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Recording land tenure rights using GeoODK and Cadasta Platform

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Recording land tenure rights using GeoODK and Cadasta Platform
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Over 70 percent of land in Sub-Sahara Africa is not documented or included in the formal land administration systems, current requirements of land information systems has created a hindrance rather than facilitate security of land tenure. Cadasta Foundation is aiming to build “fit-for-purpose” land tools that focus on making it possible for communities, governments and non-governmental institutions to document land tenure rights, without the rigid requirement imposed by current land information systems, land tenure documenting procedures and physical boundary accuracy. “Fit-for-purpose” terminology was coined at a world bank conference, where stakeholders realized the need to come up with different approach when developing land administration systems. Cadasta platform is an open source project built on top of django. This fits well, on the requirements of a land information system that is flexibility, affordable and attainable for recording land rights. Cadasta platform extensive API and functionality allows it to be connected to GeoODK, which is essentially ODK with added functionality for mapping and spatial features. This makes GeoODK an ideal tool for participatory data collection, something that has been advocated for in “fit-for-purpose” approach to recording land rights information.
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the thanks very much and I will
appreciate everyone's patients as we work through some logistical issues have my Frankfurt shell with catastrophe on ondition or focused on property rights and how you might document the rights of those people left out of formal systems so with that i'm going to dive right in and I recognize that term most of you in the audience probably take property rights for granted and you know that the land you own is something the government will protect um that you can claim you're right and the free to trade your property or engage in an market activities but let's let's take a step back and imagine that um where we don't all for many of us live in Europe or North America or this functioning land administration systems exists and pretend were resident of an informal urban slums and this this isn't um and unreal proposition when you consider the fact that by the year 2020 there will be an estimated and the 1 . 4 billion slum-dwellers representing 1 in 7 people on the face of the earth and those most of these are in slum-dwellers and property rights are not something they enjoy and so what would you do if you didn't have property rights how would that affect your day-to-day life so I'm
just going to mention a couple of the ways this might might affect us
all the 1st and the 1 that is often most often mentioned is the whole idea of access to credit if you don't have a formal title deed lease rental agreement and how can you leverage this asset that firm for many people is the most valuable asset them and so the theory is that with the title you can buy sell trade now the reality for and urban slum or even a low value rural property is the banks really aren't interested in in collateralize in property worth a couple of thousand dollars that the cost of an eviction the cost of trying to and to repossess the property doesn't really make it worth that but that said it does provide lending institutions the confidence that you do in fact on the property and that they know where to find you in the event you default on the loan and maybe they'll just hold on to that title a deed you can't um buy-outs are solitary that the property of while you have haven't mortgage against it and
another thought is is your agricultural your business decisions so less people of course less relevant for the urban context but in a rural context where you going to invest in irrigation are you going to invest in long-term higher-value crops like hardwoods or are you going to focus on short-term gain gain an incident to the small businesses and are they going to invest in improving the property probably not let's think about home-improvement decisions if you're not confident the property will be years next week are you going to spend money on a new roof improving the chimney or putting down a concrete floor and again probably not and it's important to realize all 3 of those things directly contribute to to health and well-being and now the threat of eviction again without that confidence in your in your right to to to occupy the property here always in fear that the government might come along in a video that someone else might come forward claim to the property and and that again affects your day to day life the going to leave the property unoccupied probably not and that means that um if you say 0 to 2 breadwinner family someone has to remain on the property so 1 of the kids might not be getting an education because they need to be there to protect the property and potentially move things when the government comes through with elections when conflicts in emerging economies it's not all unusual defined that 50 to 70 per cent of court cases are around when conflict with no registry refer to and no real property rights records who usually 1 those conflicts those with the money to have to really fight them out in the courts and those with connections and that's to say nothing of that the macroeconomic effects um you'd be hard pressed to think of a major global conflict that didn't have a a land rights component to it and finally I'll get to infrastructure upgrades if you're slum-dwellers without confidence that the properties years you're a pretty weak position to advocate for improving the sanitation the electricity the water that access roads and if you do advocate for them and they put those and guess what there's probably more evictions and government compensation in emerging economies is um rare at best and finally your identity if you don't have a formal property that's register that is in your name you probably don't have a mailing address you probably don't have a real sense of of of ownership of belonging so it property rights is really a cross-cutting issue and when you think about it in that context it's going to affect development that are at large when really isn't a multidimensional resource
it's not just where you live but it's also a means of your production your basis of livelihoods how you're making your money and it can mean different things to different people but again when you think in the development context and how can an agricultural project or an infrastructure upgrading project or a finance project really go forward without looking at the property rights issue with all
that you may ask yourself why haven't there been more land problems to fix this the World Bank's active bilateral
and multilateral donors spending billions each year where is it going and yes there are some property rights projects in fact well over a billion dollars has been spent in the past 5 or 6 years if I remember correctly but that said the success in the track record for success is is relatively poor ask yourself why well format from our perspective it could ask the big part of it is they're going from the traditional top-down approach and there's a lack of of land specialists in a clock across the globe and if you look at a country like code of law I believe it has 25 to 30 Registered Surveyors and it takes a registered surveyor to do the catastrophe plan that's requirement for your formal title and compare that to Austria with 300 licensed surveyors at half the population 1 3rd of the of the area and uh an infrastructure that makes it easy to get around the country and code why you're going to find the surveyors clustered in 3 cities and to get anywhere is a two-day drive to get parts of the country um so that's compounded by the fact that the solutions for documenting information are often based on and urban colonial elite so might be a legacy left over from the colonial period
where you're requirements for accuracy makes sense for that value urban area but they really make sense for a rural area where the property values much lower and when you think about the cost to register property and there's the formal and an informal costs but getting that survey and surveyor out to Europe rural property probably doesn't cost that much more or less than it does here in Europe so you're talking about a cost that out of the reach for many of your smallholder farmers and then finally when you think about big land registry cadastral systems that cost millions of dollars to put in um in all honesty the track record of success for those is is pretty poor and they go and they work for a few years but then they start running into issues of the servers down we need to buy new server while the government has budgeted for new hardware and you might find that the staff you trained are not now all well trained IT specialists or they're going to go to the private sector so who's gonna find training of new staff and who's going to pay the maintenance of that software whether it's a proprietary system or are you paying for specialist we're open source software so the end result of this is a situation where a
vast majority of the world's population lacks formal property rights numbers ranging from 70 to 90 % of the globe is undocumented um let's just say 70 % it's clear that traditional approaches are working so
recognizing that government and the existing land professionals and can't keep up with this demand How might we address it and there's a couple of approaches that we're we we think about a contestant 1 is let's use appropriate technology and innovative approaches let's not rely on the traditional survey methodology and let's look at using a lower you have lower accuracy but lower cost UPS let's think about using satellite images and let's think about using smartphones that's in a lot of people's pockets and this might not get you the same level of accuracy than traditional surveyor would but it's pretty good and sometimes as what's with the the same perfect is the enemy of good and and when you've got a 70 to 80 per cent of the Earth's surface undocumented was just get a good 1st we can prevent later in fine would think about flexible software so software that and able to support unconventional approaches that's accessible maybe that's cloud-based and let's think about an open source tool and let's think about and Open Data so it could
ask that our focus is really looking at how we can
document the rights of those people left out of a formal system and post that data on a on a secure platform is is accessible and can be managed by the user end users and this really kind of comes
back to my experience working with the formal sector and input this top-down
government systems and seeing that they aren't always but is proving to be sustainable so let's put that model on its head and and work from the bottom up and so they they could ask the platform you know we we looked at a lot of these standards in land administration there's a very formal land administration domain model and there's a subset the social tenure domain model it's and much more relevant for for us and but then we also started talking to partners in realizing that a lot of them were collecting property rights data but with along with you but with other datasets so they might have been interested in uh household surveys and slum upgrading so property rights the component but they needed the flexibility to add on other datasets that they're collecting and so that could be of various types of rights not just your ownership release holds your customary or grazing rights are hunting rights and how's that data being document it could be interviews and could be videos pictures all of this can go up to the platform and and
adding to that body of evidence regarding your property rights and
you know we spent a lot of time speaking their partners when we were
designing a platform and so 1 of the big things was flexibility in and how the
data collection is is done but also they kept saying we need satellite imagery or no were using Google Earth and posting our data z OK and to which well depends on your degree of sensitivity and 1 person that data to Google and and if you want satellite imagery did say it it's so complex they're asking me questions about orthorectification and and whether it's author author rectified and we don't know what to do and they told us we could access it but we gotta get on FTP site to download it and we can do that from Burkina and by the way we don't have a credit card how are we going to get the symmetry so really revealed itself to be core for a lot of our partners and so with that
with our platform we stream imagery using using the DigitalGlobe API so partners in the field can can use that inventory directly and for some that's the 1st step in documenting property rights and with half meter or 1 meter to meter imagery fairly stable to get general boundaries that again can be improved upon it's an incremental process as with
the colossal of platform it's also important for people to manage their own data you know we don't want to be the ones uh involved with every in implementation and our users can set their own access rights who can do what with the system and what data is accessible and viewable by by the world at large and what is not an and really manage their own security sets settings for us that was a bit of a challenge because we're very much for Open Data and land information but we recognize that for many people putting this data in the public domain can actually put them at risk and so it's up to users to set the that the level of openness the word is
catastrophe and really it's about 2 things 1 providing the technology to document the rights and but to providing open datasets where they do exist online information and while that in many places might be here your title year Didier could astral layer and it could also be things like the concession where we did an analysis of concessions and 1 it was in the Philippines last year and found that and only about 50 % could really be defined where the concession actually was and within those 50 % overlaps and there were discrepancies there were gaps some concessions were completely in the water which didn't make sense for the type of concession it was and so if if you know specialists can't uh decoding these concession agreements what no rural inhabitants 1st it's supposed to do when they find out the bulldozers are moving into the property and saying they've got a concession for mining or for for pomalo whatever it might be so displaying that open data is quite important for so we see that
we seem to have lost some words there but in any case periodic Odessa platforms and and our focus is really not on the tools to bring in the data and whether that's mobile applications whether it's using drones whether traditional systems whether it's paper documents are focus is really on working with the partners and their beneficiaries and getting the data to the platform and
the part of our thinking behind this was recognizing that there good tools out there for data collection and we don't want to spend time and money on new technology when they're good solutions out there I'll skip
through this given time but 1
of the 1st mentioned is open Datakit NGO Open Data kid great data collection application has I think a hundred and thousand downloads magic couple months ago and then GOOD K which can that's a bit more of a spatial component it already has the open source community around it it doesn't require us to build 1 that it fits our needs for for the data collection and you can sink directly your data collected in OTK or GOOD K and posted directly into the platform
another 1 we work with this field papers on worked with field papers here and it's kind of common within the OpenStreetMap community but it's a paper based approach to documenting rights different out a maps got field you take notes on top of it you take a picture and what's interesting is that you are barcode in the corner of that paper maps your references so you bring it right back into the platform and you can sketch on top of it and now you've got some boundaries really embracing that fit for purpose model of using technology that paper-based cheap accessible and and finally you
use a handheld GPS combined with a paper questionnaire digitize wrapped boundaries using satellite images if you prefer so over the past couple of
months we've had a couple of interesting programs documenting rights and in Kosovo using GOOD K and drone imagery and you know it's really nice looking at 2 centimeter imagery sitting with the property inhabitants and really being able to pick out corner points and sped up the traditional process of using your and survey technology and working
with the Marty we've fair collaborated with a couple of groups in Kenya to innocent different use cases in terms of customary rights pastoralist groups and range of data collection whether sketching on injury using using field papers or using GOOD kept over the coming months will
be building out part partner pipeline and improving the platform the next big 1 is a cue just call again and finally adding custom base maps data imports improving the documentation so we can really more directly interface with those other applications out there for data collection thank you all the
jury much are there any questions questions was the first one nobody
except that and then and then let it sink EDS flag NL abilities that you have to with Absolon of the main things is outputs so producing community maps and then being able to manipulate them um just given a higher degree of know a more robust to tool set with and you just to being able to take the data to the platform directly into Q just working in for I think he found documenting will land rights is just a 1st step how do you do you do that a and C German off the land rights have you at all like looked at the blockchain technology in that context sure and we use that spent quite a bit of time looking at blockchain actually and and while uh I come down on the side of thinking it's probably appropriate and more and better secure of more advanced uh held land information system where you know that incremental greater degree of security that is really matters in places where documenting rights in the 1st instance instance is the biggest priority it's less but less of importance to us that I could see where hashing yeah the basic aspects of dative augmented by of 1 it's recorded might make sense and so this point we are integrating the blockchain but it's something we're considering for the future no further questions then I we think very much representation we had just in time perfect