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Physical computing with Python and Raspberry Pi

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Physical computing with Python and Raspberry Pi
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Ben Nuttall - Physical computing with Python and Raspberry Pi With the Raspberry Pi, it's easy to do physical computing directly from Python code - rather than usual embedded hardware engineering in C or Assembler. In this talk I'll show examples of physical computing projects that use Python on Raspberry Pi and demonstrate the sort of code used in such projects. Physical computing with Python is very popular in education - as it's so engaging, and more interesting than printing to the screen. This will be an informative session with learning possibilities to give those new to physical computing a change to get started.
Keywords EuroPython Conference EP 2015 EuroPython 2015
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it occurs morning everyone welcome great to be back your Python but this little physical using with Python and res replying money's penicillin from the rest reply foundation that we we got a series of talks to those who just
had carry ons opening keynote and we've got a few talks lined up in this track place to education I and the education summit this uh expensive this weekend as well we've got certain sprints in education stuff trying crack with their carrions list which is given data so that the army to stop and managing education Developer Advocate at the reservoir foundation but the software in and projects that had developed stuff in internally and do some I write learning resources the go on a website the free and creative commons so a learning platform we have and we went teacher training courses with cynical pi academy I do a lot of outreach goes conferences and and stuff with based in in Cambridge in the UK and Twitter band muscle and think if you were uh Europe was in UK this applicant island or you're sci-fi last year you may have seen in the so just a quick
basis since since I was there last year and the new users that really relates to hardware we've we've never the rest of the reservoir to 2nd generation has replied as known and quad-core on the 7 with a gig of RAM is compatible in exactly the same shape and size of the previous model would be plus we kept the same price at which is 35 dollars and reduce the old ones down to 25 minute is 20 so we on
educational charity care and that just been talking about and it's not something that can came after was our bolted onto a computer company or hardware company in the the idea was originally to help education that's why we 106 creates something you to empower young people in and give them a possibility to let programming skills and learn about computing the Minnelli H in a class sandbox environment but the been on general sale since 2012 and at that that be made available worldwide to everybody wants 1 for the same price were not limiting this to at to just children or just the developing world that's the same price for everyone because really really helpful to have a call community around the rest reply now give some examples that we write free learning resources for makers and educators and others say we have this by Academy teacher-training CBT professional development costs are currently in the UK over a few around the UK and we take into the USA next year and we'd like to see small things like that around the world so a
couple of stories to stop that have about our community in about an hour origins and how and how things developed in the last 3 years Ben cross there's a guy in the UK Bruce beer and he was user rights applied to control the bit bring processing kind of monster it from his phone have a web that running in that kind of thing chose rose and chose Python divided and so he started to develop a platform which allowed him to communicate over the GPI opens explain more of those and the next few slides and and project became you know kind of outputs a library that it became a general purpose library for all that's how you talk to the Dubai opinions from Python and other
example Dave Jones um also in the UK his wife a paleontologist and she wanted to use a microscope to to do some uh fossil photography and that kind of thing and he he's but the problem with this was that the university's microscope was a real polarity using it sort of sort stored it to an external drive somewhere else on the network had to then get permission to access and it was a real real pain so he creates sadistic apply camera on the top and then you get the picture straight down built to use and so we build a little went out whether and that I wanted to kind of monitoring deal with all the pictures that came out it and all kinds of again this became the general-purpose pi pi camera library that is a fantastic resource um the people's anyone he wants to use a camera for anything and he's been working on it since went and told the reason exact talk about this in all of my talk so as I said all by the way I I always use you as an example of that went talking about community of conferences and about how you you created the the way that for free Wi-Fi and and said on did is always starts at all I want to finish the so
recipe and this is our elements distribution that we use as a foundation issued Debian-based distribution that currently based on Debian wheezy as Jesse has now become a stable so where would you moving to that shortly the image that we provide support supplied to you and apply 1 even though they're different architectures on 6 and 7 um but we we make sure that we still support world of users on the old all platform we we principles and software on on my image so that you get the Python interpreter you get tidal and and a bunch of other stuff is really on the site Java Mathematica and supply that we can put in the imaging created so you can use it as of the box uh we have at other things as well but con community uh contributed to the GPi library apply common library for instance or and our example examples of what's already installed and once we move on to to Jesse reload easier for us to ship with pitch preinstalled this there's also
civil distributions available so to now run on the 7 also works but and there'll ones like archlinux but we we support and are asking ourselves and maintain than ourselves and all educational all for educational and generally general-purpose use we recommend resting you get from as reply . org so that you guys
OK so this this bank along the top there we refer to as the G Girobank and strictly speaking on a normal general purpose the called the GPI general-purpose Input Output strictly speaking and oral general-purpose so you see this little and this is well accessories made accuracies full of cool cool stuff like this that people create and put on sale in this whole business around this have but this this is a little pin diagram you to stick up over the top of the depends to tell you which which panels which so you can see here this some 3 Balkans and survive 5 Balkans so ground plans and and the sponsor GP and they have numbers so the GP 19 is a general-purpose 10 19 and those ones you can you can control you can have inputs or outputs listening for imports all sending outputs you know why things up to those 2 to do physical computing
analog so there's no native analog pins on on the digital pains so ones and zeros and that there are options and if you wanna use I inputs with with res reply so you can use an ADC to convert that analog into digital and this 1st Arduino lot boards available and there's also apply serial but the Python modules for talking to reading adrenal pins over USB so some look at the end the Alpine GPI library services including recipe and the implementation is in C have features are you've got a you you configure pens as the give a pin number you say you define that tend to be an input or an output and then you can change in your script but you can read the inputs so you say is this is this 1 high or low in just get the value of it and you can send output so you you you can say turn this panel if it's if it's an apple pie there is also a feature article weight-for-age so an edges when something changes from from high to low low to high and you can you can have some to a script that sort of pauses and waits for something to change a light weight for the bond to be processed and then continue and as event detection with call back so you can run a function on the events of something happening like a sensor going off for bonding pressed so what kind of this is kind of fundamentals everything you might need in such a program so
just a quick example we've got some stuff on a breadboard here we have a a circuit connecting putting 3 volts through analogy and through resistance to limit the current then we have a going back to ground so just completes the circuit this guy has been lost a little bits of basic electronics that can help you with the source of projects I don't know what awful lot about this but just just enough to get by and this is just the kind of a complete circuit with an LED in and through 23 balls through that against when current was limited through the resistor just means that it is always on so this I can't I can't change this in my program is just connected to always be on positioning free 3 if I moved out from the 3 the 3 10 to GPI at 2 then I can write programs which turns continue on turns into all so this is 1 of the code would look like so we input the juvenile library with 7 nodes His annoyingly 2 numbering systems for the pennies because you know 1 isn't enough so we set motor BCM which is
1 of the the actual numbers that they are according to the chair so the GPT ├╝bertragen if or 3
7 and tell which mostly using and with uneasy variable here just just to say where which depend on using which which can represent the early days I said so that pin as an output and then just a little bit just goes turn it on sleep turn it off sleep in only semesters flashing the LED on this is really empowering further especially the young people offer over anyone instead of just having something saying print hello world or frying range temporal by this is something flashing some in the real world something physical this is another example a
simple circuit where we've got uh a person going from Japan 17 3 to ground to discover complete circuit there we can listen on 10 17 and wait for that but
impressed is what the code that look like but in this case a actually using the PPI camera library so that the person is going to trigger the the the camera to take a picture this is just the set up so we have our set course is in 17 sector in 17 as an input and this is the pull and this is the that's wrong actually that should be and as you pull up or down so so this is to be set up without which 1 was going to be an and here should be energy value call pull pull pull them and this is his an electronics a better and actually electronics which determines whether floating value at additional input is you kind of send it to high or low and then you wait for it to you fall if you if you pull it up by means is being pressed but if you if you pull it down you wait for it to rise but it is instead so here we and then the following answer that's a sense of the following on we have with with the with the camera so with an instance of a camera bicameral object we start the preview which means you see what camera sees in real time and then we have a loop which just would save wait for that going to be pressed wait for that whole 1st I would have put it up on the previous previous and then it just sits and waits for that want to be pressed on 17 remember this is 70 wait for that to be aggressive then continue to would going to this line and capture frames and then it is right around implementing the frame number which was going to stay here and then I this is 1 of the lottery where you could have something to to catch that to to exit like a 2nd Boston or just a keyboard interrupt
and another example here we've got this is for GPI music box so instead of worrying about just 1 bottom we were to as we have 2 bonds with the 1 there to 1 the Institute I 3 then a train and use an
event detector on the bulletin looking for a falling edge as I political the call back is the functions are defined as place bounds time which means that how how long it takes the whole it takes before it let's another event come a thousand milliseconds so 1 set so I'd have a function here that called play which are defined as Michael call back and then on doing here is saying when when this this is when this is called it passes in the pin number that actually triggered the event into the function I look up which which in here I get this is applied game sound object and then I can just go sound the place so I know which pen was press 2 or 3 according to which 1 as I do this on I would do this on both both persons and then look which sounds place and really simple straightforward example of using events from multiple button presses and doing different things according to different inputs
as great for these kind of types of projects which are really counts small and simple but really really empowering and really uh can be really interesting the public can junket but just just a collection of little bits really useful but for lots of these types of projects this is kid 1 which has a breadboard some Boston's lights and resistance wise and this is Kitty which is has a lot of sentences that passive infrared sensors he knew that is in motion detector as personalities positive and some of the bits in breadboard and these really cheap so these these costs 5 pounds and this this 1 caused by this 1 7 pounds juridique out of pocket money and they come with a bunch of resources that you can follow along and these are just put together by of 1 of these recipe jam the community events in partnership with 1 of the the rest replied community 3 and resellers an accessory sells they just got together to make this really cheap and try to try to put it out there that for for more people to get involved in the sort of thing once the
was arrested came out there was a lot of firms a lot add-on boards and accessories and have been brought out this is 1 of the 1st ones were the ones biographical purity is actually 1 of the chief architects of the company made the chip that we use a very knowledgeable of resident by and his in teaching solar while I'm wearing you know hats we made port called the go board but which is you know he's an engineer and he thinks this is this is exactly what people need this is an amazing border gives you loads more potential to to get out your reply and all this stuff on it and not technically right that's really cool broaden it that can potentially do all these things but is providing software for it and you probably just put you know the SSE a C program which you know you can use for for this for this new and an unknown number and barriers to this was that it initially it came pre that once sold it so you advise a kid like that you have to solve recall the entire board and then there was no software examples really to use it the lot of people have get turned off by that sort of thing is that they wanna get there wanna get going and something that kind of progressively through kind good examples so
this 1 is so as a unique young lad actually was about 70 money when he created this call Ryan and there's a lot of gold and they just as 1 thing really well it's just a little note of motor control board so you can drive motors the news in robotics I didn't provide any software for this body no no bespoke software that shows you how you can use the Dubai library to drive the pins forward so you can like you know which is which the which can it's connected to to save and 17 is that you know the the last of forward or 18 is the right amount of back then you you got enough to go in and use right low bit of code is similar to the examples I showed you earlier just tenpins off for a certain amount of time it will drive forward spin around or whatever it is suggested be just comical in a nice nice learning like nice not to steep learning
this is another example which is kind of further along the spectrum is a little and other boards that has created a call it like traffic lights has a bulletin anabolism and a bunch of extra inputs on the front as well they provide a software library for this so the important role and you've got of full abstract abstraction away from which GPI opens things are connected to you just referred to them by the the the the light and the color so it is used run this function I really don't like the green on the green light comes on instead of GPO Duke IO output 17 tree you have to and the green light on this really nice abstraction especially for young children to get involved even even less of a steep learning curve was funny can do this as well they've they've even got an event detection so increase function that the flashes it so turn it on for 1 2nd so this is this is actually all the lights covariance with Michael sleep for 1 segment all I say when the button is pressed run that function so when when I pressed but flash the lights all the lights on for 1 2nd and loads of place you can take this is uh an Adam
bomb called the energy is a company that makes remote control switches seen by a remote you can turn off the Christmas lights from Christmas tree lights from my landscape right behind it they then they made an arrest require out board so this just sits on top and they provide you massive who follows about 50 lines of Python saying this is how you turn switches on and off and we we had a good a young girl is on work experiences about 15 and we said can you take a look at this code kind of tired of work out the logic in kind of and and put it into into a function that you can turn the montanum actors forcing of 14 15 goes better programming then the people make this the and and then only
Pakistan took all the credit and put on on pitch so you energy the switch-on and switch-off you can pass the the number of years got a bank fall 1 2 3 4 you can turn on uh the the the and sockets there arbitrarily with with numbers but also made a
little went out to it so that you can you can do this sort of thing is just a little bit of basic flight fast which is on the on the documentation and you just press that on your phone to turn the on internal Nelson a local network work but if you will configured heuristic regularly to do that over the internet and there's plenty of services to help you do that as well so a bit of a year ago we
we move from that that the original metric on this 1 the original ratified model B 2 B plus so this was the rest require 1 but it was a a + vision that we extended the pins from a 26 10 for the parents yellow more to play with so the examples are shown you so far hardware well and would would sit on the 26 10 bank and they still work is the 1st 26 tens of exactly the same and we also defined as
and a specification for animals we might have to follow this they can still make 26 once they can still make a 40 can ones and in it if you not following the rules but we we call this hatched this hardware attention on top the rest apply hacksaw that the name of the official specification for animal but it has features such as you can you can use written tables like this if you if you could out if you but in exactly the right the dimensions it will fit nicely on top other people on a plus or as to and you can use marginals because we've got use among females with which Greece to just hold it in place but 1 of the
projects we we worked on last year was using so appears see the cooking which is where you get that back impact fees such as such as state like this and you cook it in water very precise temperature as so we we decided to do designs in hardware to do this with this approach talking 1st with with bread and stuff and then we had some the creator actual perhaps for this so it's a hat for cooking school the share factor and so is like this we use the energy in the room to remotely control and the coca is kind of don't really and that we just using a temperature sensor in the water and if it's if it's too high
it is the time just to hollywood tended on the love we can on always attended off notice is alive and I'm working on it's a work in
progress I we have another board called them this is just some scum internal projects that that we will working and this 1 called the adults board which is uses conductive paint and and there's a lot a little holes on on this ball thoughts on this board the you use the paint with a paint to to draw pattern from to connect the dots we tried this out at a couple of events we want to make a fair and South by Southwest and got really young children engaged in and in doing something more interesting than than just typing on screen oscillate they basically provided by the 10 minutes just drawing out of plane really really intricately and then they take note the relative price they don't top and they run a pleasant program that draws a plane in the colors that they chose a long I was really really novel idea and this is the this
is the simplest part part of the software and all we do here is so we have a pin is that is active function so just check whether a
given the list of pins we know to be the UN at the airplane then
we just count how many of them are actually not so just just by putting paint over and connects the outside of the door to the inside which shows that the ground which you can detect and software and then we just have you know how many of them are connected if enough of them are connected we show the plane is will apply a try and 1 the the plant
pot greenhouse so this is a beautiful looking board is on original
range from rest Foundation a and it said so this that you can put all of these that so this that sits on top of the pile that's kind of act like and then you have a wire running to the sensible reaches respect here that use the in soil as the soil moisture sensors uh a light sensor and temperature humidity and you just use it to monitor the condition of the plant the with if you put inside a little and acrylic kind greenhouse than the place inside the and then it allergies on top of the board blow according to their 1 you program it to you to do according to the weather needs watering or something like that this is
1 made by an amazing American company a different of capacitive touch hats so use the results of applying wire rope and crocodile clips to each of the pins to each of the of holes on that and then you can a disability make you make the way you can build a piano with fruit or something like that the wire about up to anything and then in Python just read which ones have been i which ones have been oppressed and have different actions according to that there's a bunch of
recall perhaps made by the community and made by these companies have accessories primary unusable example they they they were 1 half of the the team that built the Pibor relevant to the earlier this is the unique so and I state by a near pixel grid you can program really simply and this guy right so which is you can hover your hand over and it will you can access Eindhoven events to gestures or or how close you on things like that and the proprietor hats which is prototyping board and the explore hats which is has got a lot of passive such thing the side and supplies here and you can control notice from these actions and you have here really easily and this sort of thing is is really helpful to put out there because it means teacher can pick that out and really simply put together a simple robot or or or or or anything these motors or capacity such and the great thing about irony is that they provide the software libraries in Python and all recent in Python 3 unfortunately and we we always naggin about this but this great at the weekend we have this sort of thing readily available we have
something on another internal projects with who this weather stations that support this is on the point has some stuff going off to some other senses and I we we've made produce this in housing having having a manufactured in and we're sending a thousand of them to schools around the world had to collect weather data and feed into the database and that's miracles and James Robinson my colleagues can be giving a talk about and later on today so this is again this is part part on a breadboard and just components and looking at different sensors and then some software running the just reads the senses logs it uses a database that kind of thing
we have a and this is what I had 1 and project of the of the year after applying if you have heard of it is the we're sending to replies to the International Space Station at the end of this year and British he stressed or simply is going to be going up in December the same these 2 US replies with and these can be doing some educational outreach as part of his uh 6 months in space so there's there's some kind of the general education stuff that sending some rockets seeds and into space and and and bringing the back and then giving distributing to schools to for them to experiment with with the growing cease to see if to compare expert sees the being in space with um with work with regular season in space had to see if there's any difference in their in the growth and for them to think start thinking about space small and another the program is this supply composition which is I we build this sensor board and Mrs. happen doesn't apply and the this competition for kids to right code for this sensible that they will pick the winners and run that code in space so primary school and secondary school kids in the UK have have have had a chance this year to have their current space at the Astroparticle
as we call this the sense that this would looks like we've got a little 8 by a grid and you can and that's an RGB LED matrix as garbage and sensors seeing that temperature humidity pressure accelerometer gyroscope magnetometer and also has many joystick for input that we've been through a lot of testing of getting this hardware to suitably acceptable for space and the flight in space and it's gone for all sorts of and vibration testing and also the things to make sure that it's safe to be in all as can be mounted on the wall in 1 of the modules on on the the ISS and In a be that after 10 the comes back so we have to do more things with them once they're at the at this hardware is we really handy for a lot of people as well not just for the competition so this should be going on sale in the next couple of months we really handy for a lot of projects so
just to finish off we again to remind you we've got this education summit so this have a look at the with the rest of talks on on this track for the rest of the day and my colleagues and I and and some and some other old people in the community to organize education res requirements and and all sorts of other things and also the weekend we have some sprints as if it was a common had this on on different educational projects in hopefully Larson teachers there and see what I have to say as well as of
actually marginal and those 4 questions thank
you seemed to if mi the and then things is to talk and son of with space just as much land about programming could do just a little bit more about the test you had judge the happen through in order to get to gallop into orbit yeah so that's an awful lot about this because I wasn't in part the testing team would turn I can't hear a lot from it we could and developer called he's been doing all these tests is really really key telling us all about it and so for the actual launch so for it to the rocket the shuttle to to go up there after it vibrates a lot so they have to make sure that it doesn't break and and break apart during the during the launch and we have to make sure that there is no kind of radioactive materials coming our anything anything about leaking out into into the air that could be harmful to the astronauts and they have to kind of chess along with a hammer or something and C and what it's come often what will could be harmful you tested again after that and and also things like he did it doesn't doesn't get an excessive heat and much built a special case for it which is probably the most overengineered case besides the 1 that we made recently for general use uh this ever be made that's a giant great big giant um aluminium case that has the the matrix the LED matrix shown will hold for the camera and it's got it's designed in a very specific way for and for the heat not to radiate so and make sure that it doesn't get hot uh hot to the touch or even radiate radiation that it b gene like your talk a dose just looking at the address per particle and so I have a question is harder any pair of blue to possibilities with the rest the part so that there's no there's no built-in Bluetooth Alan reservoir use USB dongle so if you have 1 they have some glitches device that you can you compare with you can you can do that I we think we use think the 1 we're remote state that and that the moment that the remote for that and is lead to the you have seen people do project that the weighting the we merge around driving robot fall in that kind of thing so yes this deadly possibly just need a USB a of the the the Cody showed the pressure units for single instance gives his cost but it I don't know who who throws requires costly is in the visual programming environments like that was princess like logo on the all the PC all right on it if you are today for scene that this is very simple drag and drop things in then and make the total induced but after thinking that would something like this to producing you European nicer to have the physical blocked radial walk aggregation Ferdinand right do you have any projects all on the direction so where the rest upon comes bundled with scratch scratch is a popular visual block-based programming language and really good for the beginners reader for young children's that 1st programming experience know-how think about syntax or or even bothering to type anything um but just being to click and drag and drop them so that's that's the best scratches principle and there there is there the possibilities for extending that to build to use GPI 0 so you can actually drive robots forward with what with you drag and drop programming scratch and we tend to in in our mind we tend to look at scratches the 1st the 1st step the 2nd step and is really good move the above above and beyond scratch prosodic by which character and discussed this morning as based on Ruby and so there's not as much precision required in in the in the syntax not not quite as much as Python you know we all like think Python is is great for that we kind of we see tabs and we see spaces in which the columns of kids don't really see that stuff so so find some a nice step forward before the before it gets Python they can do more and you can and there's also a turtle in Python so but this available as well the most part of the agreement who's more admissions integers with them thank that