide that will be very difficult to approach so I think in order to make sure that we actually lead the teacher dividends instead of creating a divide it's a reaction is very important for us this tool ensuring interoperability and to bid governments on board and I think getting elements of what this book or something they're visually can help a little bit but I think clearly there's a very strong tendency both by government departments and by some private sector suppliers to create islands that can be linked to each other and I think we need to prevent that we need to make sure that Foundation and the telling us and standards of and not available to everybody and I think we have to have standards and I think the water standard that has been developed by what you see is a very good example to actually make sure that everybody from the same song sheet and you don't get this uh is the bits of the bits and pieces of information that can help properly other and of course because then once you have the foundational layers in that you can actually the light on crowdsourcing and then of course you also need to work on preaching the capacity gap because especially in Africa I think there's a lot of time and that's a lot of appeal in capacity needed but I think we found finding no interaction with institutions that's a lot of interest and openness to actually moves along that so I think we have a good opening their 2nd is to focus not only on pretty pictures back to link these pictures to rights because if I just have to and use these opportunities that are there and that of course also means that we go for fit for purpose of approach is rather than for so the accuracy or insistence on the instant in the formalization and that publicity is key and of course I think in doing so showing how that can actually help the private sector meet consumer standards and show that the they're sustainably sourcing from supply chains it's very important and I think not only the solution to be smart foreign but also the Roundtable on Sustainable or it is a good example for that and I think the 3rd point that is very important is to institutionalize transparency and involve citizens because the information without accountability of course can be a police state and can create oppression and to the and to the suppression of dissent so I think what and capture so they want to make sure that everybody has access to that information but we also developed a new delivery mechanisms that allow us to rise to the challenge and of course in that sense the enthusiasm and excitement this year and the technology things that have been discussed a very very encouraging and very much hope that in the future we can collaborate water because these skills that all of you here of course very important for the work that I have been straight and with that let me introduce small pitch and last year every the year and uh and organizing a conference on land and poverty and the next 1 is from March 22 24 and as you can see from this picture here we have a lot of sponsors that have a list of sponsors and partners you if not all of them are paying money but they also means the intellectual contributions are much more important than the monetary contributions but we hope that in the future hopefully we can have careful what she is 1 of the partners that as well so that we can currently see how we can address some of these challenges the name of the and thank you
very much I think another talk the challenge them I have 1 mother tongue the child's them but observation land information open data fits quite well together um to the audience you just ask me he's looking for organizers 1st conference so need outside you will be there for another few minutes and of course I have something for you so all I hope you get the promotion of all not leaving the registration rules and the only thing you have