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Lec. 13. "Clean Natural Gases" and More Review Problems


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Title Lec. 13. "Clean Natural Gases" and More Review Problems
Alternative Title Lec. 13. "Clean Natural Gases" & More Review Problems
Title of Series Chemistry 1B: General Chemistry
Part Number 13
Number of Parts 18
Author Shaka, A.J.
License CC Attribution - ShareAlike 3.0 Unported:
You are free to use, adapt and copy, distribute and transmit the work or content in adapted or unchanged form for any legal and non-commercial purpose as long as the work is attributed to the author in the manner specified by the author or licensor and the work or content is shared also in adapted form only under the conditions of this license.
DOI 10.5446/19464
Publisher University of California Irvine (UCI)
Release Date 2012
Language English

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Subject Area Chemistry
Abstract UCI Chem 1B General Chemistry (Spring 2012) Lec 13. General Chemistry Intermolecular Forces -- Clean Natural Gases -- Instructor: Athan J. Shaka. Ph.D. Description: UCI Chem 1B is the second quarter of General Chemistry and covers the following topics: properties of gases, liquids, solids; changes of state; properties of solutions; stoichiometry; thermochemistry; and thermodynamics.
the fastest growing I knew that going on in the future I thought tell you what I would do if I were shot and I presented to usual the wife and son .period if I it would be great but if you are serious he would went not tolerate the Newfoundland for cyanide to you can have the freedom to do what the people were willing to pay to the Government around no margin around to anything that would work and I don't really know much about him and then at the graduates you go to graduate from the school we that he graduated with a 5 per cent of what you are on the menu despite all the anything worthwhile in Europe British Starbucks and it paid off despite the company perhaps knowledgeable you go hiking office but I never lost for doing that on the other hand the four-year college this is by heart Neurontin ability 1 of the things that make up the United Way we don't have that problem everyone involved but if you don't work good Iraq that's how I would do it we have to settle on the percentage would make the numbers work but it could be done OK like the hearing on the news all these people dying then was getting alarming is that they aren't that much older than I am the verdict the because kind of money and run on Sunday the landfill the question is do they do something wrong with the the company also the natural usually make your own luck remember the nation's saying on Sunday in book of family sound mind in this town about that's where you can find yield and that's what we should strive for and it should know that that's going to be easy no 1 said anything the diversity his friends what makes you tougher and then you have the ability to withstand although not later than end life you don't want things to read maybe that's why I love this movie stars and rock don't live long thanks to leasing and unmotivated everyone and without motivation you don't do anything and then people who retire early question they think great I can now retire early statistically they die much quicker than people who keep working but that's kind of the same thing but then let's have a look at I I just had to inject a little bit about something that concerns me and I keep saying on these clean natural gas and I'm sure you all think probably not you never got the sense of lower level all those houses but that doesn't happen that often and there is a lot of natural gas that can be obtained by unconventional methods and I'd just like to have a look the method that
they're using all over the United States now is called hydraulic fracturing of value a little bit about and you access so-called shale gas employees have been carried out a huge scale many people in the United States did not own the mineral rights their properties you land on floor but if I discovered gold and your house -dash stolen from the start and minor because you did not on the mineral rights insoluble that that's very important because most people don't read the fine on what they do or don't I don't know why that's that's a new 1 well let's hope it doesn't continue Air Pollution ground-water pollution and possibly earthquakes are concerned they swarms of earthquakes in Oklahoma where they didn't have any more and the methane from that we get is very useful in industrial processes for heat there are now using this gas to refine oil they can refine the oil so cheaply In the gasoline that they can afford the shifted and ships the gasoline to Mexico and but the Mexican refineries out of business so we're shipping gasoline down there because the prices higher that raises are prized by the West and then also to generate electricity unless an comes on line the ATS natural gas to the plant in front beach is going to be fired up again and then we'll start having the Brown case and various
things that we have avoided well that's been but if everyone switches on the air in the summer the grid will go down unless you have enough power air-conditioning Texas Petroleum want the prices fall and
hand we have a job John for the boys and the jobs don't require a great deal of education so they could be ideal for certain sectors but you have to be careful if you're doing a job that you're doing something constructive and not the structure and sometimes it's hard to tell the gas companies pay off farmers farming scattered in a slot some years some guy comes along and says Look will pay 110 parents all you have to do is let us out this little little here will drill way down get the gas will take off everything will be as it was I that only region and of course if you don't ,comma mineral rights they just come along and set up a red there's a guy in Colorado who has this year and noisy gas drilling rig 150 feet from his house is pretty incredible where whose only that minute as I feel like somebody went down sternum with toilet brush worries about the health of the reason why at 150 feet away because the law was written about 100 years ago and they figured that if an oil derrick fell over 150 feet away it would get your house the lot still on the books and so there you go this scale is enormous I'll give you a little map and the man but it's millions and millions of gallons of water thousands of feet of drilling and all over the place it's a big boom so that if this is natural gas Our energy panacea even if there is a lot of if I'm a
diabetic it doesn't matter if I have a thousand chocolate cake maybe not so here's here's an article 1 thing you should
do it he would go to the library you should learn how to use the proper search engines like Parliament or IXI whether it's time for the various surgeon USA find a proper solution for this year and fine art refereed journals you cannot a referee German somebody else who is an expert that the manuscript and said you have made some problems with the you may want to this experiment member left published that and on the back of the standard then you know you need to learn a lot more when you 1st start out more people understand things about the article it'll have no nation jargon abbreviations etc. but gradually as you you read more than your started ,comma the and you'll be able to educate yourself and that's really the center of the access the electronic access that we have and of course books are not passed there and there are plenty of them in the Science Library here's an article that came out 2011 methane in the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas from shale formation a very interested in what's going on and this is an interesting article and and they say OK we evaluate the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas obtained by high-volume hydraulic fracturing from some shale formations focusing on methane emissions but I've blown this up a little so it's easier to read madam itself not C O 2 people methane itself is a powerful greenhouse gasses with a global warming potential that is far greater than that of carbon dioxide particularly over the time horizon of the 1st few decades following mission methane contributes substantially to the greenhouse gas footprint of shale gas on shorter timescale dominating about 20 years time horizon the footprint for shale gas is greater than that of conventional gas oil when viewed on any time horizon but particularly over 20 years and here's the bad part compared to coal
that's the worst of the work the footprint of shale gas is at least 20 per cent greater and perhaps more than twice its grip on the 20 year time horizon and it's comparable 1 compared over 100 years the problem is as I have mentioned several times like chemists don't like to work with gasses is gasses always lead no matter what you do you have and if you're bringing up millions and millions of cubic feet of natural gas all of which are gonna burned by the way into C O 2 anyhow which isn't a good idea but let's leave that out and a few per cent lead and it's 20 times more potent than the C O 2 you produce from and you've doubled your greenhouse gas footprint In other words you're gonna autoclave the whole plan by doing that no 1 hears of graft from this paper the 20 year time
horizon they have a low estimate grams of carbon permitted jewel of energy a high estimate depends how much leaks and a lot of stuff and this is the methane the purple is the huge part this is the C 2 at burned there this is in direct CO indirect it laughter and my check and that of a drilling you have the power own while the power diesel you're creating 1 of the and this hold a lot of Mosul particularly around 8 thousand feet and then pumped in billions of gallons of of water to
do the hydraulic fracturing let's have a look this is what they do they
started here then they come down and then they've got tricky technology now that quite fundamental they turned the corner and they can drill in the layer of start looking Marcellus Shale that has a lot of gas trapped in his tiny hole when they set off of my explosive usually they don't mention that the view that pretty much part of my mining last time I checked the lot of explosion that go on and then they come down on water and other stuff and the other staff pollutes the water and the water gets polluted here as well because the reason this is shale is that this is an ancient marine formations and so it's the time of salt another thing when the water comes back I you can think it and use it for farming you can't do
anything with that you have to treat it and that treatment is gonna cost energy and it could be a lot In fact he could come out in the fall if you aren't careful this is what a real rate looks like they're big they're allowed and they wrecked the air for a long ways around because when you have methane leak out you get a lot of ozone formation and that's what makes the isolation your throat burner and so forth that's the air pollution on a very bad day 1 of my greatest and you can't see anything that goes on in the troposphere that's known to be there there are organisms I think that can live on hydrogen cyanide but nothing can live on ozone ozone kills everything but drill 8 thousand feet down parts pipes going down there 11 thousand feet sideways and then millions of gallons of what they call fracture which as things like hydrochloric acid on all sorts of things in it and here the trucks delivering all this
stuff similar trips creditors have jobs and here's they've cleared this area this used to be green like theirs and now it looks like that there's an environmental consequence for doing that because you have to to build all these roads and everywhere wrecked the forest as you go and then this is beach little dog here like small wet there way and West Virginia these are all hitting this gigantic sanctions jailed was just underground and have a lot
of death this is just West Virginia and Pennsylvania and another arguing about your Colorado there is 1 thing and all these other places because now they know how to profit from the sale for formation and then when they find 1 if they have the right To the mineral rights they fired and then they and if the government owns the mineral rights the government broke the government may sell this works some money that's something stand go OK was Dusan review problem practice problems
47 very topical let's purify sent back fret that practice the water bubbling back out at the pump down there all the they candles like this all whatever happens to them would you may not know exactly how come back with I think at 1st they were throwing the ocean in the river and then people objected that that was having a very big environment impact and then there the mining company said fine will do useful diver the fact water the municipal water treatment plants and that local municipal water treatment guys crazy because the last step when you treating wastewater usually is you chlorinated water make sure doesn't have any bacteria especially that's from suicide and things like that normally that's OK no big deal but this has some bromide sometime from Micheil itself and if you treat bromide with chlorine you go wrong and then that reacts with various things that are in the water and you can get methyl bromide methyl bromide is just what they've outlawed as a fumigant rather because it has a high vapor pressure and it is carcinogenic as all get out it's a DNA match late engaged it's known you don't want them in the water but you're going to be drinking growing itself so that's out and so now the proposal at least I read online rose during the proposal is well cared for by are you heard some of most squalid figure out that damage energy that takes because we know a little bit about osmotic pressure and most of it was just take a case study here and figure out what it would take OK I'm assuming but it's got 3 and a half per cent sodium chloride this is on average and . 2 per cent sodium bromide it's got a lot of other stuff arsenic barium things that chemists don't like to deal with but they can be taken out you just said you know if you wanna work you can clean things up just like cleaning up your wrong you to want to do it and it takes work and their levels of if you want to be like an operating theater it's a lot more work than if you just want to look good because somebody's dropping by for a cup of tea what we've got our eyes pressure equation pot for a fancy P equals III that just keeps track of how many moles of particle times concentration times are at times t and will assume 2 moles of ion speech from sodium chloride and sodium brawl it's not quite 2 because
remember these charged particles tend to try to stick together a little bit and so they are totally independent and the osmotic pressure assumes that totally independent and let's assume 300 Calvin depending where they're doing it if they're doing it in the summer that's going to be quite active OK 3 and a half
way cent there are 35 grams of sodium chloride and 2 grams of sodium bromide per kilogram solution which is nearly a leader of solutions it will also it the concentrations thus approximately as we need the all we've got 35 grams per liter times 1 mall 58 . 4 4 grams of sodium chloride that . 6 Moeller I think we did that with seawater earlier and then we've got sodium bromide to GM and then that's point 1 9 Moeller the total number of particles answers then 2 times the sum of these because they're both the producing 2 moles of Ireland's 1 1 mole of salt dissolves and therefore its 1 . 2 4 molar and then I just put this in putting an armature all units go away and I find the osmotic pressure is 30 and I have atmosphere that means I've got Bush on the water with at least that much pressure get to go back so I can overcome the tendency of fresh water rushed into the salt water and pushes back the other way and get ready for water out for safety of a suitable CMI permeable membrane and that's pastor not Terre or than all my polluted water comes through In the past 2 months where they
can't jam things through and that I needed huge pot like pumping up a bike tires he stopped pumping into tired it's full week gets harder and harder to accompany notice your arms get fired and there's an energy costs of doing that let's have a look at that what that might be the the 30
. 5 is the minimum pressure we must apply use that minimum pressure analysts just for some 100 million gallons of water through that that pressure the minimum we need the volume of 100 million gallons and litres 378 . 5 million liters mn let's just custom just using peak times of the so so much pressure so much volume going through he is an energy unit and we can convert to the jewels by taking the ratio of the vet listed values of the gas constant that's kind of the anyway to convert from leader atmospheres to Jewell just use the ratio of gas on 30 . 5 atmospheres I have 378 million liters the ratio of 8 . 3 1 4 . 0 8 2 I get 1 . 2 times 10 to the 12th jewels that's 1 . 2 trillion if we had a 10 megawatt reverse-osmosis system it would have to run From 120 thousand seconds or about 1 . 2 5
days this is just very very very true analysis we can do better because we can actually look out but some of the pros on reverse-osmosis etc and the best estimate that I
got really most recent literature is that it takes 5 . 6 kilowatt hours the purified cubic meters per se seawater before use that 500 million gallons it is about 378 thousand cubic meters and so will need to purify just 100 million gallons and there's a lot more water involved in that believe me we need 2 million kilowatt-hours electricity which has to come from somewhere
presumably by burning the gas with just frat but still going round and round in a circle a lot of stuff getting used dance sure this
1 yeah yes because when sodium chloride is altogether in a flood and the all-time so all remembered polluted properties depend on the number of particles but not there just the full number of particles in desolate dictates therefore 5 a mixture of things I just have to figure out the total malaria vault particles and that's that's what I need to know this figure out the freezing point depression the boiling point elevation the osmotic pressure I don't care what they are it's just there ,comma much yes while I assume 300 Calvin because I had to assume a temperature for the purpose of this calculation of I assume a high temperature it's going to be a lot more work in them on a hot day maybe more
than 300 but then my work I'm going to have to put is going to depend on how hot it is if it's a hot day in Tennessee or something in my the good data not run for example I might want rather than the winter for anyway 5 . 6
kilowatt hours 2 2 million kilowatt hours and even at 7 cents a kilowatt hour if you're a big user you might get that right that's young previously I figured I had a 10 megawatt machine and that's 10 million jewels 2nd and I know how many jewels of energy and he pushed a law through so divided the through an idea the numbers that they cannot be about 120 thousand in round numbers yes no it's too and I have the total mall area of sodium bromide and sodium chloride 1st and then he should run producers to malls alliance sodium chloride sodium bromide to each yet so I added up the total concentration and up multiplied by 2 if I have a solid calcium chloride that produces 3 miles of ions then what I have to do is set aside figure out how many moles of calcium chloride and then multiply that by 3 and then added To the told the total dissolved solids as they call it In these waters as it very some of them come out like the Great Salt Lake In other words the chloride is the maximum amount of fluoride dissolve in water because these are dried out ocean deposits they could have tons of salt and in actual fact the water this polluted water is so full of other stuff said particles of start the tonight for a reversal of most systems because particles of myosin are just what we don't want with you and I send my permeable membrane because they just clog the Member and that's it here I like the membranes blocking no water goes through and sitting all estranged member so you have to 1st Out of settling tank here to let the sediments settle have the major and then you have to make sure that you remember it's not linked to any other nasty maybe it keeps out sodium and chloride bromide but let's do something else because it wasn't designed with that in mind so you have to check and then you have to replace the membranes and you have to put a bunch of guys on it may have to watch as they have to test the water that comes out to make sure it's OK
and all that costs money and it could be a lot of money so the tendency will be to not do any of it because of cost money and I don't have to do it there's no law that says I have to do it I don't OK practice
problem 48 and this problem will make sure we can keep cracking and Montana then the winter this was actually another proposed solutions I know it will be a little salty water putting some of you know basis and will let dry will scoop all the salt unless all all the roads in the U.S. and in the winter weather in the the wrote and we'll be going great public service unfortunately there arsenic and other contaminants in there that they aren't going to let you just pray around everywhere so that they get every everybody across the well water everything else still going to have to clean it up but anyway here we have a problem the cries got constant for water is 1 . 8 6 degrees from all out suppose that a stretch of road in Montana is 70 feet wide and 10 miles long and has a 1 inch thick layer of ice on if the ambient temperatures 20 degrees Fahrenheit and boy does it get colder than that there I remember 1 winter in Utah we laughed every day because every day the coldest place in the intermountain West on the on the weather was kind Wyoming and most of the winter it was never about 0 Fahrenheit it was minus from and that's called I don't know if you've ever minus-5 Greece Fahrenheit but if you are interested for a year and in trouble if you get become on battle to get the newspaper and the door slams shut you might have an instant past the door when you're living in the middle of nowhere that theory that whole thing and I have both the let's assume it's 20 Fahrenheit the question is on In charge and I need to know at the start of the day guy called me out with the track users how many days the company's assault on the label I know not be a sign of how much snow fell in I have a historical records of what happened with the roads and I know that if I leave the roads icy we're going to have a lot of accidents and a lot of it is thought that the eyes of the world Tommy 50 pound bags of salt to the trucks spreading it evenly to make sure the rotors the but without using excess all because salt is worried that fills all plants thereby allowing use more than 90 and then there are always conversion units 1 degree C is 1 . 8 degrees F 1 mile is 50 5 thousand 280 feet 1 inches 2 . 5 4
centimeters 1 kg 2 . 2 pounds and the density of ice is . 9 1 6 8 grams per centimeter this is a great problem let's figure out how we're going to do it well we have
to depress the freezing point which is normally the pure water 32 to fan we have to press the freezing point 20 Fahrenheit if we pressed the freezing point lower quality than meets the eye smell and that's what we want alternatives runs off the road and we know what the expression for freezing point oppression it's doubted which is always listed as a positive number because we always know everything .period that so where were saying hello to use some the number of small positive the price of a common policy but we know that this positive result found it went in there because always depressed the delta T we need 12 degrees Fahrenheit that's 32 -minus twice and then convert the Celsius 26 . 6 7 degrees Celsius and therefore based on our freezing Point depression formula we know how many malls of particles we need the of particles we need is that freezing point depression we want divided by the press got the cost is 6 . 6 7 divided by 1 . 8 6 deg C goes away mole out of the minus 1 is under me so small and so we need 3 . 5 8 4 Molale moles per kilogram of particles that means we need half as much soul per kilogram of water and here I'm gonna leave you something to do over the weekend which is to finish this problem I'll tell you about finish but I will not tell you again .period here's how we think we know the density of we know the volume of life without 1 Saturday the the airline remember that the kilograms of ice volume on of the how much the volume of ice on roads in the Senate by converting all units and answering and then multiply by . 9 1 6 8 to the euro 100 grams of ice on the road and then divided by the House and the number of kilograms of ice on the road then you know for each kilogram of I need 1 . 7 9 whom all of those people you know them all necessary the nominee grams sodium fluoride if that convert that into town because the guy from the truck and what granted and then you like but I think he has a look Joe Blow thousand that overnight
and that's what they do and you wrong you don't get the factor of 2 people aren't quite as much salt as needed prosecutors have money in the the environment and if you get it wrong and please drive and waste all that diesel fuel bring solutions out the solving of Rome and analysts still process the important thing is that right again yes but but I repeat all that guess what it's going to be on film and I promise you but will have all the lectures up pronto so just played back they played pacman go through yet what do have 1 of the the deep because not yet because I'm going malls particles from 1 wall of the living law and so I don't need as much of more and because every time I created quite freezing .period depression with sodium chloride OK and be prepared to solve something like this on next Tuesday take just a fun from converting units totaling around and actually getting back yet the the the the the the the the Will we have been fired December yes pretty much as soon as we have picked up pretty much the entire process will find things out last week on and you can work with yes I think it yet the world I don't know how much more but it will be at acknowledges it was the ability of the first one hour on our last was sold out of all but the fine and this will be whatever elected as I think this is the world that you want to play this 1 back in particular OK will press some practice from
49 a half what is this 1 if benzene the trend is being always there's been a long history of our friends like benzene benzene used to be used as a solvent in organic chemistry lab like crazy everybody used accept that non-events in voice but benzene has also the Class a carcinogen 1 day of prayer benzene content and was marked difference before the borrower's this benzene analytical ready to roll this 1 was brightly colored like if you don't pay your power the college has is warning that the deal would have been nice to know that back then and there's a moral to that story if the science has been done you're on your own it could be hazardous or not nobody knows yet and therefore the wisest thing is the From expose yourself to all kinds of new things just because they're new if there that there is no evidence about what they may or may not do this to be kind conscience I'm still here .period so probably wasn't that I also washed my hands with chloroform 1 mine another class a carcinogen because there's something nasty on my hands which was even worse hello funny because it was staining my skin and bright yellow and not the problem I know you want or you could never do that these days she said that was a very long time OK the benzene here In skeletal formation has a carbon and of hydrogen at each position so it's C 6 H 6 and I have drawn it here as alternating single and double bonds but it in fact is a perfect text gone so it can possibly be single and double alternating her would be distorted so if the bond swap around as you may know that's progress and here we have a list all the mean bond and felt these for a ch bond for 12 for a cc single bond 348 killer jewels from all CEC double bond 614 O double bonds almost 800 0 0 double bond in oxygen for 95 and OH single bond for 63 and with this table here I can work out the of
combustion of dancing I can estimated but 1st
we have to balance the complete combustion reactions I now 6 copies therefore the 1st I at 1st I was right C O 2 and H 2 0 for a complete combustion I have 6 carbons and that means I've got to have a 6 there I have 6 hydrogen at this end only thing with hydrogen so I need 3 of these guys and then all I do is carefully count the arts With what matter for the combustion reactions and wealthy because oxygen well actually I think they're all back this matters a lot because we you know how many are involved with breaking that we are doing formation I've got 12 oxygen here plus 3 that's 15 this is molecular oxygen so I need 15 the next thing we have to do is we have to come and boy you've gotta be careful of under pressure because if you miss couch you get it wrong you can know exactly how to do it but if you missed out of you slot that with the calculator you just get it wrong anyway still wrong we count all the bonds in the reactants and products for benzene we've got 3 carbon provinces along with the single line 3 carbon-carbon double bonds those of the double the Democrats excited and going on around the ring but about 6 carbon hydrogen singalong for oxygen we've got 7 and a half were deceiving the number 7 and 0 0 0 double bonds for carbon dioxide we've got 6 about but he chose to CEO double bonds again we got account bonds so that's 12 C O double bonds and for water we've got to low-wage single bonds but we've got 3 of them so we've got sick going on and just as a genocide chemists often right notation of the form a X and Y S or appeal for Seattle for and there's a lot of things like that whenever it's written like that in the accident it means that all the taxes are independently stuff on the air like the spokes of a bicycle in the and I think that the bomb if you just give the formula if it's not even like that still
like that age to offer historical reasons we don't write to that would be consistent with where so you calling but we keep in that order that the agent and the and if you don't know how the bonded you can count the number of bonds if you just have a formula and you pondered to whom you can't count the number of bonds and so you can get it done can't you have to know the structure To be able to come Art lets lets them take these mutts ,comma figures to bear
let's break all the reactant we got 3 pardon single 3 carbon double bonds 6 carbon and hydrogen single bonds and 7 and a 0 0 double bonds and that turns out to get up to quite a lot 9 thousand 70 . 5 killer jewels from more and then let's say all the energy to break the product bonds we've got 12 carbon-oxygen double bonds is 12 times 799 plus 6 5 box hydrogen oxygen single 6 times for 63 that's even bigger 12 thousand 366 were making the product so we are breaking the products and add while we're doing conceptually His were breaking the reactants and the Adams and then were reassembling the Adams and mother wavelet takers for the product therefore we don't want this plus energy to make the products we get this energy cracked when we make and therefore the delegates of combustion is 9 thousand 70 . 5 minus the 12 3 6 6 and that's minus 3 thousand 295 . 5 killer jewels promoter that's our estimate I look it in the the Oxy and the literature value it minus 30 373 killed jewels more it's off by 22 hours of benzene by this figure appears to be more stable than what we figure that might be these numbers is that they might be because of our approximate nature the calculation using these averages over a library of compounds but in fact fancy is more stable than we would have predicted the and that that has consequences because benzene is more stable you can also benzene stuck together the main bigger than flight piracy and molecules like that are also more stable and that means for example and cigarette
smoke where you don't have to be combustion you have particles that have a lot of things like then tired and things like that on and if you think about they play conspiring and painted on the stand they get answer right where you stand good stuff if you're working with that you have to be extremely because if you get on newsstands that can be exposed OK practice problems 50 let go
way back 2 for the disappearance of the horrible interesting I can think that the it's so long ago the Government the authority very entitled natives of PA so electric materials piezoelectric material it is immaterial but if you put an electrical forced he was elected potential it will mechanically deformed or if you mechanically deformed who will start generating electric you may have heard the phrase years elected elected queen this is a summary of materials and clouds because they put a voltage on and mechanically he formed at the same frequency voltage that station here and there a symbol crack and the Fidelity can be quite good here's a material barium tightening and here it is in this big unit-cell the question is is that if this is the units sell for barium tightening what is the molecular formula for bearing it sort of depends on how
good your brain is figuring out where years off usually we would try to put some planes through some sort of dark circles through that but I'll just tell you that the Sox engines are on the middle of the face the only if they are inside these guys here are on the exact corners and this guy here is totally inside the ball we're going to use that get the former remember although we draw like this the real you know it's all shaved off because it has to be a perfect you so long we wouldn't get the remaining inside a crystal would have extra stuff hanging out over the edge we can only count what's inside the box not what's outside although we tend not to draw up that way because that turns out to be even more confusing then drawing in this way people have a hard time OK let's look
the barium atoms around the corner the intercepted by plane therefore they only found 1 for few imagined it's only in the part on the corner of the historical that was the 3rd of so there's 1 very mad they Titaniums Adams completely inside and so there's 1 for years and the 6 oxygen atoms around 6 faces they have 1 playing through them so they cannot have their 6 6 times after 3 and the charges also helpless although the charges were not always listed With that itself sometimes they got on there but in this case they are it was listed plus 2 4 Barium wallets that's an alkaline earth metal plus forfeit Titaniums that's a common oxidation states replied and then 3 times to minus 4 oxygen is 6 positive and 6 negative assaults neutral like voting for either although it was alright mine and so the formula is the United the I 3 that's it's called barium tightening it's purportedly being used as part of the new capacity storage system being investigated for next-generation vehicles and next-generation vehicles they may have a big for electric vehicle
and they have the capacity the vehicle to an additional battery and when you really need to go the capacity discharges and supplies a lot of power very quickly and then wired coasting downhill the cards smart enough to charge that the best that what does that mean and the the thing I I'd I'll give you because you are fan the reason why I fell variant tightening and sodium chloride when you see that 1 has the ideal and that's 1st yet so the young their young then otherwise it be called barriers something like that if it were back but for now we won't let him there you get the right number of Adams will take 10 already but see
as hot as a temperature sensitive lieutenant I got a tepid call thinks that the temperature sensitive compound that is wet I can hit the drive because of needed it decompose cook and they in the lab and the last thing I want to on the last ride out the way is cooked and so I want to get rid of the water but not by heating it up to 100 so that so of thing water vapor pressures is 1 atmosphere but I just want to heated up to to 40 and if I know the answer about the vaporization of water then I should know if I have a problem In a speech that what pressure I need to hold on In order to be able to drive the water only for itself I don't want the pressure to be higher than the vapor pressure of water for itself if its higher water go back on the top if my pressures lower pumping fast enough the the water or just wander off an outcry and already the company this is done all the time in the way we needed an equation and that relates dealt age vaporization the temperature and icy Moody's Aaa and Celsius the careful well we have such an equation classes for client equation and it says if find all the vapor pressure that 1 temperature and I can't predict the vapor pressure at another temperature as long as I know don't age but I know Delta H 9 0 are should be fairly easy the only thing I have to be careful of is this 40 14
Celsius if I'm in a hurry and Michael won over 101 over 40 and I didn't trouble right away the let's answered all the numbers I'm calling
conditions want conditions warrant is water at 100 Celsius 1 atmosphere pressure so put P 1 1 atmosphere the 2 I want to figure out this is delegates in Jules this is Sorin jewels from all goes away element the minus 1 that feels this good the lot of something is dimensions I convert the 100 at 373 . 1 5 I convert the 48 at 313 . 1 5 and then I saw all this stuff and I get a number plus 2 . 5 1 all 4 and then I take the the exponential function of both sides which just gets rid of a lot 1 atmosphere divided by P 2 is equal to the exponential function or the 2 . 5 I punched each of the 2 . 5 0 my calculator I get 12 . 3 1 therefore key to his 112 . 3 1 the 2 of .period all 1 to atmospheres or 61 . 7 4 oftentimes the meter will actually be listed and just because people find it easier to read 60 Lawrence .period hallway it's something that has been made the the water but I know the vapor pressure waters 100 spirited the end of the year and we can we can achieve this with any decent pop now we we had to make some assumptions that the material itself has very low vapor pressure if the material
has high vapor pressure will actually pump it up 2 and you have to be careful sometimes depending what you've got otherwise you know popping your product the pump oil of the pump and then people get very angry with you when you companies and the probable oils because that wrecks the pump oil for the next person OK the last 1 52 a
careless scientist has mentioned the vapor pressure of toluene at the the start of the airplane glue his guidance for a lot None of them were can carry them as did not say if anything ever mentioned the vapor pressure of toluene in atmospheres here the boiling point of toluene is about 110 this looks To me this data looks and then after the measurement now the goal of the project was was to excuse me determined Delta H of vaporization for toluene well I've got all this data this is much much better than 2 2 . because I like and
what was stated as a straight line I commend the linear regression get great line through all and I think it was thought that line that might overhaul or I can get a deceptive do a little analysis well here's what happened the plot
slot the versus 1 of at end of the year and this will help it's not stray what has gone wrong we need to take a lot of 1st of all it's wrong with this threat the not labeled with the unit whenever you see a graph where the accident not labels stand that don't start looking at the grand prize to figure out what units were and he had things light 23 and I notice that all 5 and I noticed that 1 over 20 years .period 0 line and so I figured it's nice to know I was stunned so what a lot of pressure on the floor of the first one of the himself and that's why it's because that's 1 of the and fellow and he's careless because he didn't put the unit which is the way the wondering if they agree the the minds like you would see the creation minus 1 with say that's wrong
we never thought anything in chemistry like that we always use Calvin and therefore if you go back and do it and but here's the conclusion the data is
OK the graph doesn't has we can see that the longer the pressures OK because you can take a lot of of that in the reference pressures 1 atmosphere yeah but it in Celsius think and what I'd like you to do is go back and converted Calvin plotted and see if it strays and then here
the last important points for Tuesday
1st same seating chart 2nd we have to do some spot role taking therefore make sure you have your ID because somebody come around the year G-7 a new job loss 3rd practice and finally don't count on looking things up and you know that slow
algorithms and I hope do well
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