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Beginning of the End or End of the Beginning?

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Title Beginning of the End or End of the Beginning?
Title of Series FrOSCon 2015
Part Number 52
Number of Parts 80
Author Hall, Jon
License CC Attribution 3.0 Unported:
You are free to use, adapt and copy, distribute and transmit the work or content in adapted or unchanged form for any legal purpose as long as the work is attributed to the author in the manner specified by the author or licensor.
DOI 10.5446/19593
Publisher Free and Open Source software Conference (FrOSCon) e.V.
Release Date 2015
Language English

Content Metadata

Subject Area Computer Science
Abstract On August 7th maddog turned 65 years old. He started programming in 1969 after almost being electrocuted by 13,600 volts and 800 Amps (he figured software was safer). In celebration of 46 years in the computer in the computer field and five more years before he can afford to retire, come hear maddog explain the computer field in ways few people have thought of it. maddog
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thank you very much for inviting me here and I was invited because I'm told I gave a talk at the 1st process content years ago and then some people have mentioned that I've been divorced constants but I don't really remember because I got a lot of conferences and when you get to be 65
intended to get something however
with this talk I try to remember everything but sometimes I don't remember everything's as some people may objectives some of the things I said and the way try to be objective about things so if you see something you disagree with me you talk afterwards but not going to talk because they have a lot of slides ago and that's the 2nd
warning is a very long so slight says about 105 slides and I'll be talking very fast but the continuing the whole thing is you go back and look at later I often also did not talk about the things which you want the slides at all and so that responded to read the slides and listen to me at the same time often not native language there is little symbols throughout this little square symbols in this particular 1 is a square beer mug which has been among them is 0 1 it and that means that is more to the story so if you catch me afterward for the is something like that I'm going to whatever you're interested in that the more months appear that the longer the story and the more interesting and ah anymore
symbols this particular talk for those of you who don't know
the I've been in the industry as 1969 start programming back in my undergraduate degree was half electrical-engineering and have business with a minor in these computers things and I'll go into more about that later on but I got my and mass is not computer science in 1977 from wrestler politics usages otherwise variety of different jobs and that a programmer and educator on systems administrator for 1 of these I like to think about the problems the problems of practical pragmatic about things by trying to get the job done and I think this would result result about to we're
way back in time series 1642 42 Blaise Pascal was a young man and his father an account is trying to help them
do calculations to be more accurately faster and things like that so he invented automated that initiate
now programmable machines didn't happen so a little bit later than most people think of music boxes a clocks is programmable they were but typically only like 1 wanted to 3 songs but then in 1801 became along a little Jakarta little which could we give the pattern in the cloth belt but this time they did have power looms but lose all world clauses saying you printed the pattern on them but the Chicago had holes in
clients who went across the top of it like that and so the works has to go up and down you can actually program in the world the pattern and Napoleon was so fascinated by this he called it the marvel of the day now
about 1860 to the 1929 player pianos things came into being I actually collect player pianos nickelodeon so once just like this work often paper rolls it's a very very fascinating type of thing but is programmable instrument now what
about the 18 sixties of the 486 these waterwheels and textile mills and things were there but they were the water power you had to have very close to river in order to have power there was no electricity to drive them and then James what
came along and there's something called the steam engines and this allowed you to build your factories place you wanted to because of the would
provide power that water have provided before there's is a little bullet there says that the water
wheels and textile industries led to intellectual property laws were actually intellectual property laws around a long time before that the British have about points in early in the year 1300 we know that for for sure but the
British troops this too is extremely and if you recall what with a pencil and paper if you an American art with a pencil and paper inside British textile mills you can be executed because they thought you were trying to steal their intellectual property and take it back to the colonies and the colonies at that time with the people who grew flat through the wall crawler stuff and then great Britain would bring it over the Great Britain make it into cloth and and so that that the colonies so the colonies could do this Great Britain will lose a lot of money and because of all this in Great Britain there was this feeling that machines were going to solve the problems of the world and this led to
a person by the name of Charles Babbage who is a and believe this simple and you're
mechanical Engineering at the time but he was saying there is engineering officer working with a set of tables in books and you can get a slide rule to do calculations on building something and at that time which is typically did we had another engineer sitting side of you doing the same calculations just to make sure he came up with the same answers because you likely to make a mistake and then we're going to do the calculations doing and became
the 1 part and they just could not agree they went over and over and over and they could be great finally they realized that the 2 different books that we use with the tables of science because science changes and everything had a different number and somebody had made a mistake making the book I was in the person did the calculation had made a mistake or the printer had made a mistake but in either case this horrified Charles Babbage businessmen buildings could crash regions could be destroyed this is a terrible thing so he decided he was the degree of machine that could do these calculations N Cream the ball at the same time print 20 pages that you can then use at the printer so there would be no no issue of transcription errors and he started building when called analytical engine which was very extremely complex was trained the the the capabilities of time reading years and things like that you get about 1 3rd of the way the that of a set of brain storms although I have to create something that complex activities the difference engine and that will do it so he start all over again the course is to throw away everything we've done with the analytical engine which could off as investors but at the needs time here this very nice young ladies who was the daughter of Lord Byron and she was a mathematician and I was very strange back to his days because if you were a leading you didn't do anything with math like God it all you do is a play the piano itself with the word in the borrower's something about but she was a mathematician and she says she was fascinated by this machine is she said of the rights of programs for other outside powers the years
of everything do use different things and she did and so this is 1 of the reasons why we think that can love in Lovelace was actually the 1st programmer now and there is no
chance that never finished the there is an element religion or his differential edges and he actually died in poverty but there were 2 other people who look at what done and actually built a couple of the different stages it would to machines produced they actually did great some books but they were married not there would not financially successful so that kind of thing by the way knowledge
1884 1 was a
problem in the States every 10 years United States takes sensors and they count of the people in the United States of trying to answer questions about the figure out where we should be putting our money investing stuff and the problem was that every time we took the sensors took longer and longer and the to do all the calculations the stuff so we've be doing a census in
1991 still working with numbers from obviously 90 was still working the numbers of like 18 70 and this is going to be a problem so the government went this person's and Congress said can you a way of doing this faster and he said shortly crazy tabulating machine so we can get the answers of someone these cards but there's a tabulated machines and come up with the answers in a much shorter period of time that of that cable series of tabulating machines and some
of them were programmed by what words like the what would you see
up there and build I've actually program the same that lowered fact represents a program and as you move the wires
around you move them according to the time sequence of the machine is supposed to be working and what the machine is supposed to be doing crossed and if you if you leave out step you have to move all your wires down which is of a new knowledge and stick it in the 2nd step as you go along and after a while the screen what we call the original spaghetti code about 1935
there was a young man at Cambridge England how they down during you probably all familiar with by now and he was actually interested in trying to create the which could duplicate the human mind he knew the that the my was made up of some relatively simple thing neurons and synapses but a lot of them and he said gee you know maybe I could duplicate and stuff so you start to think of a series of different ways of doing that and of course there's 2 types of problems in the world is solvable problems and unsolvable problems and the unsolvable problems with things like was the last number of times was the last number of the and all that kind of stuff there is no answer to that but the solvable problems should be able to be solved by digital computer that but the given
enough time and memory and this basically where he thought he came up with this machine concept which is called the Turing machine that during
which she was hypothetical but people start looking at this is saying you know this is kind of an interesting concept and and we think that we can do it every month of calculations that can be be solved using 1 of these machines as a person in Germany by the name of of Conrad's who's is watching all this type of stuff and he decided he was going to build a programmable computer back in those days this is built mechanically or maybe with relays stuff like that they had that they
built the 1st freely programmable computer but it was a little bit of reliable because of the mechanics in
1937 as a guiding gynecologist who wrote a paper about this about ways of using relays switching circuits to do this and basically invented the concept of using of logic gates with Boolean logic electronic relays to build the size of computers and after
that George Stibitz at Bell Labs really built was using this relay-based computer called the model OK no
during the war as you can you probably aware of the use of movies stuff that come out in the 1st place could very close to logical Bletchley Park and they were trying to a German and but code which everybody considered to be pretty much unbreakable Alan Turing was born in to work on this he spilled his above all on the basis of the work that which mathematicians who managed to escape from Poland with enabling machine and with the work being done and bring it to to England for them to go that would turn really did the are the improvement on as I was saying that this
machine parallel so we could do things in parallel and the 2nd thing was he made his machine figure out when it was going down the wrong path and stuff so would never go down a path any further than it would you know it didn't go all the way down every time would stop would recognize it was going down the wrong path and is that the whole process of solving the code and
is not have to create
short cuts it was so successful after while the British had to be some of the results because they were reading all of the German Enigma messages from from from the word apartment and they could have intercepted everything but this is not we can't let the Germans now the redundancy so he kept thinking all messages In the
meantime conferences is continuing way of building computers and he actually built 1 they could floating point arithmetic that some of you may be remember the 386 computer system when it 1st came out it didn't have floating point you have to buy a separate little processes if it is there to give you floating point because most stuff because the work being done back that was was Digital work but it was it was integer style of work very very little floating point well conferences actually built a floating point unit but was electromechanical relays with and things like that was the 1st Turing-complete machine that what they could do everything in our training set you could do that for
shape however the courses in Germany kind of behind the wall and below the mean time over an angle that there is still working with Don Turing-completeness she's trying to build 1 that actually hold own program and some memory back at
Bletchley Park where it was still very very single top secret the bubble was falling behind because the German war machine to come up with a better than my machine called the Lorentz it went from all 3 rate 3 rotors to through 5 that made it much more difficult to solve it so that is something that would be thousands of times faster than the bomb but it wouldn't be able to solve these messages and so they were looking around it is it is components that would not
attract the attention but the Axis powers but they were doing something and so they use components so here's a telephony relays to use and things like
that so all and they were in 8 area that was very strong with the love a lot of telephone lines coming in so that raise anybody's attention that they were ordering all these troops relays things to build this 1st machine called The Colossus but it was still not a lot of machine that was Turing-complete you could hold its own program and so memory it had to be program on a paper tape was it a meanwhile back in the
United States at
Cambridge at MIT a person by the name of of how it again who was a commander US navy and he was going to build a machine that could do ballistics now ballistics for those of you who are not familiar with that is a thing of being evolution and not have a along this is actually target so if you
if you've ever watched movies of World War 2 especially people want define what you see is a very big guns and is 2 people right next to a person with binoculars and a person with a single looks like a telephone what is a telephone field telephone and actually that certain goes all the way back to a place called Princeton New Jersey because before you fire that God you have to say under fire the shell maybe 2 miles to show always 65 pounds have stacks of gunpowder various measures of quantities of the show that the back but the gun now I have a choice I could fire my god parallel to the ground well that doesn't work very well gravity says that the bullet is going to fall at the GP perspective about how fast you should be in that direction and look at the to the the 2nd part this blog right then that was there all I used during or I give you that angle but what angle I don't know that's ballistics now should we get is going to be where the wind is blowing well it's going to be there a long time and it's a big shall is is that blow tiger so I have had count for wind have to shoot it back in the opposite direction so the wind blows across maybe it's raining maybe errors certain density all these things going to cost is where you are with the enemy is all these things going to ballistics now the people firing guns don't know how to do this they are typically 17 year old males we were lucky to have got into high school and so they're going back to prison jersey where there's a whole bunch of water same thing in anaerobic mathematicians sitting in a room and then the book simplest into their opinion calculating machines that they're calculating away with all these lists and they call back with all this information for the gun no is there dualist of elevated or stop you fire a gun you sit there watching the black is to see where the ball hits his target I want that is going to spend that given misses the target then you have a a problem because he had also has a gun they also have a that also fueled telephone and now they know where you are and when they are motivated to fire the their gun and the US so if you're smart use the outcome of this got and I will read the angle at which is changing in birds of light or the problem the board source like that and the the main time going that grows of aeration and as well as but interested she's really under pressure to come up with and because that is called a help author was on was she motivated corrections so you don't that God that's my so this is the thing that inspired Mr. a did too many machine would do this calculation is extremely fast extremely accurately to replace
this woman impressed not replace them happy a woman but the problem was he made the machine and made the machine but then the babysitter OK program from list is it I can't ontological Judea but think probabilistic mathematics will bring this moment of progress in their jerseys indeed way and which and that have a woman on the
we don't have a now I wanna 144 how adding up all the way to watch it easy for a couple weeks and of came this woman from Princeton New Jersey a lieutenant it and maybe way by by the name of
Grace Murray Hopper and she told herself had a computer work and she taught herself out of programming and ensure Lisa Howard and he was gone program and then in that only that but she went to
screw into shape so in our day he came back and finally had that the Grace Murray Hopper was more of a man and he was at actually gotten gathered for the very good team she actually wrote was the 1st programming manuals ever and went on to food the market to and she
went on to do the ENIAC afterwards and have this came some pretty interesting got terms 1st of all that group up at this point you may have noticed all these dangers things were electromechanical calculi device you know that they're really long names whether it is shorter and so it just so happened that the Navy term for these women in prison jersey would do the calculations a ballistics their official term was a computer and so
they became computers and the 2nd thing was when these machines are going these machines had a drive shaft 1 of the center drive chapter 3 times every 2nd so cycle time series 33 milliseconds and the drive shaft get everything coordinated you really should chance this whole thing sound like a cable car there was a lot more knowledge about but there many state the whole they came a halt it's unlikely people going to crashed crap computer graphs the contributions gradually thing like that the requirement that the way things Grants of finally on mark to it was late at nite in August very hot no air conditioning and the buildings before air-conditioning the windows are all of marked to was problems Grace Murray Hopper came along she was going inside the computer 0 by the way I should tell you this computer about 70 feet long and about a foot taller about 4 with the the she's looking inside a computer and she sees what started the relays and she takes a pair of tweezers she pulls of mark out as she goes over the long book it she says I found the problem with the march you there was a bug in and other words what have been applied to other things in the future this is the 1st recorded time above was applied to a computer meanwhile back in Germany
of God that is working on the next group of machines that was a binary floating-point but unfortunately after the war he didn't get the credit he should have got for the about
what I was going to school would 1969 I was taught that the Indian act of the University of Pennsylvania was the 1st electronic digital computer and was done in 1946 but the reason I was told that was because proper bluntly part costly part was still under classification is still classified nobody knew about the work that those people would not and
after the war all of was completely destroyed because Churchill was afraid that the world might start back up again and even won the German military to know that there broken the code so all the work those people had done was not really disclose until 1970 and so if you're looking at text books about computers that's before 1970 you'll see the Indian act prominent as a person like trackage of computer after that he gives credit to the colossal backing Cambridge
1948 they have a
small little computer code of the baby computer and stored the program the Catherine rate to where you can you can draw the the values on the actual category 2 but when you wanted to
erase it you had the raise the entire cathode ray tube at 1 time so it's kind of inconvenient to use it in 1948 turing wrote a book called
unintelligible ashamed this is again we him develop go was still thinking about modeling the human mind with these computers and he wanted to be able to program a computer just by rewording in it but and punishing head with a gun instead code so he was going way ahead of time so the etc.
in 1949 was the really the 1st practical stored-program computer workers store yeah its program in memory it was actually using 2 rooms filled with mercury to store the
memory so there would be a lot transducer at the bottom that would create of vibration in the burglary of was of 1 or lack of vibration was 0 that vibration would move up through the memory at the speed of sound Mercury and then we get the top those transducer to tell us where there was a 0 or 1 at that point it was a destructive read it would bother to reproduce at the bottom it was about destructive it would and so 8 tubes of mercury is by going across by the way back in those days did have a concept for by his argument for a long time where the wife was 6 bits by speed bits of whatever happened by was ball will go into that but Maurice Wilkes was the head of the enzyme project you know this is a little bit about next to him I got to be him many years
later when he was the person leading me through the Museum of computers and digital equipment corporation and in all his ideas thank you for Dr.
Wilkes but
meanwhile 1950 during comes back this is paper about artificial intelligence we describe how can you testify machine is artificially intelligent or not and I think most of you are familiar with that test after this
company started to get up and say hey maybe we can start to build these computers things in a variety variety companies is still in existence as some of them are gone
all all this time species have been programmed was zeros or binary code or maybe assembly language and Grace Murray Hopper said you know I think that we can actually program these machines and higher-level language something much closer the English word and native language and people laughter social communicable of of similar languages like flow bad and did a couple rounds of that but then in 1959 she created yet another team to create language called ball at about the same time of this John Backus of IBM greater language
called Fortran and that was wrong there's a language 1st OK people along the line and you don't have to program machines in ones and zeros there are a lot there
is another symbol average reduces as they go along this is called the urban legend nobody bouts of urban legends for you so when you hear the next time you say that's not the way it happened because medical B was and yes that is made by most of my mom's robes of the blue screen of death so the 1st
version they i would the bond is this concept of lock-in from vendors their all the vendors here been all these vendors were trying to lock in their customers with all these no different operating systems and architectures and stuff like that they were just trying to get their customers that they could go to some other company I was there we never talked about that I just demonstrated to you a whole bunch
of with extremely small memories if they had memories there is extremely slow speed we were just trying to help people use those incredibly expensive computers and the thing about trying to put a multi-purpose operating system and that it can do all sorts of different job losses who is pretty hard if not impossible now Digital Equipment Corporation about you know the period of about 1960 to 1970 and a little computer called the PDP 11 we had the lab different operating systems for that if we were trying to lock in customers we only would have needed 1 but we operators system for real-time market operates system for battered operates as a part time sharing of racism for educational use it operates system for for health used and all these different operating systems to try and make this this thing this computer each year for our customers to you another little man a light
you know where the you can use a lot of is a free and open source software is some type of new things some type of that the new wasting care about in the 19 nineties in the 19 eighties back in those days there were a few professional programmers programmers were people who had problems and their writing programs
to help them solve those problems they were electrical engineers mechanical engineers and expenses people educators stuff like that that's why they were program and then when they have finished with the program to solve their problems they said when you do with this not also show you what other thing all these computers different there was no common architecture do companies structures that are a thing like that in fact even for the same company all of the time index computer was completely different than the life before what he operates system if it had what was completely different than the 1 before and so a lot of people writing their problem they're prone for a specific computer for solving very specific problem and it really wasn't a market for them to try and promote this program the whole bunch of users because not only that there are very few users this machines incredibly expensive very few people can afford that so I said that Fisher's program when I'm going to do with it and this is why they were virtually no computer science degrees back at that time because you would would be a and B can you would be in the in the curriculum of the university you would be studying physics should be studying Electrical Engineering thing this and have been doing this computer thing now I was
a university student in 1969 and across software if you could buy it and it wasn't it wasn't at your local computer store in that's his awareness computer stores if there was a computer store you 20 we'll tractor-trailer truck to haul your computer community 20 the three-phase power to plug it in the year 2010 air-conditioner called no computer storage but there was something could buy and software was pretty freaky expensive
100 thousand dollars for compilers and I use it was a university student have a hundred thousand dollars in my pocket but I didn't belong this organization called Dickerson Digital Equipment Corporation USA society and they had a whole bunch of users who also were programmers who wrote programs to solve their own problems and we're contributed to the library and and I as a student could take 15 dollars out of my pocket send it to take a stake in the paper catalog of these programs which I would look to go all the text and similar you know then this is going to go with this little computer right there that's a PDP computer had for
k 12 words of memory and their NBA be 50 thousand structures a
cycle and it costs only 80 thousand dollars we had 2 of them that our lab and next to it is the ASR
33 Teletype which read or write a paper tape but the blazing speed a lot of characters
a 2nd that you think about that you 3 thousand character program is only take 5 minutes to read or write it so that's that's it it's this is why the early days of the week comments on a code it wasn't because a comments about that is used to the paper tape and 1 time reading and writing when he is sort 33 Teletypes OK now like I said I can define the things that the said the way money 5 dollars for the text that 15 dollars reassembly while different surprise longer paper tape the example yeah but that was still a lot of fun because back in those days Purdue 50 cents so actually text were 10 images of and the you see what the regular was would not I would get the paper tape and because this was free software they would try to be software itself would to be part of world storing software from replicating the solver for mailing list software this is free software I can make copies of his over the school story possibly paper tape was that the way a sorry the teletype a duplicated sold to my roommates for a dollar a copy is about 210 copies are not only have had a for the original program and I paid for all the paper tape but I have another 10 pitchers of beer that is in that time I have presented a professor who was teaching the some of the aspects of computers who said that many of you would never be able to make a living as a professional program that we that was but can was right programs for somebody else then that writing a program for themselves in that way the parameters of the problem of the writing program for somebody else about because this is not what you did there was a few people that did that they work right have with a compiler but they use a compiler themselves or other ways but you did write programs for people who were progress yourself I've been writing programs were the people for a long time I'm still trying to figure out if he was right was the best of a few years left to go we're going to that later so
the that happened I 269 besides me being a student unix came about 1969 to people can't answer Dennis Ritchie start this thing in New Jersey called Unix 10 times in be working on a project called Multics this take it off that project because the telephone company is a monopoly OK telephone
company can have anything to do with computers OK this is compensated by the way but can't answer goes bag finds a PVP
7 out the hallway carry cast off is a group of people together start working on that this is a beer mug right next to Dunn was
not reasoning on which you remember that for little because we'll talk about it and then and rightly but it doesn't matter where you got short shifted to get to the moment they were the 1st Unix system in assembly language now and it was a cross assembler language for several 1 computer they had assembled create a binary trait BP 7 polluted it when it would work that was play with this which is an affront to look at that what was happening through the registers stuff like that and it will go back and change it and introduce going finally get it going and what we can do in all this because you want to play space travel space travel on ASR 33 Teletype it was thought OK and after a while in the everything around as did so they went and they got by me as a DEC PDP 11 that this should have another beer mug next to that because they couldn't get
anybody buy the PDP 11 at Bell Labs and because this was not exactly when the telephone company was paying for a was for pure research they could get anyway they finally
found 1 departments that all the money in the world and they really didn't care what results about and that was the 1 who financed the PDP 11 it was a legal department and that's 1 of the reasons why I unix has so much textual oriented type this stuff because can and that is convinced the legal department that they would be able to write legal briefs on this and print it off and be a lot easier I went to picture in your mind a lawyer's sitting down and using the the not the text of me I that the that's but the baby to type in the the reuse and then format it with tear off but that's what they did now in point all stuff back and forth to the previous severed PDP 11 requests we she language and P P 7 would not want the PDP 11 so they have to rewrite the entire kernel in PDP 11 somewhere and again all done with that and this at all thank god we got you got over there but this summer when the candidate and that's it that's it utterances that would make this a portable so actually received for the PDP 11 and they a this may be compiled agreement to cut off again and made it so that they had most of it written in C but the problem was when the when the entity 32 they realized is more to portability in an operating system that just structures said if it's like busses and stuff like that memory management systems and so this started to break the operating system apart into different parts to that was to make it
more portable over time and the same time they started to in that little commands to go with this and a command interpreter because manager printed returned and you shall be the commands themselves users range construct call types of filters and this is where does this macro reading but this was was a person who conceived of pipes and filters out a lot of us when we think of you things we think of pipes and filters in the shells the point that it was the McElroy we did that the factory was the head of the
department he hired and constant density in the labs the recently retired after 50 years in computer science is now teaching at Dartmouth University in New Hampshire and he often does not even mention to his students when he did
but also in 1969 market that was started it was the last time I ever shared the and and they don't recognize accepted Helsinki problems to 2 people happened to have him leave struggles board with a little bit more about it later that about that time Linux is k units escaped and initiates universities and large government labs and some commercial companies like that it's understood to give support to it they like the time sharing they like the fact that
they can have security between 2 different people in the system they like the multiprocessing all different things and that most important part was not only was the software portable across hardware but the users were portable across hardware to know about this time various
differences of so to come out this week miserable Intel chips on things like the Atari him 1
Commodore Perry these various chips of various pieces we had
cosmic health that up to analog TV screen allowed that did that you know and that is the reason that I came
across this only model that this is company error where you have to go to to travel to read a play video games and believe me so many people love that has to happen if I put this medal what's channel is that like the URL of this
CBS on the MIPS alter machine the last 1 1 Kaypro all these were computer systems that came out a lot of them we use CPM CPM was not racism that was delivered in binary only for for these different machines but
about 1976 the Apple started up garage Apple 1 apple to apple once
sold 666 thousand 66 cents eventual local Christians didn't like that at about the
same time I these computer things again don't meet the price can be really
docile 20 thousand US dollars for decent size system use you find a quarter inch floppy disk but it was mostly for professional work this very few people can
afford to bring these home on a using them for fork to extend their work hours at home so most of these are ending up all ones the the best businesses
now about this time was when the hardware is dropping like a rock but the software was still really expensive remember I said a hundred thousand dollars worth of would have been a hundred thousand dollars for compiler except that the is because the software was being written by contract you the programmer would come together with the customer and you would do things the customer's site at this criteria for my hardware and these are things that this is basically my sort would do and this is how much you know you say this is how long does it take to do it and this is how much of the charge you for
doing anything because all this type of stuff come up with a contract and then you write the software as the software didn't work with and you were paid for the software late you have paid last the software did never documentation you might not be be aware that was the way we we did software but when this is being replaced by software as a product somebody someplace said this is what I think people need under this get a whole bunch of engineers together to do it operator 1 image of it in other split stepping out like cutters and selling a friend of mine came back from Redmond Washington activism Microsoft in the early days spaces where this is said John printing money at the Microsoft is actually going on the black black plastic this but they're pretty money and that's what they were doing and this is the point where computer stores started to come I still remember my 1st computer store walked there there was an IBM there was an apple 2 and a 3 boxes and software where would the show 1 of them was MS DOS 1 of them was a modem program to elaborate attached by modem and dial-up bulletin board and other 1 was super that was it and that's where computer starting from and a problem with
production software is this a right piece of software if I'm trying to be 100 % of the customers these such really if I'm trying to reach 100 per cent of all the customers in the world is also very hard so typically what and for 70 % of the needs of 70 % of the world and therefore I come up with 49 per cent of the world's needs you see a problem a and this is why when we have 2 . 5 million computers in the world we have is really a huge gap between the functionality we really need the functionality of the winter deliberate but the other
thing about this is the 7th billion people in the world and I don't know what operates as the other 4 . 5 billion people are going to be
now the little fable of people have as you say this was variety there was 10 times would take around this table give and showed everybody that make copies of book back at AT and T lawyers were dripping blood in their mouth but if outside the cell this is commercial commercial products use 160 thousand dollars per CPU for you to put that code on there and you had to tell what the serial number of your CPU was that SEB went down itself with the serial number of replace the CPU was before we can move the code having the notice CPU of serial number of you of your laptop right off the top your head was even have 1 atom within so a binary license came out of the Sun Microsystems beat really bad so that you know some so those are 3 different our license and
unlimited users and more more companies start to go with this binary license only in and that's
what happened in 1981 that's these companies started put out this unique systems as binary licenses and
want to remain flavors of that agency the system by which had a dial-up story forward type networking called UUCP there was a swapping system not the bandit virtual memory there are 2 main compilers to its C and Fortran 77 persons BSD Unix written by a bunch of freaky college students resent TCP IP a great networking demand-paged virtual memory and 3 main languages C Fortran and Pascal the was most of the vendors went with that so last was BSD-based Ultrix from digital was as the
based are answer summary most of them idea and when we kind with system 5 and they are the only 1 that went really System Five was gone the real scope of the truce go back to school it cultural all the problems later on about 1984 there was this guy
which is called and he
like city the source code for Unix system even worse these binary systems he was having problems with his printer writing running and so on he decided he was going to start a complete project to write a complete Unix operating system and source-code you all know about this so I can go on if and computer
stores were coming into more and more prevalent and at about this time copyright and patterns were the software that think about this is the period of time the copyright and patents were like some people were applied for patents applied for copyright but there had been granted it was at this time because companies are beginning to put out these
floppy because that could be copied and people without protection against and 1st images keys long on this but then it started to be built in and people say we need to have copyright we need to have that in order to stimulate research and the development and stuff like that that I here talking for 53 minutes and I'm code of whole bunch of stuff that has as happens with now copyright and that and so is 1st time fear 97 is item that is well we really got because I was using virtual machine is back in 1973 my recent things like that all developed before copyright the only thing that really came out the copyright and patent is this paper called clipping the gallbladder that went away
while we're talking about technological technology and balance we have to think about the costs of the technology versus the capability of the technology and it's all based on things balance like how fast is the CPU versus various speeds versus the memory size but speed that's like there's a reason why things
happen and has to do more actually with business and where people can come forward than the actual state of the technology at the moment so we take a look at something like sodium versus reagents so the beta max deftly the better technology but what 1 the agenda but why because BHs was easily licensable
out so other companies to produce it and selling Sony held on the data max so tight that nobody else to make any money on that's where we lost so anyone with the Sony
Walkman there's a fantastic thing for for the 1st time you could take a musical walk around with it even after which the radio play and stuff like that to make up your little party table walk around it was great and actually that actually out that he can use something like this and this will
up again so that just
because you that doesn't
mean you can fail and all the companies on the top row companies at 1 time or another with the 2nd largest computer companies in face during the was down below were also very large and also failed magnificently by
1991 the desktop was owned by Microsoft about 90 % of Western Service systems are made up of a wide variety of different systems the new products all coming out is the Unix was still struggling with the losses and that's when to evolves as a college student started the Linux kernel project and began team we started the project by
1994 version about 1 . 0 the kernel was ready and people started to
the pieces of new ambience T at MIT corroded everything put together into some distribution soft landing systems on dangerous so no longer exist will before the time spent Slackware Red Hat always flourished but meant the
struggles 1994 I took about that wrote that match as we're going up and down the river and I said to on how how would you like to take this letter saying you're doing and put it on a missed computer to make it portable and 64 bit to give a larger aperture size because when I saw was something that we could do research in very
large address spaces and there were moved forward computer science later on I realized to use a commercial aspect of this too
that maybe we can help to revive a dying computer system industry by utilizing these things called data well systems and
today the 500 fastest computers the world 485 them randomly x 12 1 you next 1 is mixed into Microsoft because Microsoft case and this of
course listed 1st came out and that's probably didn't have any applications for but she there was this wonderful thing happening about the same time called the World Wide Web Linux was perfect for that was being done before was Solaris spot to be that way cheaper with Intel Linux and that start to give people 1 way
embedded systems in year 2000 would typically only proprietary systems but this thing came along which cause everybody's doing research is called discovered network stack networks that are very hard to get right the
key right there was this operates system that had a network stack and work all these different processes and was secure and it was pretty analytical but so after
2000 no Linux became almost overnight the
most used operating system in new designs and so today the
market was a little bit the same except Linux is starting to creep up on the desktop and is outselling apple and desktop Linux into the skies injury this time cells many more systems and also from the from now it takes time to
change people becoming user a different things I remember when my father was using some systems in the beginning he would write down every single word yes I did and come back with and people got past that they go to school board looks like you know about how you know a lot of
data works and so they can handle different this so it's
not the best
technology that often wins but the technology which is marketed the best technology where most people can make money off that the man the technology that people have control over there software that's why I stop talking about free software of to talk about some we freedom instead
and talk about some slavery and I also talk about and this is people I talk about control because that's what they want they want control in the
near future we have a whole bunch of different things that are happening the Internet of Things the system memory when the project that HP is doing with what they call the machine but tonics instead of electronics to be able to connect things that a technology where we can actually create analog computer do calculations hundreds of times faster than digital step-by-step computer quantum computing and artificial intelligence and that of retiring in about 5 years because a whole view of
computers is changing too this started with high performance it went to but then you are doing
something about and the
Raspberry Pi
because this is the way that a lot of high school students see computers today and this is how they
really were and we really need to get
the incoming freshmen to be much more ready to go the
types of systems that we
had the coming out of the antecedent the BBC is promoting something called a bit micro they wouldn't give away for each every 7th grader coming into the school system this fall they're actually changing some of the programs that doctor who is going to be talking about things to do with the Michael that stuff like that and what I show you
a lot of this stuff because you to
build something like this this is a super computer that's in a briefcase and not only can demonstrate high-performance computing on this but I can
also do a high-availability computing heterogenous computing energies systems administration and I could take it out and put it back in the short period of time in a couple weeks on that and we we do this do cost reduction on and I hope to get the whole price down way below 400 dollars at the publishing and making I bear with me just for a couple more minutes actually did this part of the the talk back in 2010 2005 years a good I will show you what predicted 2015 Nokia gives up the windows of West and users enjoyed this is where my consumption of the cost 10 billion dollars
present our applied that work the 1 to produce jobs and in Latin America the trace
of 1 millionth of systems administrator entrepreneur or a little far away from that but it is moving forward and best using
abilities of all I remember when I wrote this here is still the CEO Microsoft OK now you see was a basketball team 2020 then
there was given Linux supercomputer has 1 trillion processes leave this as America with the big kernel lock if we previous Windows NT but this would cost another 35 trillion dollars USD for the royalties that's all that's about the fund the small on rack
2020 Steve Jobs's OS has not been used because they were holding a supercomputer wrong 2 thousand 38
software patents are ruled invalid worldwide there really stupid the US Justice Department bits Microsoft Apple words and because both companies are out of business and we called would
be and violate leanest evolves retires it is still but it wasn't it was scuba diving passes his position to his protege has been working with them so but it was still like the supervisor and leaders joins the moon is
my retirement projects that those events in an arena of Math music microcomputing microbrewery Michael wondering like and you in the year
2 thousand and what you have to be reported up was
please stop assuming BiIly
2060 the culture readings will these few
very looking person in the would usage years and use of the spoken user the word but in some was crime and so people about the music of the mobile overviews and when using growth rooms of but would use surgery but like the wind direction but through movement whose belong to the but would you mn numbers on if you want to persons whose were gruesome all who knew what was in the mood music resumes you all
Logical constant
Slide rule
Freeware
Process (computing)
Computer animation
Software
Content (media)
Object (grammar)
Open set
Slide rule
Computer program
Product (category theory)
Mainframe computer
Variety (linguistics)
Multiplication sign
System administrator
Mass
Computer
Computer
Formal language
Software
Square number
Subtraction
Metropolitan area network
Electronic program guide
System administrator
Digital signal
Symbol table
Degree (graph theory)
Process (computing)
Computer animation
Extreme programming
System programming
Computer science
Resultant
Metropolitan area network
Musical ensemble
Pascal, Blaise
Pascal, Blaise
Multiplication sign
Virtual machine
Time series
Bit
Power (physics)
Calculation
Computer animation
Cuboid
Pattern language
Block (periodic table)
Metropolitan area network
Metropolitan area network
Device driver
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Order (biology)
Streaming media
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Moving average
Client (computing)
Euler angles
Data type
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Power (physics)
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Web crawler
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Physical law
Virtual machine
Streaming media
Water vapor
Euler angles
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Power (physics)
Category of being
Device driver
Computer animation
Factory (trading post)
Internet service provider
Web page
Babbage, Charles
Slide rule
Complex (psychology)
Computer program
Building
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Mereology
Computer
Number
Power (physics)
Order (biology)
Mathematics
Mathematician
Office suite
Error message
Subtraction
God
Dialect
Set (mathematics)
Table (information)
Degree (graph theory)
Calculation
Word
Computer animation
Personal digital assistant
Right angle
Computer program
State of matter
Multiplication sign
Element (mathematics)
Virtual machine
Machine code
Computer
Calculation
Pointer (computer programming)
Order (biology)
Computer animation
Whiteboard
Figurate number
Series (mathematics)
Computer program
Touchscreen
Multiplication sign
Virtual machine
Einstein field equations
Time series
Machine code
Machine code
Number
Frequency
Word
Computer animation
Whiteboard
Smart card
Data acquisition
Series (mathematics)
Read-only memory
Turing test
Solvable group
Multiplication sign
State of matter
Virtual machine
Computer
Turing-Maschine
Table (information)
Number
Maxima and minima
Computer animation
output
Angular resolution
Data type
Subtraction
Metropolitan area network
Boolean algebra
Metropolitan area network
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Tape drive
Virtual machine
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Port scanner
Zuse, Konrad
Computer
Computer
Symbol table
Calculation
Computer animation
Mathematics
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Logic gate
Square number
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Basis (linear algebra)
Bell and Howell
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Computer simulation
Computer
Computer
Type theory
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Word
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Resultant
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Read-only memory
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Building
Turing test
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Point (geometry)
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Shape (magazine)
Zuse, Konrad
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ABC <Computer>
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Angle
Clifford algebra
Integer
Units of measurement
Area
Game controller
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Read-only memory
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Punched tape
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Lorenz curve
Code
Axiom of choice
Multiplication sign
Direction (geometry)
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Virtual machine
Online help
Water vapor
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Stack (abstract data type)
Perspective (visual)
Field (computer science)
Population density
Authorization
Gastropod shell
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Error message
God
Information
Electronic mailing list
Parallel port
Counting
Evolute
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Computer animation
Angle
Blog
Gravitation
Right angle
Whiteboard
Pressure
Metropolitan area network
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Hopper, Grace Murray
Moment (mathematics)
Computer program
Electronic mailing list
Virtual machine
Computer
Computer
Mathematics
Computer animation
Crash (computing)
Ontology
Arithmetic progression
Point (geometry)
Metropolitan area network
Computer program
Hopper, Grace Murray
Prisoner's dilemma
Computer program
Shape (magazine)
Calculus
Computer
Local Group
Computer
Calculation
Computer animation
Meeting/Interview
Term (mathematics)
Crash (computing)
Metropolitan area network
Metropolitan area network
Building
Turing test
Hopper, Grace Murray
Multiplication sign
Point (geometry)
Floating point
Virtual machine
Time series
Binary code
Zuse, Konrad
Graph (mathematics)
Computer
Local Group
Software bug
Word
Computer animation
Meeting/Interview
Cycle (graph theory)
Window
God
Game controller
Turing test
Computer animation
Decimal
Digital signal
Machine code
Mereology
Computer
Computer
Turing test
Computer program
Multiplication sign
Source code
Educational software
Computer simulation
Binary code
Machine code
Computer simulation
Disk read-and-write head
Computer
Entire function
Quantum state
Maxima and minima
Category of being
Explosion
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Bit rate
Read-only memory
Point (geometry)
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Read-only memory
Greatest element
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Projective plane
Tube (container)
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Bit
Parameter (computer programming)
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Reading (process)
Dataflow
Existence
Variety (linguistics)
Multiplication sign
Virtual machine
Similarity (geometry)
Binary code
Icosahedron
Computer
Computer
Formal language
Roundness (object)
Read-only memory
Software testing
output
Turing test
Hopper, Grace Murray
Assembly language
Artificial neural network
Binary code
State of matter
Maxima and minima
Word
Computer animation
Function (mathematics)
Telecommunication
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Species
Digitizing
Computer program
Multiplication sign
Virtual machine
1 (number)
Binary code
Computer
Formal language
Revision control
Average
output
MiniDisc
Physical system
Computer architecture
Operations research
Touchscreen
Real number
Line (geometry)
Batch processing
Symbol table
Symbol table
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Finite difference
Function (mathematics)
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Central processing unit
Read-only memory
Computer program
Freeware
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Multiplication sign
Insertion loss
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Mereology
Computer
Machine code
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Subtraction
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Physical system
Shared memory
Open set
Process (computing)
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Software
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Quicksort
Data type
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Writing
Computer program
Context awareness
Multiplication sign
Virtual machine
Student's t-test
Computer
Computer
Bulletin board system
Video game
Whiteboard
Software
Data structure
Physical system
Computer architecture
Dreiphasensystem
Physicalism
Student's t-test
Degree (graph theory)
Subject indexing
Computer animation
Software
Data storage device
Universe (mathematics)
Computer science
Local ring
Computer program
Read-only memory
Student's t-test
Library catalog
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Computer
Computer
Bulletin board system
Compiler
Word
Computer animation
Whiteboard
Software
Universe (mathematics)
Self-organization
Digital Equipment Corporation
Data structure
Computer program
Email
Multiplication sign
Electronic mailing list
Student's t-test
Machine code
Parameter (computer programming)
Mereology
Computer
Computer
Bulletin board system
Compiler
Punched tape
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Software
Whiteboard
Software
Right angle
Cycle (graph theory)
Quicksort
Arithmetic progression
Reading (process)
Writing
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Assembly language
Projective plane
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Moment (mathematics)
Right angle
Student's t-test
Computer
Local Group
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Physical system
Point (geometry)
File format
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Bell and Howell
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Entire function
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Data structure
Data type
Operating system
Physical system
God
Filter <Stochastik>
Point (geometry)
Multiplication sign
Constructor (object-oriented programming)
Student's t-test
Disk read-and-write head
System call
Population density
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Interpreter (computing)
Factory (trading post)
Gastropod shell
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Macro (computer science)
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Reading (process)
Metropolitan area network
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Bit
Mereology
Portable communications device
Portable communications device
Escape character
Computer animation
Software
Torvalds, Linus
Computer hardware
Universe (mathematics)
Computer hardware
Whiteboard
Information security
Multiplication
Units of measurement
Physical system
ARPANET
Standard deviation
Keyboard shortcut
Tape drive
Virtual machine
Analogy
Computer simulation
Icosahedron
Computer
Computer
Uniform resource locator
Single-precision floating-point format
Computer animation
Read-only memory
Commodore VIC-20
Analogy
System programming
Video game
Data storage device
Subtraction
Error message
Task (computing)
ASCII
Computer animation
Multiplication sign
Floppy disk
1 (number)
MiniDisc
Computer
Local ring
Physical system
Cloning
Point (geometry)
Computer program
Product (category theory)
Multiplication sign
Design by contract
Computer
Computer
Medical imaging
Heegaard splitting
Operator (mathematics)
Software
Computer hardware
Cuboid
Exception handling
Modem
Metropolitan area network
Spacetime
Product (category theory)
Bulletin board system
Compiler
Data mining
Computer animation
Software
Computer hardware
Website
Quicksort
Data type
Laptop
Product (category theory)
Serial port
Variety (linguistics)
Multiplication sign
Cellular automaton
Binary code
Machine code
Disk read-and-write head
Functional (mathematics)
Computer
Number
Product (business)
Computer animation
Software
Software
Central processing unit
Right angle
Metropolitan area network
Pascal's triangle
Uniqueness quantification
Binary code
Binary code
Student's t-test
Computer
Compiler
Formal language
Inclusion map
Duality (mathematics)
Virtual memory
BSD UNIX
Computer animation
Computer network
Revision control
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Physical system
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Freeware
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Projective plane
Source code
Open source
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Complete metric space
Portable communications device
Computer
Machine code
Computer
Word
Frequency
Causality
Computer animation
Software
Data storage device
Software
Pattern language
Operating system
Modem
Physical system
Read-only memory
Key (cryptography)
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Software developer
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Chemical equation
Virtual machine
Computer network
Machine code
Medical imaging
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Read-only memory
Order (biology)
Central processing unit
Bus (computing)
Central processing unit
Maxima and minima
Beta function
Computer animation
State of matter
Multiplication sign
Moment (mathematics)
Table (information)
Maxima and minima
Product (category theory)
Suite (music)
Variety (linguistics)
Server (computing)
Multiplication sign
Projective plane
State of matter
Compiler
Insertion loss
Student's t-test
Student's t-test
Density of states
Computer
Computer
Kernel (computing)
Computer animation
Torvalds, Linus
Kernel (computing)
System programming
Subtraction
Row (database)
Physical system
Revision control
Kernel (computing)
Computer animation
Torvalds, Linus
Kernel (computing)
Multiplication sign
Distribution (mathematics)
Bit
Student's t-test
Computer
Alpha (investment)
Physical system
Operations research
Server (computing)
Multiplication sign
Mereology
Computer
Open set
Machine code
Supercomputer
Computer
Web 2.0
Computer animation
Personal digital assistant
Computer science
Physical system
Address space
Metropolitan area network
Freeware
Process (computing)
Multiplication sign
Cellular automaton
Drop (liquid)
Bit
Stack (abstract data type)
Stack (abstract data type)
Portable communications device
Computer animation
Causality
Read-only memory
Computer network
System programming
Right angle
Operating system
Laptop
Physical system
Metropolitan area network
Service (economics)
Beta function
Game controller
Maxima and minima
Word
Mathematics
Moment of inertia
Computer animation
Software
Whiteboard
Metropolitan area network
Physical system
Standard deviation
Read-only memory
Multiplication sign
Virtual machine
Analogy
Knot
Student's t-test
Computer
Computer
Read-only memory
Software
Integrated development environment
Data storage device
Quantum computer
Subtraction
Physical system
Metropolitan area network
Game controller
Artificial neural network
Projective plane
Analog computer
Student's t-test
Open set
Calculation
Hochleistungsrechnen
Internetworking
Computer animation
Computer hardware
Internet der Dinge
Digitizing
Quantum computer
Laptop
Standard deviation
Computer program
Gradient
System administrator
Multiplication sign
Mathematical singularity
Knot
Analogy
Computer simulation
Mereology
Bit
Computer
Food energy
Computer
Supercomputer
Frequency
Cache (computing)
Read-only memory
Whiteboard
Reduction of order
Information systems
MiniDisc
Physical system
Graphics processing unit
Metropolitan area network
Real number
Information technology consulting
Core dump
Bit
High availability
Port scanner
Portable communications device
Power (physics)
Single-precision floating-point format
Computer animation
Computer hardware
System programming
Modul <Datentyp>
Videoconferencing
Central processing unit
Electronic visual display
Prototype
Data type
Window
Metropolitan area network
Inheritance (object-oriented programming)
Process (computing)
System administrator
Mathematical singularity
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Computer
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Kernel (computing)
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Window
Inheritance (object-oriented programming)
Freeware
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Cloud computing
Bit
Mathematical analysis
Computer
Supercomputer
Position operator
Word
Computer animation
Software
Torvalds, Linus
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Physical system
Position operator
Metropolitan area network
Word
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Freeware
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