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Keynote IV - An Earth Observation perspective on our Living Planet

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Keynote IV - An Earth Observation perspective on our Living Planet
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geOrchestra is the free, modular and secure Spatial Data Infrastructure software born in 2009 to meet the requirements of the INSPIRE directive in Europe. It is built on top of the latest stable versions of GeoServer and GeoNetwork. In this talk we will briefly present the geOrchestra SDI, before going through the major contributions during the previous year, to answer the following questions: * how the project moved from tainted to generic artifacts (war files, debian packages, docker images) * how to deploy a geOrchestra SDI instance in 10 minutes * how to build your robust, high performance and high availability SDI in the clouds

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I introduced you younger trees from the user interest cut in Italy and the stories we met 100 Copernicus conference last year in october and believe and afterward so I asked her whether she won't come up here and the 2nd part of the
story is when we finished through together so it's a pleasure the term can refer to free talk you very
much still things for everybody from joining in this talk what I'll try to do in the next 20 something minutes or so I'll try to give you an overview and always observation missions and uh and look at it back into the into the history and also to talk about some trends of the latest evolution as
observations so if we talk about friends um we all know it's there's there's a lot going on and this has recently in the in the last couple of decades we have an increasing population grows all of these people need to be fair all of these people want to have shelter I want to have a nice living all of us want that um and of course all of that demands that we have an increasing supply also of water or food of of nutrition of energy of all that that of course we're changing our planet we leading into a lot of climate change we we are increasingly exposed to disasters we just had a very bad example yesterday in in Italy with the earthquake and we also decreasing all biodiversity so there's a lot going on on the planet and on the other side we have all of these developments that are going on in terms of IT evolution Big Data as 1 of the topics and I'll talk about that a bit later this open and linked data best everybody has a mobile phone everybody has 1 mobile phone at least of some people of 2 plus you have your laptop and all that cloud computing and global connectivity so the world has shrunk basically so these 2 are the the global trends that we currently observing if we talk about
the uh Sustainable Development Goals and actually this is a very good place to talk about that you when it's just next the you encompasses next door to to this building here the UN has put forward for 2013 agenda for sustainable development and you see here with with chart some of the of the goals of what should be achieved in the in the coming 14 years so no poverty and this is this is basically a dream to come 0 hunger the don't want to read you through all these these items and those goals but there's plenty of goes out there and this is what the UN is striving for there's plenty of indicators trying to to capture this trying to do measure also these Development Goals and out of those many indicators this is about 1 so that we can measure that we can support users observation data with data from satellites and that
brings me to the role of the sun I'm working for the sad and in relation to the conference of the parties to the UN uh meeting that took place last December in Paris looking at climate change user is trying to support that by using us observation data and delivering data and that is basically part of our convention what is at the core of all business so to say is that the reduced space research and technology and also deliver space applications so just a few words and these are uh we have existing since more than 50 years with 22 member States I with existing in in a different sites all across Europe and all but it is quite considerable them with the 4 4 billion EUR per year so in terms now of of satellite observations that are there to support the UN based calls if you look at climate change there's actually a lot that has observation can do in terms of reporting in terms of also mitigation measures to to create public awareness and where that yesterday's through several talks there's plenty of data out there and there's plenty of information out there but to make people aware of publicly of the wide variety of the 1st observation data that that there this is still a challenge so if we
look at the 4 topics that you have chosen for forceful G and until mentioned them yesterday you have those 4 topics well tried to do with this give you a few examples on observation how we contribute to these different topics here let me start with them
with the main charge this is the chart showing the user developed as observation missions uh basically since since the start of the and we have 3 different lines the 1 on the top the orange line is the metrological satellite lines but eventually you can see that he basically plenty of orange the satellites aimed at metrological measurements we are building then we're launching them we're commissioning their meaning we we test that in someone's a fully working and then we hand them over to humans that to operating the satellites for metrological applications the 2nd line in the middle of the blue line is basically what you have said in the keynote talk from under their sliced talk yesterday morning if you were here to listen to that this is this is the companion program and these are the Sentinel missions these emissions that were developed for operational applications and you heard all about it yesterday i from 1 to the other so this is basically 1 of the main lines of operational missions and then there's a 3rd line that we are operating in use and that is the green line on the bottom we call them Earth explorers and those of us explore that basically looking at a very detailed very uh specialized scientific questions geomagnetic field and ice coverage soil moisture ocean salinity and running through some of these applications afterwards In total out of these 3 lines we're currently together with with have operating 16 different satellites and all of those satellites delivering the data free and open so as part of the conference that important no 1 is paying for these data that satellites have been funded through through public money through the Member States and data coming out of these missions are free of charge let's look at some applications I had yesterday maps of cool so let's start with the map a map a school this is actually a very cool that we started um that we developed that there was that was publicized 1st 2008 and then this 1 was an update in 2009 it is the result of almost 2 years of 1st observation data from the end is that satellite an instrument called Mary's with a 300 meter resolution there huge team composed of these of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission together with the FAO we looked at the data condensed these data analyze this data to produce a global land cover maps at 300 meters um and then this is map was given to experts think about 20 experts and they looked all across this the expense of regional experts looking at this map to validate if that matters really producing good results and it's really representing reality so this is 1 of the examples of global land mapping that we produce and actually inject like to invite you if you are interested to we are going to hold a conference next March Frascati in Italy that has the topic world cover 2017 that will basically look into the update of such land cover maps and probably interesting for many of you so please come register it's free of charge and to the website is if we look now and only 1 of those classes cultivated and managed areas and that brings me back to to that question of of sustainable development before feeding people here's
another example of 1 of our satellites it's called small which stands for some moisture and ocean salinity and so that mission is producing data as the name says on so moisture what you see in these 2 charges on the left hand side surface almost to and on the right hand side subsurface soil moisture as available from the WMO World if you compare that no to the
data that are coming from the satellite you see the granularity It's is much much larger you have much better spatial resolution if you take the satellite data and the satellite data are used then to support the monitoring of some moisture looking at drought in this case there was heavy Jordan in southern Africa in winter 20 16 and the satellite data are being used to forecast on the 1 hand drawn out on the other hand of cost and agricultural production
if you go 1 step further down very localized level this is uh and in individual field level where you see agricultural fields in different colors and this example shows you the use of sentinel 2 coming from the Copernicus program and its partner mission coming from the US on 8 you see and this is what we are as observation people like to do with what we like to create indices This is the leaf area index and you see the color scale on the right hand side and what we've done here is going to what's what the companies that has done here if combined the measurements from the 2 satellites and other unusual now a time series so we start off on the 24 hours of July then on the 31st of july circle back you already see the changes on the field level and this is at a resolution between 10 meter was sentinel to and certainly with land then we have our 1st sentinel to acquisition August 6 the appeals of changing again another sentinel to acquisition another 1 from Lancet on the 1st of september so if you
look at that time series data and each of those starts represents a satellite image was taken you see that the curve has a steep increase in the beginning and if you were asked to forecast say on that 1 day 190 of the year with the what the curve might look like in the coming days to come you probably have done the whatever the cows distribution would have done a curve that looks like that unfortunately in that period there was a drought also in the new Germany where that was taken so only by the additional measurements and by the dense time series that you had to move do excuse me and around the end of the day of the year was made of August when this chart cannot you were able able to actually measure this decrease in the leaf area index that you wouldn't have seen all wouldn't have assumed before so with the dense time series of the various satellites in and group bring we are able to to
measure these things another example all all great things another example here is again from the Copernicus program from 1 and that
is looking at a dry monitoring in the Mekong Delta what you see in this video that is running in the bag is showing you the different stages of rice grumbled so basically different maturity stages of of the crops with having their dense time series of sentinel 1 we're able to monitor what is to gross status and also make forecasts on what the what the harvest might be in the and in this particular case it was a very bad at coincidence he had caused by and then you again that was uh a child in that region plus also saltwater intrusion and about a million people were affected by the reduced harvest in that region and the damage was estimated at around 70 million for that is that is basically he is a very good example of where observation can help to give you a large-scale overview on the 1 hand the sufficient spatial detail on the other hand derived from these these precise maps here
another example on land here and that's where take you down to Rome where I'm where I'm working on this so that the stripes that you see in the middle east still the river the river Tiber and exactly here is the historic center of Rome all of these dots are representing permanent scatterers the center no 1 satellite today and in former times then that satellite looked at these the points that are not changing over time measuring that the reflectance of the rate of signal if you seeding green means the soil that the surface is stable if you see something and yellow orange red means the substance of the father sinking down what is quite surprising go back you say can see that in that part where the historic center is to basically see it's very stable that's clear has been built what 2 and a half thousand years ago so that is very manifest that that's very stable instead if you look further down the river and and in particular to the left and this is also where the airport is the whole ground is sinking the whole grant going down this plenty of new built up areas and this is what we can also measure and monitor the satellites and if you have a house there and the soil is sinking down and get cracks analysis that's maybe something you would really want to know what you want to measure brings us to the topic of earthquakes and disasters you've probably heard about the biggest quake that has hit Italy and in April 2009 UTC we have with plenty of villages were destroyed what you see in the back is in the interferogram again of radar data that have been used to work on show the surface displacement that took place but this was quick and as we speak the colleagues already looking at the satellite data that were acquired after this this offer was quite that happened to in the in the nite 2 days ago and that has killed 250 people submit employing and we're providing to at the rescue teams also the observation data very quickly after after disaster unfortunately no 1 come to this point forecast earthquakes with with the satellite data that use it helps for the rescue teams afterwards and also to find out more whether falls on the ground to that that have caused the Caesars quakes
another example trials that is all satellite that is looking at Ieast coverage and you see here the charts and in the background of the video and animation now How the Octopus uh Mies coverage changed over the years and what we can clearly see despite this effect there's lots of spikes and peaks and lower there is clearly a general trend that the eyes diminishing and is being reduced and that is what we measuring in terms of millions of square kilometers very precisely with this type of measurement the combining those
measurements from the prior submission with the center 1 mission here's an example showing uh no to this
animation 1st showing you the uh and glacier velocity in Greenland so away see dark blue this this there's hardly any movement that we see regularities and the purple color means that the glaciers of flowing with up to 10 meters per day which means basically that all the ice is going away from Greenland all freshwater going into the ocean and is in in those cases then also changing the salinity of the oceans this is what we can and what we are precisely measuring with with the satellite data
and we're not only doing this in the in the recent years but lucky and since we have about 40 years of archives also available we can go back in time look at the old satellite data you see here the case of 1978 with and we can see the the individual glacier retreat of the past 40 years or so 1 another example would
like to show you might be also interesting for you in the community here the same satellite cries out uh we had been processing the data based on point measurements basically at point of closest approach of the satellite we looked at the altimetry and then someone came up with a brand new idea with the new software and said look guys why don't we go and instead of processing it point by point we're processing it forced based in we need more computing power is a lot more data but we tried to do this and what you see in this little animation is basically the gain of of of spatial security see in in this this terrain height and innovation model so on the left side you see before and after we deployed this new this new software so he is also the p for you the satellite hasn't changed since satellite data so there's plenty of archives there look at these archives the data free of charge just by deploying and writing new software and taking the same data you might come up was really an absolutely increased security or even a new product another
example very starting in from sentinel to 1 that's coastal areas so if you look at at 1st glance problem I think this is out of space but the the indication there with the white board in the middle shows you that it's
actually and indeed the Baltic Sea it's notion and it's an algal bloom that took place last summer in the Baltic Sea it was leading to a lot of of on there on the beaches and a lot of toxic another blow to the beaches even had to be closed down in the Baltic Sea this
is also something we are able to measure with the satellite you
see all structures here
and you see how the both are cutting through which and we have 1 example from Chile in spring this year where the people that we work together with and she lived were
reporting to us that they were able based on the increasing although room they were able to walk on the local authorities saying Look guys that an alkyl group coming this might cause really severe effects unfortunately the authorities didn't do much with this warning so in the end what you see in that box there was that there was an incredible losses social-economic loss in terms of fisheries the the 24 million someone's diet um officials last agricultural sites were affected so here the chain unfortunately didn't work from deriving information warning the authorities taking measures but this is an example of a really in an increase in the in this end-to-end chain would be helpful 1 last
example I have and that's from all satellites um and yesterday there was 1 presentation the kind was sitting there he's not sitting there anymore he was basically saying the world is a hexagon he was a pro approximating the world of the example I can tell you it's not it's actually more resembling a potato and so this is basically from the view of the satellite from the go to satellite how all this looks because that is the GUE to create it based on the gravity measurements of that satellite it helps in
a lot of applications and 1 of these examples is the here the uh mortgages discontinuity giving us an indication of helping us better to understand the the the phenomena like earthquakes you see the crustal thickness here the measurements taken from the satellite have helped much to to increase the the precision of this this more and it was done in Italy by but the team and of OK
last point to cover the access Big data you have seen similar things yesterday from and is what I wanted to point out is if you look at the time scale between 1985 and looking forward a couple of years up to 2020 to we see that we are about to having a massive increase of the data volumes so if I look back when I did my my diploma thesis and actually did it at the University of Bonn and this is what I was working with and that is not a not even 20 years ago so my my diploma thesis was sitting on a floppy disk haven't seen that in many many years now and it was really have he had a heart disease that had the size of 130 mega right there was really a lot and many of the data that have been using have been system number both states that you see there if we go a couple of
years further and In the year when we launched our and is at satellite we basically brought out a new from the and it was worse worthwhile publishing you have to imagine that where we say and is that breaks the terabyte area so that was 3 months after launch we published use and we actually even explained in that article what a terabyte is because people probably are not used to that so this this is what we did and this is not even 15 years ago and then
today if you look at what the Sentinels are doing and providing today the Sentinels communicatively toward the end of the you will probably have 20 terrabytes a day of data coming from these from these satellites and their open and their free so you can access them free and this is really an incredible wealth of data but on the other hand that needs to be handled we
hope that the annuity boundary conditions will help us and again I'll take you back to roll this is 1 example of the changing boundary conditions and think this is saying at all since was going to Italy we had that there was the election of 2 popes first one was 2005 Pope Benedict and if you look at the
same 1 in in 2013 election of hope for instance and I mean no words are required this is basically the change the world that has happened in between and all of these points you can see on the left-hand side of basically all of the cell phones connectivity Big Data cloud computing and so on and so forth so what and that the debt to industry and in environment has clearly changed so in terms
of our data users and actually tilted reminds me of the the child that you've shown yesterday for your registration for the conference it it the late registrations exactly for us not not the latest Thracians but in increased so you see with the age of the Sentinels also that user utterance has drastically increased as compared to to work to the previous years
for you to to it under you might have already access the data if you want to access those data you need to go to the to web page sentinel Copernicus study you wake annexes all the Copernicus data all the non-conventional state defined at the other with 1st page the data have provides open an open source web interfaces you can reuse scripts you can set your own scripts to automatically retrieve the data we have plenty of toolboxes that allow you to do lots of image manipulation on those on those sentinel and also the data have server is available as open-source software can only invite you have a look check that out and go there we also have an examples where Powell on left standing outside so please also go and and visit the colleagues that if you have questions
so what are the next steps and these are my last 2 slides and we are of course in the in the view of of this changing environment and this observation we also have to look into new ways of analyzing data in new ways of doing research and turning them into information and I don't want to run you through all those blue bubbles around this is all the new steps that we would like to take and there's also the change in paradigm that we have to do on the Earth Observation side so the call for US I think we need to move those those communities closer together your community here our traditional as observation community to build that bridge jointly to really make use of all of those data 1 of
the things in a single we can skip that because under explained it yesterday we are looking
into a new concepts of bringing the users to the data so far we've been disseminating data to the user's everybody has processed locally on their computers the next step that we are trying to take and we are asking all Member States for for plenty of money to do that in December this year when we are asking them to subscribe to a new programs to to establish also expectation platforms in Europe for the
challenges for us in this observation and that is not only for use it is probably for anyone operating there's observation missions massively is of course the data and the data value it's also the continued We need to ensure that the measurements that we have started to take 10 or 20 years ago that we continue those data sharing is of course important data quality is absolutely crucial and necessary need to be sure that you measurement is correct before you give it to someone who takes a decision on on on on a political level so the data quality needs to be ensured while we do this and operationally continued the state of innovation is of course absolutely key we need to bring new ideas new research results in 2 hours observation when we talk about disasters timeliness is really key the synergy between different 1st observation missions can also be exploited better and on the other hand new missions have to be developed also for for unique new findings so this is our challenge for the next couple of years and uh this combined with the geospatial community with with with you guys this will really help to to improve the situation and make the best use out of state and for that
I thank you for your attention and things for the teacher great
combination of foreign key topics thank you for the uh and so I know move across country is the famous white wine regions but correct you will
try that 1 of the things that I think you