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When politics meet maps there is no right

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When politics meet maps there is no right
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A light hearted look at how digital maps have changed the way that we represent political boundary disputes. At any point in time there are over 200 political boundary disputes. How they are represented on digital maps is in itself highly politicised. This talk will explore: - changes from paper to digital - the politics of digital mapping - the wisdom of the crowd - how some recent disputes have been resolved - possible models of resolution for digital mappers
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do not hold but manipulated His years so he's all known well he has been the owners of office for diesel uh me and he's been in the force which uses a wild so busily comes the 4
the class you may be walking and discussed in the 1st thing is if you're looking for technology if you're looking for kind to stand up and going error because this is just maps OK unintelligible OK so what I'm trying to what I wanna do is I want to explore the way that we represent all maps political borders disputes and what I was really interested in was what changes as we've gone through all paper mache which we've had for hundreds maybe thousands of years to going on to digital maps and particularly what happens when those maps or on the Web as opposed to in a printed out so that's what this story is going to be about and this is an ancient map of Europe but it's 1 of those maps which shows Europe was a queen it's interesting that Africa is similar to the North West of Europe and giving it lots of maps so a bit of
a played will build on other people's work that's what open does so the open source bit is by like this on the work all of what
a guy called the Cinderella
what and why it keeps disappearing and it's morale already this really good paper but if you're interested in this subject you should go and read this paper if you've already read the paper I don't have a coffee because of the loads of the unit cell 1 that's were only available on paper there was a slow process of change to reflect political reality and the claims of different states to territory today Digital mapping has changed everything or maybe hasn't and what we're going to explore is whether digital mapping has really changed very much and it has how does that work so the
question we're asking today is has the transition to digital maps made any difference to the way cartographers represent boundary disputes set a little bit about politics and cartographer cartographers and not recording some form of objective reality their recall when they recall borders their recording and an assertion and as Meryl says so maps which differ legal borders and never objective or least not in any independently verifiable scientific use of the word is important to understand that all as I put it more crudely borders
can't engraved on the ground I know you think that rivers are hot borders but did you know that rivers moved did you notice that if the border between 2 countries is along the river and that river movement you've got a potential dispute between over the land that's now enclosed will not enclosed by the river yeah is political border runs through a mountain range anything mountain ranges effects in economy and but it was following with both series said the land and down at sea level by the side of the mountain is Alice nobody worried about the land going up the mountain who knows where the border is across the top of a mountain region actually going to show you an example of that in a minute so it's just important to recognize that these are man-made constructs and patterns have always shown borders on maps and you might think that we will always have borders but we haven't done before the rise of nation-states there were no borders on maps and so look at this this is an english example it's 15 35 it's a that was made for Henry the
8th what you see here is if you know roughly the geography of England this is why else right and what you see there is no borders at this is Scotland and you can sort of sense it's different but there's no border shown here right it didn't matter we knew that was Scotland but it wasn't part of England and Wales ones Henry the 8th became king was part of his principality there was no border on and there will hit by news it's called there is a different country and you can see it as different so you they want those hold lines that we used to but let's go to the most famous atlas of the lot but 1st atlas of the world that we know applicators maps you've got mountains you got ribbons you've got no borders right that's 1569 McKay to publishes this map no borders the 1st borders that we know about the coming just at the beginning of the 19th century and of the 17th century the 18th century and you can see here the borders of starting to appear on this matter and so and that coincides with the consolidation of city-states intonation states throughout Europe and what is are very much a european thing originally they only exist in Europe in the late 18th and 19th centuries before that there were no such thing so let's have a look at the border dispute this
is not a block uh um I want to tell you the story of mobile phone quickly the In the from the
15th to to the 18th century moblog was part of the due to the Duchy of Savoy and the Duke of Savoy acquired Sardinia in 17 23 sum and substance hearing a leading force in the Italian unification consequently Savoy became part of Italy because he had moved he he started in Savoy acquires boys sold in here I mean this is great you know people blowing states then suddenly becomes part of Italy and he decides that he's mates of like of if we now also voiced part of if we have a cold right from French Revolution 1792 the army seizes voice 1796 Sardinia seats avoid niece back to France so NASA voice and a part of France again here's the border shown on in 1832 map of the key and it shows so this year is down here is out there but the and that was and agreed summit that had a summit and they agreed that the border between the 2 countries would run through the peak of the mobile and that map is an x to the 1860 treaty that was agreed between Italy and France up after the 2nd Italian Wall this is the French map in 1865 drawn all my blog and you can't see it clearly so that people here there is the border when when all of a sudden foxes pushed it right the way down here into Italy and then
almost at the same time in 1860 knowing it tends remain on the borders of here right right and drawing these maps but virtually the same time and just to make it a little bit clearer there are the 3 different borderlines I know that the maps at different scales and everything this isn't part of the I use that the peak of more Blanca's the point just so you could get an idea I mean I'm not saying I've got it exactly you can see people drawing completely different maps of the disputed region at the same time all relatively safe and that was possible because these a paper maps they have a limited distribution they were produced by state actors and yet you produced a map that was that was matched your assertion that some look at another 1 is this the Persian Gulf or is it the Arabian Gulf well perhaps to this audience who are I think predominantly European all western it really doesn't matter you know what the heck difference actually she out there it makes 1 shipment under different let me tell you where we
are fading 43 this is a very very early map of the region up here I don't know whether you can see it produces Persico mark of which means the Persians C and this it is and this is the around the room or Arabic Amari there you consider so they'll separate things the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf right jump forward 2 1548 and that's the Golfo de Persia right and that's this atlas this maps some an Italian map and is 1 of the 1st modern mn alternation maps of the area just a few years later and he is a man and was the it's the Arabian Sea that um in fact is called the see of catchy from so it will use different maps
17 hundred Mário cavity which is the the city of Al-Quds chief so that its has therefore formally the Persian so it's actually you can see this name is changing and but it's almost the same time here you've got is the Gulf of passion on my favorite of this and it's just showing how this is being and the reason they're looking about this is because that's publisher which we now call around and this is on the Arabian states and the gulf is between the 2 and they're arguing I mean just if it's not obvious that been arguing here these guys have been arguing 1st 15 hundred years about whether this is Arabian or Persian and the location that you get very excited about these things and do nasty things to each other and this last 1 and I love this 1 this is taken from so when I
also people on Twitter I got from normal help from people suggesting things as somebody sent me this map which they believe comes from our society Arabian atlas we've dated to between 1948 and 1967 looking explain how we worked it out but we know it's in that time zones right what you can see here it is that did a Persian Gulf it was printed Persian Gulf and I don't know and you can see on this plot but is now being handwritten over to say Arabian Gulf and then published in the Atlas and so yeah they're still fighting over so what I want to just use
that on paper
alternative realities can coexist right have and 1 of the 1st attempt to create a consistent set of world maps with something
called the International map of the world I don't know whether you've heard of this it's a late 19th century early 20th century and there to produce relatively high resolution paper maps of the whole world there is about a thousand they produced about a thousand of 2 and a half thousand planned matching and what you get is the introduction of dotted lines right and we all know now now what the dotted line means a dotted line means this
is a disputed border but the 1st ones came out in the 19th century when they recognize that if you're producing a global set of map sheets you had to recognize that there would be different perceptions of what was a border so that's 1 of the 1st examples of that and that leads
me into the thing that you may know which is the Digital Chart of the world which is In some ways the forerunner to every world web map that we have now you the very early days was digital child of the world it was it was US military mapping
low-gradient military mapping that was put into public domain it formed the basis for many of the the early uh AND tally atlas maps that became used on the web and it had a set of boundaries and it was the 1st time that we had a digital world maps because when you've got the Google and the various other players starting to produce their mapping applications they wanted consistent mapping across the world they were mainly concerned with streets the cost when you zoom down you needed to show when you move from France to Germany and all of these things so they needed borders and they came from these kind of products and that's where the problem started because now people on either side of the border a saying the same or 1 of the very fast so
there being loads of examples and they started with what's called the Google Maps what I mean I have to really go fast and Nicaragua and Costa Rica are separated by a border that's a river the revenue moves Google doesn't move the border Nicaragua invades Costa Rica because it says this is our territory it says so on Google Maps Google
freak out because they're not meant to be a cartographer who's making these decisions say it's not us so that was
the 1st to go much more at started something called art agnostic cartographers agnostic cartography of people
who make maps without making any assertion as to call it the disputes go on maps I've got Google it developed this technique all this process which has set out there you only to find in rush through it but they have a process trying to work out how to resolve these disputes and the key thing is that they use something called primary local usage so if you call this place country and it doesn't matter what the government the country B says if all the people who live there call country at Google says it's probably country the thing about digital maps is you can have multiple versions of the digital truth right and they can be different so in India for example you'll
get 10 million the dollar falling if you show the wrong maps you know and it just got disputes with about all sorts of areas and and can fill pointed out that when on you customs declaration actually tells you if the most serious thing that you can do that and
then more in Poland dropped so this is cashmere right that's what you see is a border from India this is cashmere from outside and you see you see all these dotted lines bring them both together and you just get 1 thing right Galician to completely different maps to 2 different people good in his also got a bit of a problem with China so this is the Indian version of its most northeast border with China that's the view from outside India and you can see how the 2 combined so yet what Google's now doing is it's not saying this is the border or that's the borders if you're here it's this if you there it might be that we are not making any claims 1 mole is
Crimea and prize for anybody here who knows what that stands up at the top on the read it out for
you and this is the Crimean border shown from Russia and just to the data that brings up it's a whole border because that Ukraine that's Crimea it's not Russia if you look at it in Russia Crimea is not part of the Ukraine if you look at it from anywhere else side and with instant boats and it doesn't have much but there's just a very faint dotted line there because the rest of the world we're still maintaining the Crimea is part of Ukraine Google stays out of these things like this 1 is a great 1 which is going on and what
happened was that
Guyana in his from this part of the north of guy on which is disputed by Venezuela right so that is where this is being there's for hundreds of years on the says no it's not we're an independent country
down names it's straight streets in English for some reason Venezuela names in Spanish on google for some reason no one's ever explained why good shows this coastal road at the northeast in Spanish here it shows all OpenStreetMap for example when local people show giving the resonance in English but openstreetmap has a
different dispute resolution lovers and it's all around on the ground and you have to read it cause I could do to foster
last 1 I'm OK I'll just get to the Jerusalem and this probably the more disputed city in the world Jerusalem that I'm not make any comment on the claims of everybody for except to say that is being the most massive edit war about what you call the city and if you look here of history that lets you create all the tags that you want so you got names in English names and German names in Arabic when you got all these names and you've got an official name and you've got a another name in novanet and actually 1 stage the city centroid which is what will appear the late the name label is all when you zoom out the name was being changed and want right you know because
the the Palestinian nappers recording at 1 thing and saying it was in Palestine the Israeli matters recalling the Jerusalem in Israel and we're just going on in India the end OpenStreetMap blocked it down
they said we call let this go on and they said that it would have no nothing until everybody had agreed on what they could call a so the city centroid has no but I specialist maps can render any of the other name tags they choose to 9 but that's a choice that you make and they said that I they won't put a name tag back along until there is an agreement but and set and that she did that for Jerusalem the West Jerusalem name points as well so there's no favoritism so the question is what's changed and in my view
States still seek to impose their own version of the truth and to 1 half a minute or 2 of agnostic in cartographers present alternative views to a global audience they're trying to apply process rather than just listen to the people shout the
loudest and this
stuff happens almost instantly so when there is a dispute over the Crimean thing happened within hours of the invasion almost well
it's very 1 single different definitive version of the truth loss of their
200 of these disputes of the moment of this is going to go on for a heck of a long time things what
talk there any questions right it was that
there were there are students who question and I think is easier I'm just use the you know of any arm the contemporary disputes in many in Western Europe of the 0 yes um during middle of gone coming monotonic so there are a lot there are a lot my thing Denmark has that I've got I've got but Google talk I created which lists them there's a wikipedia site that you can go to if you look for political border disputes on Wikipedia you'll find it but but yes there are there are many in Europe and some of them are very standing the oldest border disputes and I don't call remember which 1 it is is 600 years old the average length of a dispute from start to resolution is running at about 90 years yeah I'll give you the link afterwards if you did it that there is a difference between disputes and things that I left unresolved the let's say by agreement and they did not do the Belgian-Dutch border Arab environment as about active is an example of that way they they they they couldn't figure it out all 150 years ago and he said well we'll leave it like that it's OK and then and the Dodge was the 1 who submitted the door between Germany and the Netherlands that we think and there is wrong official place where you can actually have disputes this is central to which is the International Court of Justice and they they sort of the major disputes if both parties asked for a for it is basically a court case I have been derived doing mapping for them up and it's it's it's it's very funny and you can't I can talk about any details of course that that the sun is that in both parties agree with we're going to solve this and they both say this is our solution and asked a judge priest still which of the solution of where what solution using here the emphasis is that both parties agree like and that means that both parties are actually going to resolve the issue through some objective reality and maybe some Geoscience and maybe some political science most of these disputes it's historic assertions that overlap each other and in fact the Nicaragua Costa Rica that we use the ad that it's 1 that is currently in the United Nations Command I is being resolved through geophysical science and understanding what happens when rivers movements the flood plain around the river and all of that kind of stuff and I mean it but it's it's physical sciences being used to resolve that and it's unusual that they both agreed the to that method of resolutions the good news is a great example of that so the other 1 I was start by using the reverse change that actually people change reference because they're so if you get out of it well in that particular case they tried everything to flow by ligating general did they don't build devoid people did that exactly how this more yet there there's no questions but it's just so it's time to switch the room if you will