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BSD Multiplicity

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good morning and the so my today today's top is on if the multiplicity of a K virtualization although virtualization off 1st to various specific implementations my name is Michael Baxter I have a technical journal call for testing and his great back
so what is multiplicity is the introduction of plurality to the conventionally singular model of promise of a licensed Get units so the queen and why
did the license well copyright issues can be very emotional and the DST community has done very well avoiding them institutional and briefly on the
licenses the obvious to all of you less is more 3 obligations acknowledge ownership indemnify the owner of the rights and use it how BACK sets and many folks out there have the emotional concerns but is generally self-defeating not contribute you work back in short shut up and had the developers not like
so motivations for multiplicity there is the traditional separation compartment realization containment imprisonment and isolation of how systems applications users very useful for cross-platform development and initial troop was used to build the initial BSD system I can add a hope at Unix system that Midvale to China and decreasingly the consolidation of systems to save power and resources and of course all things
cloud so should through some historical
context just to help explain some of the newer technologies that are here and why the exciting so in the dark ages we their mainframes there were mechanical devices and 1975 we finally had familiar 1 transistor RAM as we know it we had the hierarchical file system we had the idea mainframe precedences and they have the time had asymmetrical multiprocessing symmetrical does not comfort from another decade and units moved to scene and leaving 70 to Republican Goldberg established the formal requirements for a but for virtual Izabal third-generation architecture far purposes units became
quite familiar based on C this with some restrictions available for your inspection and modification of life was good so briefly on
public Engelberg their formal requirements specified that the hardware virtual machine and its virtual machine Manager monitor and you'll see that come up dictates that a gas should the underlying environment should essentially be often to to the guest and guest should run unmodified on it and each of the official on black software implementations of a CPU it should the performance of its execution on the CPU itself in hardware in the virtual machine monitor should provide resource control to the gas such that it can provide and remove Hardware that's available to it so little more historical context come
5 yes the units was starting the make an impact with TCP-IP and traditional UNIX which is based was becoming quite familiar with the phillies we can take for granted and have evolved forward rather than completely reinvented 1 key point AT&T raise the cost of academic units which motivated a great many wonderful developers out there to provide alternatives and we saw the 1st usable Intel processor BI 386 with an a menu and the someone workstation in sequence in Oregon introduced I 386 symmetrical multiprocessing
and so essentially this is everything we have today only a little faster and cheaper so my 95
that motivation from AT&T brought the familiar this used to the forefront of which are based on 386 BST from jolt to believe and something called Linux came
on single asset so by 2 thousand and 5 the newly liberated the STs were starting to introduce new features such as previous he's about Linux and the license itself was further unencumbered by removing the advertising clause and the introduce jailed we study to see 64 bit architecture architectures with all forward zen came along and late in the game the Intel and AMD hardware acceleration and all for percolation and somewhat parenthetically son brought the effects of do so bringing up in the present
previously 7 arrive with experimentally of us support net has stabilized quite nicely a key point for this talk Intel introduced and AMD simultaneously but only in of wood for the context today I'll use that page tables which allow for far more efficient harder virtualization on on on commodity hardware I mean the previously virtual network status that the interest interesting in the context of fertilization and most recently Peter and introduced the high which leverages the aforementioned page tables and directed idea which we'll get
into those basically come 2012 Let's party like it's 19 85 we have the 19 seventies precedences we have commodity hardware we can afford we have open-source and freely shareable units so will and looking at
it architecturally there is the underlying hardware context that allows everything about it to take place and the various opportunities at each level 2 pluralized lies home terminating closure just just their factory for mother boards of executing system of little storage where things things interesting of in the software kernel context with facilities in process UserLand context on and I'll look at different point in the stack and how the virtualized in BST and BSE has traditionally provided most problem of choices out there and
programmatically partner provides the instruction-set architecture to the to the kernel which offers an EDI upwards to the these and applications of parenthetical but mind in the whole broader context so by layer once upon a
time this was impossible we would never all have to a workstation in front of us on our desk and 1 in our pocket which is just a the revolution so that play a key role in all the tools we have today
all touch briefly on software machine multiplicity it's 1 of the oldest solutions out there is quite inefficient and traditionally in the open-source community we used union you and virtual box but there are some BSD license components out there and the Jets Newell project is planning I 386 in in the 64 support such that we may have our own and Judea QEMU equivalent in the community and with new tools like beehive providing the modern virtual is hardware virtualization of magic that could get very interesting in this year historian there's image for older platforms from an administrator's perspective you generally have a file system in a disk image and you at this time I remove memory from the host operating system and that the thing will see in
quite a few solutions specified hardware specified this image I think you're booting from the the and stuff memory it's pretty straightforward folly that elsewhere Beck Engelbart would not approve the such solutions because they're so inefficient but they're quite portable there very useful they have their place and hypervisor machine
multiplicity on annual work was then on will be as these and that yes there is a server I did work with that is the for a year it was remarkably stable and the goal with then is to have a nice 1972 hypervisor of 1985 PC hardware prior to prior to any of the hard work of assistance but that has fortunate come along and an integrated like the software virtual machines it how you generally have a file system in a disk image you have an external kernel that is good about then system you that memory from the host systems and a key point here it's obviously license very cool hack but in the broader scheme it is it's limit
configuration file for enlightenment look something like that specifying memory specifying the good image and it did have early hardware pass through which is quite see the point at your hardware CD-ROM and from it and as we learn
that the developer summit there are a number of new features coming to free previous such as and virtualized yes and non-zero support and their various parties out there pushing for MIPS support Cambridge so an honorable mention Amazon E C 2 Call personal is sticking around and could probably go full talk on that and leaders of quite exciting but I correct me if I'm wrong it can't run in the environment on modern hardware as a prototype and then upload it's getting very close is at through them or modify them OK so his answer was that and hopefully previously 9 comma decimal 1 you will have a workstation side simulation of the sea to which would be quite cool for those using it also mention of the developer summit is Microsoft had a Hyper-V support for free BSD again I don't think we'll have an emulation of I fully open-source Hyper-V on our desktop but there's different and out therefore such solutions hypervisor caveats some of you may have come
across the female host where someone asserted quite proudly that fertilization has lots of security benefits and theater chimed in and he had some concerns about and to to the key point for me is X 86 fertilizations about basically placing another newly full colonel full of new bugs on top of a nasty x 86 architecture would barely has dropped age protection than running operating system on the other side of this brand new pile of acts so you have looted him on and on so key point another nearly
full colonel zen is again an elegant hacked it is large it is not quite the Linux it's not quite BST its Zen and those hackers that there might not know where to start in this
community and as Newell enters the room the along came beehive which was the goal of a 1972 style take 2 hypervisor on 2008 hardware with her harbor virtualization assistants key point and it breaks with the past by requiring these new features have the staying time does away with very large and amount of software that's required to say intercept page misses the things which relating to You've probably heard of the VTX on Intel hardware that's been the virtual later for several years extended page tables came along to assist with of multiple guest machines and their proper handling of memory and efficient handling of memory especially for those of page misses and the G. support is piece a PC-AT past you may pass through which allows for however devices to be passed through to a specific guest as I mentioned can be done and then to degree so it was announced that
I obviously can't 2010 if some previously 9 and 10 and I'm experimenting with a support requires those features which were introduced in the halon processes and board if you want to jump and here the message look for top helped the I'm not sure if I have proven the choice of nickname and EPT generally is included I believe in every case the include with up an optional TD support and it leverages quite heavily the vert i project and the office is here room and that's maturing quickly and entering the tree and if enough with
red I it's while a standard out there that's implemented in Linux and other systems are is Microsoft using retired to throughout though not yet universal in opac Scality if you want to try beehive it requires a slightly modified figure the guest primarily for getting it to move on as opposed to execute which is quite good like many of the solution we look at a uses this images for gas storage like is then it is an external kernel and if you support files to get going and you'll have a good directory just like a traditional holds that external to the this device get moving at User Group of and starting with what action to 1 use the developers that there here's
a quick summary of the modified components and host components out there that allow for it happens to be high utility beehive load utility DMM CTL utility front end of our character that interfaces and the key point the kernel module which allows for all of the leveraging of the hardware assistance there are a few components modified forget that it's not too not too crazy in the free easy to keep track of a kernel confidence generally with most module most of the of modules and devices disabled because you do not require them will not be seeing them in hardware to run it you need some version and an updated Minitel's which is they primarily I believe the new assembler which is required for the new hardware assistance features there are some licensing issues that need to be addressed their such that if you are a slang LLVM an assembler developer on let's talk to the tenancy what options are there there is a Host package out there again a a guest is built without modules pre straightforward and with many of the solutions at lunchtime you would subtract memory from the host with the higher you in your alluded outcomes specify how much memory will actually think it and then to use but site how much memory goes the underlying host and that freezer of a memory for guests this is the output
prior to giving you a standard food screen screen for you choose to disable a CPI etc. and there are countless
opportunities with the highest you want to get involved I'm very glad to see that some stepped up to do a Google Summer of Code project to do by a simulation and get us 1 significant step closer to supporting for an operating systems like Windows and Linux because things like other be a seasoned Linux are open source introducing them modifying the blue component should not be too difficult if anyone wants to get their hands wet with that and the support is on the to do list although currently it only supports Intel's added harbor assistance features but as as described yesterday suspended reboot I should be much easier in a virtual environment like this as opposed to taking on so many different video cards and network interfaces and such that have made suspend resume made a nightmare on many operating systems currently we have about monopolizes the CQ Q. that's given our core that's given to the gas such that there are opportunities to introduce CPU throttling that that down and be careful with that but perhaps memory overcommit such that you only use the memory that is immediately required rather than a full simulation of hardware memory or allocation of hardware memory most VN where tight solutions like quite elegantly and but even more documentation so proper man pages and the like and key point there is that anyone can get involved that does not require you to be a kernel hacker
so I've been doing some have worked with the help of Newell and Peter Briand and you and I've read a script for building just to make it are quite speedy him and I've build a component rather world War into build mechanism traditionally this appears to previously way of building world and achieving your goal swells file because we have only requires a package and it as a guest kernels I've limited down to the the components and they get kernel and at the moment most documentation of their here's my fault and I hope to soon have an 8 comma decimal 0 guessed it with 2 3 most likely and a neat trick like no beehive such that because it is previously on previous the all of you were favorite tricks will usually work it is it is authentic previously and during a session I quickly banged out a script included the bill script to launch your guest as a jail because it's a disk image that you can mount with a user land and treated like you would any other systems that modularity is possible you find a more at the head of a word and cull suggesting that such the highest
and that raises a question how this affair in the open goal requirements it appears that would have been successful if they want follow of fidelity to the software it is pretty much that and and will be purely that once we have full by a simulation and it thinks it's on its own and hardware it's efficient it's offloading most work to the CPU as opposed to Penley and software which at the extreme is in full software emulator like GNU and the resources are controlled by the underlying host and beckoning limiting things that can also mean passing say a network card directly to the guest which they're cool and that's them through the black hole device it masks the device from the underlying system and provided to the guest
continuing on this theme in as this time I will show you behind an action of it's been a long bumpy road to handles hardware plurality in the system I mean once upon a time like that a just back there was thus CPU that that you name it and handling multiple disks with radio handling mobile processing is still a debate rages on handling multiple network wings and create way waves are challenges and i it's high just 1 point out that it's non-trivial and it's been a key focus of the project for decades and they're still work to be done getting a
step up the stacked into Chrome multiplicity Dragonfly BSD has introduced the kernel are really useful for kernel debugging but 1 could essentially set up a guest jailtime environment with that a quick introduction of what it looks like and coming up and is the sixers user-mode that is the very similar and are there any that if the people in the house I feel it's also about that it's no walked for that such release and the software in its
multiplicity getting a step above the kernel of a few years back a researcher and I came up with the mole project which pluralize the top half of the kernel and allowed for independent unit processes and in turn user lands what's unique there is that it was fully federated such that you have your in a process and the user land another 1 another 1 you can kill the first one because they're fully equal partners it was a fascinating project it still boots it was built on it is the 3 1 and we keep coming back to it in conversations when trying to solve problems too and as we get to save Federated social media solutions where we all have our own personal site that provides content under our own terms of service such things may be very interesting such there's a guest server out there that you visit have an instance on hand depart and you can call that cloud if you like getting back to the earliest BST virtualization and mobile multiplicity true jail answers jail have been around quite some time true especially in 79 creative virtual root directory a few words on that it
was initially provided as a build environment it was never intended for security but it prove somewhat useful do not rely on it exclusively for security but I was 1st in the excited about how should put this 1st started using years the because of jail which was built on top of this will
get to that jail takes up to the next level yet takes this summer route shall we say probably of the familiar with this but home gives it the simulated the appearance of a full system and you can proudly give some little piece of paper with the root password and they can they in charge but it's a very clever extension of the root the basics and that has recently had a whole lot of option that added to it but you specify where your user will be given at the address you can launch C and want to the normal then the server it's quite impressive at experimented with using this images for storage but to make sure you have a C K them arrest me at the whole system down while watching year jails and it uses standard memory management and J. prosody yes jails are only like to see their own processes I asked pH Capon camp a few years back so what are the limits of jail and early on he create a simple script to initiate jails and the brought for coffee after 64 thousand instances that's impressive and compared to say heavyweight solutions like zen you will not be achieving that on Hardware from 10 years ago them it's pretty impressive and there's some neat things coming down the pike relating to 1 they
worked with B I guess and this
week Chris chris more gave me a little introduction to what's going on in Warden on PC-BSD and because it is institutionalized previously components extending it is very simple such that through a nice view he has added user management package management
and of Z a fast storage management such as each jail can have its own Dfs which is nice and quick thinking at the finish so management very and and the basic user administration terminals of jail update packages and that exploit it for portability I have not seen in the BEST is any true checkpointing and migration of life systems but the fs is a very exciting tool for such things such that perhaps build you customize g of a snapshot entoptic existing prototype move that to another system and go to town it's
it's quite exciting T added a package management Damen management and the lines between a server and PC guess the and freeing as a blurring all because of modularity of the underlying system
if years ago other research project was system based on the cis traced device it's so difficult to experiment with an open BST and this was a full jail built on the sisters device which is a prop process interception tool like with it on Linux s Linux there are some fundamental security concerns from that approach but it was a very useful hat just like the original troop we're building system within it proved quite useful
for a long time previously and others have had Compat Linux and I do want to push experiments like running center less on there's a wiki page out there previous the wiki it would be essentially a jail that is launching the actual Unix code an excellent and brakes on updates on the way today there was mention of some GCC issues that might freak out I briefly what What's your figure the host 8 no and what version of it is the recognize stable on of Dell's 64 bit harder presumably but using 32 bit emulation for the the next packet and what version of central and effect using 5 comma decimal expanding experimenting with sex have you found any keen missing the API calls are anything from which compact show stoppers the paper 1 like a show-stopper was it had portable runtime that could be built that its that's very encouraging and your talked about that so looking forward to the present many many years ago markers that stood a talk on his virtual network sector that virtual it'll work stacks and apparently there's a BSc talk interview about that very exciting work but very challenging and handling every edge case has proven difficult for everyone involved over the years and the result so far has been virtual network sex for previous the jails and perhaps and elaborate on that after the session on the naturally we'd love to see beehive support foreign guests and the there are action being taken place to make that happen certain parts of the high fundamentally portable and it may truly be the BEST hypervisor rather than the previously hypervisor that is quite except it's interesting for other other BST and perhaps even when Mac OS 10 of the during here on you have to grill him on their interest I hope that meant obviously working because it simply previously in whatever works elsewhere should work there and I'm quite excited about the fact that many of the nifty appliances out there could work on it such that you might 1 the concerns by the competition but you know a place year VMware where system with freeness itself or vice-versa and it's 1 of the modular and again many conversations compact tumult hunting me
for environment the euro BSE con- call for papers and participation closes very soon on Razer Hennessy than to your basic on 1 of OK to get a paper and there they will provide the accommodations and travel it is awesome and it for those in North America it's a wonderful whole different world that we have little piece of here when when folks come over and visit some of them also ask on is a bit weak in the BEST is despite Reilly's early embrace of them and ties to use the kernel of the basic policy in the BEST early documentation books OS comes from the Portland it's a great event the various ways to get in there and practice that without paying the full price be the Leadership Summit which is free of charge I love this season this he faces there and it is obviously con coming up if I haven't
emphasized your beastly kernel get to that they just close the call for proposals on a recent grant offer from the free previous the foundation but maybe they can be nudged into extending that how of all the countless opportunities described you might want to say hey can fix this here's what it would cost and go to town I
hope I knew this you can't I gave
can go without this if time you
OK of you're obviously creed in poland it should be a lot of fun hope to see you there so thank you that's the core of the talk I think I have time to do a beehive demonstration of great questions yes year ancient but we have an answer here it's certainly not supporting I 386 64 support yet that's on the to do list and partly off it is that all of you I I would like to are any of them modern enough to
efficiently give of current yes the again other questions it we have signal is there find it but have never tried this laptop on such that the in the end of Kay yes I'm doing keyboard shortcuts I don't know if there's a software incantation yeah I don't think I will let me give a beehive demo here in front to trying groups so if you have a text fingers crossed
who is using 1 of the mentioned solutions anyone out there was there was primarily lots of just of man what quantities of jails this defense of also
hosting environment or internal tool what have been the greatest benefits
and things in the high now but the I doing know z of us but it the look you the
you don't that on the right there is plenty here the the unit other solutions being is out there to for C 2 which is being clobbered in the corner there right column what is anything that's still not working what the OK the and his on that OK so the 2 issues currently that updating is not yet fully supported because there is the customized kernel and you'll be paying free Windows license because it's using some simulator Windows components at that accurately this looks quite exciting so this work and here is a beehive guest and time permitting all even show how it's built there is the boot directory which should be quite familiar this is largely off-the-shelf free BST with with the over dial-up devices there's devices on the module kernel and it's plain old previously with the few little build OK as I've done a foreigner megabyte this device the boot directory is just like that based upon the host very similar and I had a few scripts to get going to consume screen have solved the reaching over arms this script will just very manually low the kernel module to set up the bridge networking thing on the Wi-Fi here will get it working working but that's to sh you press I I just couldn't find the 0 and at a video let you look at that 1st more OK I will what through those who might need meals helped a great for the bridge networking working out a few little tricks on on why the which need to be brought up after the guest is but calling the CTO utility giving it a name destroying its exists already calling beehive load specifying the amount of memory the the laser pointer specifying the amount of memory from low specifying behind them this can be done away with and is the guest of honor have 769 bytes such defined again the names and simultaneously running another command beehive only correcting what to think use and what's going on here old the dashed gene 0 pH us I've got it working I haven't delved into all the knobs to tweak but fortran their countless not to work with it and then watching the of choosing the this device naming and getting the networking going the state runner and that should look quite familiar this standard boot screen and off we go into genuine previously on previously 10 open to requests on interrogating I have to figure should show our the in
meeting at no device only the the host only
has a package containing utilities can be kernel modules so this they stop previously 9 system to which I've added those the gas has a few motor components modified adjusted make this magic possible this is not looked at a Biosyn gone from their you've bypassed much of that just get working on but the 99 per cent stop previously the it should the the I forget this new world anyway it's it's stopped previously the question was lower Bfts it's off-the-shelf previously on currently I always blocking it's a bit hokey but they're working on that and Bradley Comment any issues on on the networking that might be candidates haven't done DHCP to walk through it that might pixel march fermentation the ECB should work has significant time into it theory no let's look at the host environment are we going on time other questions OK will 1st no they're tied to the CPU cost such as single limited by the number of host at the was the the the the
so both committed was augmented cost and virtual chorus has supported the incidence of have it the the OK that's truly in there of it so you can have a one-to-one relationship to the given core or have virtual cause has frozen here is a taste of the script I have made available that allows you to run through 9 menu options to set up a host and guest some of the just housekeeping Wen-tsang loaded variables but yes and to of my brain it only
thinks for the and so this will reduce the host to 4 gigabytes of RAM out of 8 on this machine because it's criminal these in this down Asmussen metal calculators that just make settle more idiot-proof we successor debug output just so that too intrusive but I haven't found that to be a problem 1 could well the crew module of who but for experimentation I don't get recommended by the script will put in all these variables in this comment them out free experimentation that's so the whole walk through this if you like to see it and very well noticing and I did get the jail working I and the we know that the so let's give the jail a try and I think that will launch the background so jail here is the exact same disk image mounted on mode and launched as a jails is got it down but see it will not be the all using it because the the the kernels external you would want interest image but yes you could upgrade them or downgrade them but I think for just the utility aspect 1 can put in jail was shall nothing more make your modifications and go from there if you haven't is modified mounted the disk image the back to the script walk through this with you what I'm doing is taking the stock user source from previous from the install this I am union mounting upon source batch beehive I read only underneath and then dropping components on an SE checkouts the result is that you have a full beehive search tree from which you can build the kernel and modules and if you you know the Union out you get just the modified components very elegant it that I have culture could fill the site for that at is this Connie said in that direction to check number I go and that step simply check out sources and I consciously put didn't quest put press any key and but the key of your choice the see for let's go through the bill of the components this is building the the kernel on John and building a very crude package but it does work if there's a package maintainer here I'd love to talk about how to to properly do that but I just taught at components and given the basic framework to use with package installed the script will allow you to install if you really lazy and on find that and let's look at building guess so the key parts of a
guest build or the kernel itself which is modified for use on highest and then building a usable disk image with the user LAN that's well documented classic techniques and backup jails I had a separate disk image for a user a separate 1 for for Holman it it works which is Mitri office UK them because 1 bad image will panic the whole system are potentially yes so we use that was Gaussian and recall Pavel talk about possible solutions to that contain the rules ESS in that I do not know It's nice have so many new opportunities in this context so it's a pretty stark kernel build but the result will be that directory tree where it's the such group which is very much like the holes and pulling most components from coast summer modified but I believe the just image regions standard Indians dumping the use land on it all on over the wire by just expanding the base package it was a bit of a flashback to see the series and previous based on in the B floppy size the images like no no no I don't know if those can be pulled down off the wire but for experimenting with a mounting a disk image I am Pauling's that from their source from source and just keeping it as stock previously as possible and that's I think the greatest strength here for the questions comments this a believes Oneal the in the so the answer was that the of the gas has a virtual serial consul provided a host 1 could experiment with say screen or and the other 1 max and potentially rotative Insieme somewhere so focus and will you had a question for you very basic Dutch didn't further results in these slides because of the blocking I there are some concerns the ways of the world what has to be run for performance this the I think what of in meals answer was that they primarily using the the CI device pass through such that a devices passed to the guest and it's near native performance everything they do is quite lockstep and linear which is the quite impressive from the authenticity perspective only I think I went on top of my active of Mt directory but what we do in our yes discover that the jail they're running but the result will be that same tree you saw it's quite I will review it catch up with this the scripts are very verbose and easy to modify very little magic in there 1 of goes too many variables just pop in and take a look at modify has anyone tried these it but only a few weeks' soul but tree the word out there will batman built it in we had some good feedback and advice will explaining why thank you excellent in monkey compatible and that was my goal because I I sure couldn't but reproduce every step over and over to get their descriptive the heck out of it so let's see link all moved well thank you so much I do encourage you get involved and you know there countless ways from from documentation to him over twice so which is quite sophisticated and pay thank you so much the Kahn and if you want a demo 1 person or 1 experiment with that try to break it to see me the grab me and all would have machine and I'll go from there
Videokonferenz
Softwaretest
Service provider
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Informationsmodellierung
Multiplikation
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Softwareentwickler
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Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel BSD Multiplicity
Untertitel An applied survey of BSD multiplicity and virtualization strategies from chroot to BHyVe
Serientitel The Technical BSD Conference 2012
Autor Dexter, Miachael
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - keine kommerzielle Nutzung - Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 3.0 Unported:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen und nicht-kommerziellen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen und das Werk bzw. diesen Inhalt auch in veränderter Form nur unter den Bedingungen dieser Lizenz weitergeben
DOI 10.5446/19515
Herausgeber Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross
Erscheinungsjahr 2012
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Informatik
Abstract Ever since the University of California, Berkeley CSRG implemented the chroot(8) command and system call in its BSD operating system in 1982, the community-developed BSD Unix derivatives have set the standard for the introduction of plurality to the conventionally-singular Unix computing model. Today's system operators and developers have an array of BSD-licensed multiplicity strategies at their disposal that offer various degrees of both isolation and virtualization when introducing plurality. This paper will survey current and experimental BSD multiplicity strategies including chroot, FreeBSD jail, NetBSD/Xen, Amazon EC2, compatlinux, GXemul and SIMH, plus experimental strategies such as FreeBSD BHyVe, compatmach, Usermode NetBSD, Dragonfly BSD vkernel, OpenBSD sysjail and NetBSD mult. As an applied survey, this paper will both categorize each multiplicity strategy by the Unix environment to which it introduces plurality and demonstrate the usage of the utilities relating to each solution. The survey criteria consist of five distinct Unix environments to which plurality is introduced: • Machine Multiplicity, as distinguished by the introduction of native and foreign hardware system and their distinct Instruction Set Architectures defined by distinct physical hardware systems, virtualized instances of them, or software emulattions of them (NetBSD-Xen/EC2, GXemul, SIMH and BHyVe) • Kernel Multiplicity, as distinguished by a plurality of executing kernels (Usermode NetBSD, Dragonfly BSD vkernel) • Init Multiplicity, as distinguished by distinct kernel-spawned init processes and their descendant processes (mult) • Userland Multiplicity, as distinguished by distinct userlands with optional process tables and their descendant processes (chroot, FreeBSD jail and sysjail) • API Multiplicity, as distinguished by distinct foreign Application Programming Interface compatibility layers (compatlinux, compatmach) The reader will thus come away with a set of working examples for each solution that they can implement on their own. In addition, this survey addresses key host and guest administrative considerations applicable to each multiplicity solution: • Storage Device considerations: Are they hardware or software-based? What image and file system formats are supported? • Network Device considerations: Are they configured by the host? From within the guest? • Console Device considerations: Does the guest appear on the host console? Is it redirected to a network-aware solution such as VNC or X11 over SSH? • Kernel considerations: Is the native or foreign guest kernel modified? Does it reside within or outside the guest userland? • Userland considerations: Is the guest userland modified? Does it lend itself to customization through additive or subtractive techniques?

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