Add to Watchlist

The Return of "The Return of Peer to Peer Computing".


Citation of segment
Embed Code
Purchasing a DVD Cite video

Formal Metadata

Title The Return of "The Return of Peer to Peer Computing".
Title of Series EuroPython 2014
Part Number 96
Number of Parts 120
Author Tollervey, Nicholas
Krekel, Holger
License CC Attribution 3.0 Unported:
You are free to use, adapt and copy, distribute and transmit the work or content in adapted or unchanged form for any legal purpose as long as the work is attributed to the author in the manner specified by the author or licensor.
DOI 10.5446/20011
Publisher EuroPython
Release Date 2014
Language English
Production Place Berlin

Content Metadata

Subject Area Computer Science
Abstract Nicholas Tollervey/Holger Krekel - The Return of "The Return of Peer to Peer Computing". At last year's Europython Holger Krekel gave a keynote called "The Return of Peer to Peer Computing". He described how developers, in light of the Snowden surveillance revelations, ought to learn about and build decentralized peer-to-peer systems with strong cryptography. This talk introduces, describes and demonstrates ideas, concepts and code that a group of Pythonistas have been working on since Holger's keynote. We asked ourselves two questions: what are the fundamental elements / abstractions of a peer-to-peer application and, given a reasonable answer to the first question, what can we build? We will present work done so far, discuss the sorts of application that might be written and explore how peer-to-peer technology could be both attractive and viable from an economic point of view. ----- This talk introduces, describes and demonstrates concepts and code created during sprints and via online collaboration by a distributed group of Pythonistas under the working title p4p2p. We asked ourselves, as frameworks such as Zope/Plone, Django, Pyramid or Flask are to web development what would the equivalent sort of framework look like for peer-to-peer application development? We've tackled several different technical issues: remote execution of code among peers, distributed hash tables as a mechanism for peer discovery and data storage, various cryptographic requirements and the nuts and bolts of punching holes in firewalls. Work is ongoing (we have another sprint at the end of March) and the final content of the talk will depend on progress made. However, we expect to touch upon the following (subject to the caveat above): * What is the problem we're trying to solve? * Why P2P? * The story of how we ended up asking the questions outlined in the abstract. * What we've done to address these questions. * An exploration of the sorts of application that could be built using P2P. * A call for helpers and collaboration.
Keywords EuroPython Conference
EP 2014
EuroPython 2014
on so I'm of syndicalists and the reason this talk is called the return of the return of peer-to-peer computing is because this is a reaction to hold those classic keynotes at last year's Europe Python entitled The return of peer-to-peer computing now the aim of this talk is well it says that create a context in which you may think about the peer-to-peer computing and so it's very much presentation of ideas although it does contain some technical stuff hand-wavy level at the very end of the organized but obviously because we believe that there's plenty of time for technology a technology conference and will deal with that variance of but it's very important for us to clearly states composition our ideas about peer-to-peer software so that's basically what this talk is about and the modus operandi and I'm going to use this is very simple I'm going to be provided by what I hope is a clear improvement of thought between the motivations of questions and actions and outcomes so we have some sort of tangible engineering aims at the very end of this talk that we can would we might be able to tackle such pop 1 motivations this time last year I had episode revelations were published in The Guardian and actually this time last year and I was looking at the Guardian as a Python development and it was rather fascinating place to be uh to be inside the organization that was actually breaking these incredible news stories but I really want to talk about a distance really because he's been dealt with elsewhere 1 and 2 that is the result and result was moral panic apart from in the United Kingdom and sure 1 anyway 0 suddenly privacy became a bit of a hot topic and but up until smoking privacy was the topic was dealt with more within the domain of of corporations Facebook and obviously Mr. Zuckerberg is very famous for stating that privacy is of course dead i and v is I guess the people in this room anyway and realize that the private corporations have been insinuating themselves into our lives on the line and uh by harvesting operations and so forth and this has been worrying me at least anyway since about 2009 and and and many others as well so so in response to concerns about privacy from people like me you get some corporate repackaging of that if you have if you have nothing to hide you have nothing to fear type argument which which is the quote from Eric Schmidt if you have something that you don't want anyone to know maybe you shouldn't be doing it in the 1st place but interestingly there are those who say privacy instead of those who gain most from surveillance of the users of because their business and business plan is basically we're going to harvest your data and we have to sell it on to talk is appetizing and other things of course privacy needs to be dead anyway rewind back to last year and suddenly makes privacy rather a hot topic for a wider audience than just the room and and the governments around the world events and especially Virginia US government went into full on that sort of panic mode and this is this is this was the foreign secretary of which is I guess the couldn't of the secretary of state in the US this is Mr. William Hague who represents all bureaucrats in this example and and this is a typical example of what they're like to say in response to a certain revelations when I hope you would you if you are a law-abiding citizen of this country going about business and your personal you have nothing to fear you have nothing to fear about the reduced state intelligence agencies is listening to you the contents of your phone calls or anything like that and you will never be aware of all the things divergences ordering in fact you will not be aware of all the things that those agencies that deal with the experiences of happily we are a bit more aware of what these agencies are doing in our name and the citizens of these countries the formulation of Mr. Haise argument is only if you're doing something wrong should you worry and then you don't deserve to keep it private and after all that we don't want the bad guys to gain the upper hand and you guys you'll probably obviously upstanding fine upstanding citizens and should be happy that innocence a protected from the evil doers that such a dragnet surveillance will will capture and identify and and this sort of argument the nothing to hide interfere argument is often trotted out with that with classic offences like think of the children where a terrorist extremists and heaven forbid and active so this is blatantly wrong on 1st of all it's a false dichotomy what do I mean by that I mean that it turns a very new ones complicated subject into a simplistic black and white subject occasion got nothing to hide it that's it become 1 actually and it's a lot more complicated as I'm sure we not it's also lazy thinking to companies manipulated as well because your framing the argument in in a binary way when in fact it's a very new wants this document and that putting that aside and it's also an argument that kind of several uncomfortable truths which I would like to explore now so the 1st uncomfortable truth is that is not you determines if you have anything to hide or not for example uh these gentlemen who are uh some prominent American Muslims who are law-abiding citizens there there are political candidates of civil rights activists academics lawyers people like that the NSA and the FBI had covertly been wanting their e-mails and other communications and this was done under a law intended to target terrorists and foreign spies so how do you think that makes an American Muslims FIL as an aside I read it The Guardian website this morning that the Metropolitan Police in London have been monitoring the communications of the family of the man they mistakenly shot on that you train soon after the July 5th bombings this was this was a grieving family yet they were monitored they have nothing to fear that they still have the communications monitored you have nothing to fear because you got nothing to hide it assumes the surveillance results incorrect data and sound judgment now if you live in the UK you'll be very familiar with this particular tweets that but Singapore enforcement gentlemen who lives in option was trying to catch airplane winter and he tweeted crack Robin Hood Airport is closed if you've got a week to get shit together otherwise I'm blowing the airport sky high this is obviously a joke you would think of them and then the police turned up and he got carted away and terrorism that is continental precisely what it was you across the way and you anyway up it is he was imprisoned and on the other the result was that the ended up going to the UK is highest court that much expense and getting thrown so you know surveillance you might have a bit of a problem if the please get the wrong end of the stick for example all they just collecting also data but for doing nothing wrong you have nothing to hide while rules and governments change for example in the UK obviously on British so many of these examples of British in the UK this rule called RIP area and the UK law to monitor communications of people for national security reasons OK you can understand what what people might want to law and the way the rule works is that it allows certain in certain states of public bodies to be able to use such a law for such a reason and and since the law was introduced at the beginning of the 2000 that list of public organizations who alleges that Apple has increased 4 times and now includes local councils so local councils have been found to be monitoring messages and communications that attract incidence of dog filing on your door crops industry to the wrong place you might be tracked if you have nothing to hide you have nothing to fear and while you're breaking the law isn't necessarily and uh if we look at this rogues gallery of people or go to the mind not be familiar special 2nd 1 and so that right variant who was executed for corrupting the youth of Athens with philosophy the 2nd 1 is an reasoning Pankhurst who was suffragettes who changes after to Buckingham Palace in the cause of women's rights and getting votes for women of the see I'm guessing you will know hunters Gandhi who was imprisoned for for basically trying to get into that later India independent from the from the British uh empire and obviously Nelson Mandela recent example imprisoned for his protests against apartheid out now now these are widely regarded as people who acted as beacons of hope and our guests in hindsight is a good thing but are wired like to ask is how would the course is to survive in a digital panopticon if the if the authorities that imprisoned and in some cases executed these people were able to save you communication and finally if you've got nothing to hide he got nothing to fear we should be able to watch it well actually you know what privacy is a fundamental human right there are many examples that in trying this 1 the 1 I've chosen is sort of the the Big Daddy is it worth this is from the United Nations Universal creation of human rights and unbelieving and I guess that you that things like intimates declarations of love and doctors discussing patients engineers are working on a new top-secret project all journalists find expose the government and these these are just a few scenarios where privacy is both reasonable and the gist of that requirement yeah of course people want that and so am I saying that privacy trumps all absolutely not openness of public institutions governments and corporations I believe is a fundamental requirement for our society at the function that was how else are we going to be able to hold such entities to account we don't know what they're up to I also believe that surveillance is legitimate given the probable probable cause for concept and unlike University believes that how can anyone identify where this comes from it's the 4th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America the right of the people secure to be secure in their persons houses houses papers and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be violated and no 1 shall issue but upon probable cause supported by oath or affirmation and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized I guess I'm not the only 1 in the room who sees the great irony of the 4th amendment so you're sitting there thinking how we're your reply from here this is a total conference and this who is this about British guy ranting on the last 10 minutes about politics after all what his politics got to do with the program where engineers so strong an engineer might ask questions like well where engineers that we like to solve engineering problems and I don't really worry about politics and stuff and things like that on the far more interested in the hard problems of technical technology and service including things like that of for example we ask questions like you know what is the best way to organize computational resources we answer that 1 with things that we are thinking about architecture and design but we also think about how should such arrangements be created you know what tools will and use use python use databases we use methodologies like test-driven development and agile methodology we organize ourselves and also we ask who is responsible for making such things work in a team we have people who have a a particular responsibility to secure a guide as that's the DBA that's that's the that's the developed as the business analyst there's all these different roles inches possible for doing something and each of them also has authority to do so and perhaps only the QA persons to deploy the thing to say about that that the website to because they're the 1 who signs of QI is is done we also have people who create standards that we that we use and so that we know that in some ways dedicated delegate delegate responsibility for making things work by following standards are are made in public and so you contrast these with problems in political philosophy after draw what has engineering got to do with with politics and so political philosophers and I'm not saying politicians here I'm talking about political philosophers people who think about politics not the politicians who the ones involved in the political system itself but these guys ask questions like what is the best way to organize humanity and that's a pretty big question to ask what's the best way what forms of government should be should we be trying to promote and they they think about problems of democracy that they think about things like corporate structures in the public sphere and things like that but have such arrangements be created that they try and defining concepts such as duty and rights and they think very carefully about how the law should should come up come to pass and how it should be enforced talking reinforcement who is responsible for making such things work who has the power in a society who has authority how does Government work this is this is a political philosophy 1 what so I would say I'm certain that programming is politics quite simply because we're asking and answering questions about organization process power and control and we're writing implemented in in some respects we control the rules of the digital world you hear that went on some party questions assuming these things are important the politics of programming important at hand we explore this program but what questions developers and should we be asking ourselves and so we tend to hold the line it is set in the back to me and I said last year whole going to focus on these these political aspects of programming by asking several pertinent question what the digital world do I want to live in what sort of software do I want to create to develop and if you're a parent what legacy do I leave my children and how would you answer these questions and remember my name at the beginning which is to give you a context in which you could think and part of having the context is being able to answer such questions such the 1 of the conclusions that hold and and and I and many others believe it is important this is the answer to this question is peer-to-peer and ubiquitous cryptography away to address the concerns of power and control in the digital world so i'm gonna because I don't have that much time going to brush over cryptography assume that you can read a book about it so much of this is to look at peer-to-peer so let's examine what peer-to-peer means and how this affects the political aspects of the talk I was just talking so what so what do I mean by peer-to-peer well this is my packet definition appears at equal status devices running appropriate software cooperate and use decentralized network for mutual benefits and and also peer-to-peer is the antithesis of hierarchy where some of have elevated status and power this and 1 way to to visualize this is the taxonomy diagrams very simple taxonomy diagrams over there on the left is pair and on the right is the client-server technology that we use on the web and notice that the red is the point of power and control the web wherever there is power and control well that's where politics is and so let's just think very carefully about how this affects for example the World Wide Web which is probably the most ubiquitous technology platforms of the day so the client-server architecture of the Web is fundamentally unbalanced because the server always has power over the client OK you authorized yourself authenticate yourself against facebook so for example and then faced decides whether you are allowed to see this content or the content of the article on and of course the server can decide that it's just not right you to see certain content at all because it's legal but also a server is a single point interface failure at this is obviously but it is also an obvious target for attack we will move on to the farewell but whether the NSA again when they want to try and Hoover of lots of people's emails attaching to Google because you know lots of people use use gene and so am I saying that hierarchies that no 1 not sometimes high often very good have especially when insufficient it saves lives I was having brain surgery I would like to know note that the person in charge of the team had trained for several years and was acknowledged as an expert in the field I wouldn't want to have surgery from a democratic group of pattern and he be doctors who would vote every point in the operation is to what to do next time like to be dead as a result of that so it's important in certain situations that there is the power and control of but the important thing to note is that in an ideal world such a hierarchy is best when the obvious skill knowledge and capabilities of the person or the entity of knowledge to bring about greater benefit for all of in an ideal world those who elevated status and authority would have earned it find reliable and consistent with public displays such skill knowledge and capability so everyone knows this is a good surgeon because not alot of people diamond there on the with and care for example import it to him in in an ideal world responsibility and trust associated with such status authority would be serious yet welcome obligation but we don't live in an ideal world we live in a world we live in a digital world where architecture in some sense defines power and control I just try to illustrate the client server 1 the web and if Facebook change the terms and conditions we have no way to challenge but only because they're the ones in control of the service but also because they are in some sense attractors in the walled garden of data from 1 of photos online it's all or all all social life is within this walled-garden control effects for example so I'm about halfway through the talk and I want to summarize some programming I believe is politics because we're thinking about process and power and control to digital assets we agree and I hope that strong cryptography protects against events and we agreed hope that surveillance is in some forms and not a good thing to have and peer-to-peer decentralized distributed federated systems mitigate points of control and authority derived from architecture is bad however authority derived from the evidence is good so what can we do To address these issues so part 3 actions so this time last year I didn't hold and I was moving house asshole goal was giving his keen and I get kept getting tweeted by my friends in the audience saying you should contact holding page pissed of Nicholas you're interested in this that he should get together which is what I did not only got together with lots of other people that your Python the outcome of that is that we decided that we would get together a group of lawyers and organize instances where we would be able to explore the ideas surrounding page pairs of means and so forth and we try do something about obviously Jonas means another torque because he doesn't look like an egg so at this friend warriors our atmosphere and so we grow community interested in we decentralization of the Internet was have people from the centralized all organ the audience which fantastic project in area can talk to her promoting norms develop communications and we're interested in exploring existing solution because we're not word about this sort of thing and doing something practical as Robert program we can do stuff with digital asset so atmosphere and of the 1st thing we ask ourselves to important questions that 1 of the fundamental elements of a secure peer-to-peer system and what can we build that that is useful to this and so atmosphere and we look at the existing technologies that quantum peer-to-peer messaging etc etc etc. under the spring supplied tolerance matrix as well and the point I'm trying to make here is that since you don't need to do silly things that enjoy yourself the will suspend because these are fun and interesting challenging engineering problems you don't need to be plugged into an integer to enjoy them we also decided to try and organize ourselves at conferences and gatherings like this 1 columns and minutes but most importantly I guess is that we want to prototype conferences and gatherings useful so we have something tangible over the weak point people are so these people could say that strong you doing it wrong all that's good on joining this stuff is again and by itself so talking about and what were the other so like I said approach talking hats and that the 2 that I would like to look at uh we as we explore the problem of peer-to-peer cryptographic message passing systems completely decentralized and we also looked at the Universal distributed hash table as a platform which is based on so what I've been doing a project called the droplets how it can't give you a very high level view of both of these these these projects now so the peer-to-peer decentralized returned messaging only hold calls this the test come because if we can make this work we solve many of the fundamental problems of of cryptographic lexical peer-to-peer systems and we also had expertise within the group we have and you're going to lose 1 developers of the cry for a project which is an in-browser cryptographically safe chat system then the user is very good to have him and expertise that and then we also that existing solutions and we found many of the 1 most interesting was 1 called records that met many of our and requirements for such systems but not all of our needs so that we're trying to work out what the gaps that we can fill in and so to give you a sense of some of the some of the forces that we would be having at the suspense and I just want to pause a moment and then describe 1 of the problems that we have the problem is in a secure decentralized message delivery system and how you communicate with offline periods no with it's very simple I just send my e-mail to your e-mail and when the next time you come on line you then collected so far a sort of a post box you but that's a centralized point control it somewhere in there with gene nouns and so forth that people can infer that the munications so we want to make this completely decentralized if we could with no single point of failure so that the message could could get through in a secure way and so what we've been looking at is is building a system that allows trust on online friends to surpass the message that like a battle in real we relay race until the message is delivered on and what we're trying to work out this can be done in a complete decentralized way in it's early days and world will have to to see how how it goes and the other important thing that's that we realize this signaling and discovery key had you know when this person is online or offline and this leads me to this is the 2nd project that I told you that you could use a distributed hash table to do that so let's have a look at what is a distributed hash table on but everybody knows what a dictionary is in Python yes yeah OK it's a distributed 1 of them it is literally a distributed and decentralized key-value store there's no single point of failure or control it scales to a huge number of nodes as well I'll look up is relatively efficient all this is done over the network and also depending on which algorithm to use the 1 I'm using is formal Kademlia it has good handling of fluid network membership because of course on those joining and leaving network all the time OK and it's also tested in the real world distributed hash tables because BitTorrent Freenet and other similar projects use distributed hash table for look up books they use a distributed hash table for just their application on what we were thinking about doing is a universal distributed hash tables so any application could I could stall key-value pairs in in this age so the universal DHT it's my current obsession programming project obsession by working on the train and against to London and those late nights when my kids finally come to that in some sense such demand Islamist-led but it's also a problem of of discoverability and signaling his people can leave their status within the key value pair we within that within the dictionary friends can look and we also have a quick look at uh so we look we have to think about how we could make this work I'm not gonna talk about this very much because I'm not even sure we understand it and that's we were discussing a practical people peer-to-peer which is distributed hash tables with in distributed hash tables so the the namespace in some ways so that particular particular application and use particular parts of the network and that most that that that best meet their needs so you are probably sitting there thinking well at about half an hour I know this sounds party utopian you and it would be quite fascinating to ask why you're you're obviously crazy you guys and and that's usually quickly followed by you know about economics of this sort of stuff and how is how as development and funded of peer-to-peer systems you have to put food on the table so let's think serendipity is a good example of that happened last year Europe think you know I can't getting tweets about hold of friends who just happened to be in a room environment people that had never before this principle and here my friends know so standard the serendipitous the cost of we met and collaborating together wise that more perhaps it's because we share the same values we actually care very passionately about our privacy and when working in a world where the where peer-to-peer system is is is some way of enabling us to to build a digital world that we want to live in and it's also fun and that's a good reason why you might want to work on this thing these affine engineering problems as as Adams as I hope so the demonstrated it's also that each for me and everybody has a different sort of energy but that's my particularly and about author is also important to remember that there is no economic argument made the weather was born as Tim Berners-Lee the web is more of a social creation and technical and he designed the social effects that help people work together and there is is the value of the web and hints what will dominating hypertext system could find that this sort of grew from bottom up which and chimes in with that of the king of missing and it's also important to remember that even as far back as 1996 william gibson the science-fictional I'm sure you're familiar with him and said in an article that the World Wide Web is the test pattern for what it will become the dominant global medium and the reason I'm saying this is because it's very easy for us at this time of 20 years of the existence of the World Wide Web to have the world wide web goggles on that everyone seems to see things and we must have a website that most use RESTful API and use HTTP because that's what everybody everybody's and well perhaps it's time that we might be able to think about it think outside the box and think what should come after the well wall post web solutions and digital architecture should we should be using on which leads me out on the island K at Alan Kay's very famous for saying the best way to predict the future is to invent it and we're in a very privileged position is developers because we could actually build that future with Python but I actually like this quote more I believe that the only kind of science computing the exact sciences bridge-building somebody has to build bridges and other people have to tell them down and make better theories which have to keep on building bridges was the next region of the world wide web the panel must find some nearly finished and where practical at this it's falls the in 5 thousand 100 years old it's 1 of my favorite places to be which is because you can't help but so so gets an Enhanced Sense perspective in India years you know 2 years is a huge amount of time this is 5 thousand years old it's some of 1 of the earliest examples of writing that we have and it records the allocation of beer you'll be pleased to know uh by administrators in the city of Europe and the symbol representing there is section of prior job should I find my I will put a base and its it and the amount of fear that these were aTmenable would like have been having is is denoted by the circles on the presence OK that's accounting system and if you look in the bottom left there's actually a person drink drinking from the ball on the outcome might proceed to say that the goods have been received the the law so I would like to end by asking you is the World Wide Web are cheerful clay tablet and what should we be building afterward if you would like to discuss more with not just me but my friends that went on the sprint's as well because white presented here is very much a group effort meters in the 4th and so far 30 this afternoon will have a chance and will probably go out of which there through the there's some questions the side prior knowledge of the topic on the the the GBT signing it's almost in parallel to the time in the basement so it's a bit unfortunate some of OK and realize that that it actually we looked into key signing when we're office spent they've got remember there were about 9 highly technical people in the room and we managed to do it wrong which says a lot for the key sign think there's lots of ways that you can improve security and but we we got it totally wrong no more questions again don't how did I guess David who's going to ask the question is my colleague to what is the best way to organize human to organize humans that was your your big question OK so as I should say that David has a philosophy degrees and as the why and my answer would be and if you come along a 5 30 this afternoon I think we can work out the details that that actually we could put a note in our in our in our spring so you can be critical to discover what they the best way to organize the masses you said there is a small community of people working on that stuff but the only thing I find on your website is context is your the columns so what medium do you use to communicate except meeting the needs very useful some screen there should be some more effective way with all driving through Germany whatever yeah you're you're probably quite right and I say sense this is a days and with a group people who just exploring the ideas of and it's not as if we've announced a political party or a new free software project or something like that and we can together to to think about these ideas we communicate on IRC in a channel that has nothing to do with the pitch the other because it's written by 1 of the 1 of the guys said it's his company IRC channel offerings and some natural he might not like the uh sharing that channel and but if all of this all OK so the 1st thing you can do is come along 513 we can talk and share just you can't decay the 2nd thing you can do is you can probably on Twitter and I will get back to you with that thing you could do is probably a whole go send him e-mails because he's quite high profile persons well that uh that that that will be able to disseminate information is people following flow on but you are quite right this is something that we need we be enjoying ourselves with distributed hash tables rather than IRC channels and Twitter accounts arena and you will have much less evident in middle what we need to be to be recorded for that for posterity stupid psychological services have high and I I just as acres of the south and the click out there hanging out for those who want to a broader broader movement there is no I I read the centralizing left and every week he says lies actually were less than . com public archives where there's a huge community of people who are interested in we decentralization technology in adoption and you know how to change that so like that it's a really good discussion list and is like a whole website as well which you can join and following get involved with other people and had discussions that are going to be that definitely join arenas list and I'm a member of the this and if you if you don't if you search Google for the decentralized all on Monday don't go to google type it into URL a some of the we decentralized local and the magic that this web page will appear to have interviews with various people who were doing very similar projects and 5th this I think because we need to the ternary Miranda next talk that's good times time to finish 1 more question but it was it's a little bit of so the 5 questions up to have there on the blackboard yeah I think the most interesting is the 5th 1 and the song political philosopher implement the reasons is that it's not about the whole we believe the power to it's about how we can remove them 1 1 they fail but when they get to the 1 what they were supposed to do yes and then it seems that this this through the peer-to-peer communications about taking away the power from everyone uh so that no matter how the power but so the power is not central but less there are many instances of stop words from the moment when you make a standard you need to have a centralized power to make the standard happened right you knew that some some kind of then the I think completely about example like English is not on the do you have any ideas of how to organize the the removal of people you can trust him yeah yeah and it's just for your interest anyway this black coats at that's half the battle at the bottom of the is even better than but it was in the top half that was put into this part of the talk at this was created by UK politician called Tony Benn who recently died of but if you look at the time bands 5 rules that you'll see the whole picture it's very very good but it gets things look very closely at
Context awareness
Group action
System administrator
Equaliser (mathematics)
Client (computing)
Open set
Information privacy
Perspective (visual)
Sign (mathematics)
Computer configuration
Single-precision floating-point format
Office suite
Information security
5 (number)
Physical system
Software developer
Electronic mailing list
Interface (computing)
Sound effect
Instance (computer science)
Flow separation
Message passing
Arithmetic mean
Digital photography
Process (computing)
Lattice (order)
Hash function
Pattern language
Suspension (chemistry)
Point (geometry)
Web page
Three-valued logic
Computer file
Civil engineering
Similarity (geometry)
Online help
Drop (liquid)
Rule of inference
Event horizon
Declarative programming
Goodness of fit
Blackboard system
Berners-Lee, Tim
Profil (magazine)
Bridging (networking)
Term (mathematics)
Energy level
Data structure
Computing platform
Metropolitan area network
Computer architecture
Form (programming)
Home page
Standard deviation
Scaling (geometry)
Key (cryptography)
Physical law
Content (media)
Expert system
Independence (probability theory)
Line (geometry)
Cartesian coordinate system
System call
Symbol table
Local Group
Table (information)
Uniform resource locator
Spring (hydrology)
Integrated development environment
Universe (mathematics)
Mutual information
Greatest element
Musical ensemble
State of matter
View (database)
Sheaf (mathematics)
1 (number)
Coma Berenices
Parameter (computer programming)
Complete metric space
Test-driven development
Food energy
Web 2.0
Image resolution
Video game
Matrix (mathematics)
Electronic visual display
Resource allocation
Position operator
Vulnerability (computing)
Hidden surface determination
Process (computing)
Moment (mathematics)
Parallel port
Representational state transfer
Functional (mathematics)
Tablet computer
Degree (graph theory)
Normal (geometry)
Right angle
Data type
Fundamental theorem of algebra
Row (database)
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Classical physics
Ocean current
Computer programming
Domain name
Game controller
Server (computing)
Service (economics)
Presentation of a group
Data storage device
Electronic program guide
Field (computer science)
Power (physics)
Centralizer and normalizer
Operator (mathematics)
Ideal (ethics)
Software testing
Condition number
Inheritance (object-oriented programming)
Forcing (mathematics)
Projective plane
Element (mathematics)
Incidence algebra
Affine space
Computer network
File archiver
Vertex (graph theory)
Dependent and independent variables
Local ring


  605 ms - page object


AV-Portal 3.8.0 (dec2fe8b0ce2e718d55d6f23ab68f0b2424a1f3f)